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An insight into gut microbiota and its functionalities. Cellular and molecular life sciences : CMLS Gut microbiota has evolved along with their hosts and is an integral part of the human body. Microbiota acquired at birth develops in parallel as the host develops and maintains its temporal stability and diversity through adulthood until death. Recent developments in genome sequencing technologies, bioinformatics and culturomics have enabled researchers to explore the microbiota and in particular their functions at more detailed level than before. The accumulated evidences suggest that though a part of the microbiota is conserved, the dynamic members vary along the gastrointestinal tract, from infants to elderly, primitive tribes to modern societies and in different health conditions. Though the gut microbiota is dynamic, it performs some basic functions in the immunological, metabolic, structural and neurological landscapes of the human body. Gut microbiota also exerts significant influence on both physical and mental health of an individual. An in-depth understanding of the functioning of gut microbiota has led to some very exciting developments in therapeutics, such as prebiotics, probiotics, drugs and faecal transplantation leading to improved health. 10.1007/s00018-018-2943-4
An association between chronic widespread pain and the gut microbiome. Rheumatology (Oxford, England) OBJECTIVES:Chronic widespread musculoskeletal pain (CWP) is a characteristic symptom of fibromyalgia, which has been shown to be associated with an altered gut microbiome. Microbiome studies to date have not examined the milder CWP phenotype specifically nor have they explored the role of raised BMI. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the microbiome is abnormal in CWP. METHODS:CWP was assessed using a standardized screening questionnaire in female volunteers from the TwinsUK cohort including 113 CWP cases and 1623 controls. The stool microbiome was characterized using 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing and amplicon sequence variants, and associations with CWP examined using linear mixed-effects models adjusting for BMI, age, diet, family relatedness and technical factors. RESULTS:Alpha diversity was significantly lower in CWP cases than controls (Mann-Whitney test, P-values 2.3e-04 and 1.2e-02, for Shannon and Simpson indices respectively). The species Coprococcus comes was significantly depleted in CWP cases (Padj = 3.04e-03). A genome-wide association study (GWAS) performed for C. comes in TwinsUK followed by meta-analysis with three Dutch cohorts (total n = 3521) resulted in nine suggestive regions, with the most convincing on chromosome 4 near the TRAM1L1 gene (rs76957229, P = 7.4e-8). A Mendelian randomization study based on the results of the GWAS did not support a causal role for C. comes on the development of CWP. CONCLUSIONS:We have demonstrated reduced diversity in the microbiome in CWP, indicating an involvement of the gut microbiota in CWP; prospectively the microbiome may offer therapeutic opportunities for this condition. 10.1093/rheumatology/keaa847
Microbiota: a novel regulator of pain. Defaye Manon,Gervason Sandie,Altier Christophe,Berthon Jean-Yves,Ardid Denis,Filaire Edith,Carvalho Frédéric Antonio Journal of neural transmission (Vienna, Austria : 1996) Among the various regulators of the nervous system, the gut microbiota has been recently described to have the potential to modulate neuronal cells activation. While bacteria-derived products can induce aversive responses and influence pain perception, recent work suggests that "abnormal" microbiota is associated with neurological diseases such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's disease or autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Here we review how the gut microbiota modulates afferent sensory neurons function and pain, highlighting the role of the microbiota/gut/brain axis in the control of behaviors and neurological diseases. We outline the changes in gut microbiota, known as dysbiosis, and their influence on painful gastrointestinal disorders. Furthermore, both direct host/microbiota interaction that implicates activation of "pain-sensing" neurons by metabolites, or indirect communication via immune activation is discussed. Finally, treatment options targeting the gut microbiota, including pre- or probiotics, will be proposed. Further studies on microbiota/nervous system interaction should lead to the identification of novel microbial ligands and host receptor-targeted drugs, which could ultimately improve chronic pain management and well-being. 10.1007/s00702-019-02083-z
