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The Neonatal Intensive Care Unit: Environmental Stressors and Supports. Williams Kristen G,Patel Kayla T,Stausmire Julie M,Bridges Christy,Mathis Mary W,Barkin Jennifer L International journal of environmental research and public health The relationship between maternal mental health and infant development has been established in the literature. The Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) is a particularly challenging environment for new mothers as several natural processes are disrupted. The objective of this study is to elucidate protective factors and environmental deficits associated with the NICU. The experiences of forty-six ( = 46) mothers of infants admitted to a Level III NICU in the Midwestern United States, who responded to a related open-ended question, were analyzed thematically. Five themes related to the NICU environment emerged as being either stressful or helpful: (1) amount and quality of communication with medical staff, (2) bedside manner of medical staff, (3) feeling alienated from infant's care, (4) support from other NICU mothers and families, and (5) NICU Physical Environment and Regulations. There is a need for medical staff training on awareness, communication, empathy, and other behaviors that might improve maternal (and parental) experiences in the NICU. The physical environment, including rules and regulations of the NICU, should be reexamined with family comfort in mind in addition to the clinical care of the infant. 10.3390/ijerph15010060
Early environment and long-term outcomes of preterm infants. Cheong Jeanie L Y,Burnett Alice C,Treyvaud Karli,Spittle Alicia J Journal of neural transmission (Vienna, Austria : 1996) Prematurity is associated with an increased risk of long-term health and neurodevelopmental problems. Key perinatal and neonatal factors that affect these outcomes have long been studied. However, more recently, there has been an appreciation of the importance of environmental factors in long-term outcomes of preterm babies, particularly in light of the rapid maturation of the brain during these babies' early days of life. Breastmilk and breastfeeding is the gold standard for infant feeding, including preterm babies. The benefits are well established in regard to protection from serious complications like necrotising enterocolitis. Although theoretically plausible, the benefits for neurodevelopment are less clear. Noise, pain and the environment of the neonatal intensive care can also affect infant neurodevelopment. It is established that noise and pain have deleterious effects. However, the benefits of single-room vs open-bay neonatal units remain under debate. Developmental care practices, of which there are many, are increasingly embraced worldwide. There are benefits both for the parents and the baby, however, the evidence is difficult to pool due to the heterogeneity of studies and study populations. Finally, it is important to remember the importance of the role of parents in shaping long-term neurodevelopment of the high-risk preterm newborn. Increasingly, positive parenting and parents' mental health are shown to have long lasting advantages for preterm infants. A deeper understanding of early environmental factors is key to developing future interventions to optimise outcomes of preterm newborns. 10.1007/s00702-019-02121-w
Nursing Interventions That Promote Sleep in Preterm Newborns in the Neonatal Intensive Care Units: An Integrative Review. International journal of environmental research and public health Sleep is a crucial factor for the psychological and physiological well-being of any human being. In Neonatal Intensive Care Units, preterm newborns' sleep may be at risk due to medical and nursing care, environmental stimuli and manipulation. This review aims to identify the nurses' interventions that promote sleep in preterm newborns in the Neonatal Intensive Care Units. An integrative review was conducted following Whittemore and Knafl's methodology and the 2020 Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) statement. The research was carried out on the electronic databases PubMed, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and ScienceDirect, with a timeframe from 2010 to 2021. A total of 359 articles were initially identified. After selection and analysis, five studies were included in the sample. Interventions by nursing staff that promote sleep in preterm newborns in the Neonatal Intensive Care Units fall within three categories: environmental management, relaxation techniques and therapeutic positioning. Nurses play a vital role in implementing interventions that promote preterm newborns' sleep. They can positively affect preterm newborns' sleep by controlling environmental stimuli and applying relaxation techniques and therapeutic positioning to their care practices. 10.3390/ijerph191710953