Gut dysbiosis was inevitable, but tolerance was not: temporal responses of the murine microbiota that maintain its capacity for butyrate production correlate with sustained antinociception to chronic voluntary morphine. bioRxiv : the preprint server for biology The therapeutic benefits of opioids are compromised by the development of analgesic tolerance, which necessitates higher dosing for pain management thereby increasing the liability for dependence and addiction. Rodent models indicate opposing roles of the gut microbiota in tolerance: morphine-induced gut dysbiosis exacerbates tolerance, whereas probiotics ameliorate tolerance. Not all individuals develop tolerance which could be influenced by differences in microbiota, and yet no study has capitalized upon this natural variation to identify specific features linked to tolerance. We leveraged this natural variation in a murine model of voluntary oral morphine self-administration to elucidate the mechanisms by which microbiota influences tolerance. Although all mice shared similar and predictive morphine-driven microbiota changes that largely masked informative associations with variability in tolerance, our high-resolution temporal analyses revealed a divergence in the progression of dysbiosis that best explained differences in the development in tolerance. Mice that did not develop tolerance also maintained a higher abundance of taxa capable of producing the short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) butyrate, known to bolster intestinal barriers, suppress inflammation, and promote neuronal homeostasis. Furthermore, dietary butyrate supplementation significantly reduced the development of tolerance. These findings could inform immediate therapies to extend the analgesic efficacy of opioids. 10.1101/2024.04.15.589671
Fecal microbiota transplantation and antibiotic treatment attenuate naloxone-precipitated opioid withdrawal in morphine-dependent mice. Experimental neurology Opioid addiction can produce severe side effects including physical dependence and withdrawal. Perturbations of the gut microbiome have recently been shown to alter opioid-induced side-effects such as addiction, tolerance and dependence. In the present study, we investigated the influence of the gut microbiome on opioid withdrawal by evaluating the effects of fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT), antibiotic and probiotic treatments, and pharmacological inhibition of gut permeability in a mouse model of opioid dependence. Repeated intraperitoneal (i.p.) morphine treatment produced physical dependence that was quantified by measuring somatic signs of withdrawal (i.e. number of jumps) precipitated using the opioid antagonist naloxone. Morphine-dependent mice that received FMT from morphine-treated donor mice exhibited fewer naloxone-precipitated jumps compared to morphine-dependent counterparts receiving FMT from saline-treated donor mice. Microbial contents in the mouse cecum were altered by morphine treatment but were not differentially impacted by FMT. A broad-spectrum antibiotic cocktail (ABX) regimen reduced the bacterial load and attenuated naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal in morphine-dependent mice, whereas commercially available probiotic strains did not reliably alter somatic signs of opioid withdrawal. ML-7, a pharmacological inhibitor of gut permeability, reduced the morphine-induced increase in gut permeability in vivo but did not reliably alter somatic signs of naloxone-precipitated opioid withdrawal. Our results suggest that the gut microbiome impacts the development of physical dependence induced by chronic morphine administration, and that therapeutic manipulations of the gut microbiome may reduce opioid withdrawal. 10.1016/j.expneurol.2021.113787
Enterotypes of the human gut mycobiome. Microbiome BACKGROUND:The fungal component of the human gut microbiome, also known as the mycobiome, plays a vital role in intestinal ecology and human health. However, the overall structure of the gut mycobiome as well as the inter-individual variations in fungal composition remains largely unknown. In this study, we collected a total of 3363 fungal sequencing samples from 16 cohorts across three continents, including 572 newly profiled samples from China. RESULTS:We identify and characterize four mycobiome enterotypes using ITS profiling of 3363 samples from 16 cohorts. These enterotypes exhibit stability across populations and geographical locations and significant correlation with bacterial enterotypes. Particularly, we notice that fungal enterotypes have a strong age preference, where the enterotype dominated by Candida (i.e., Can_type enterotype) is enriched in the elderly population and confers an increased risk of multiple diseases associated with a compromised intestinal barrier. In addition, bidirectional mediation analysis reveals that the fungi-contributed aerobic respiration pathway associated with the Can_type enterotype might mediate the association between the compromised intestinal barrier and aging. CONCLUSIONS:We show that the human gut mycobiome has stable compositional patterns across individuals and significantly correlates with multiple host factors, such as diseases and host age. Video Abstract. 10.1186/s40168-023-01586-y
Understanding the impact of antibiotic perturbation on the human microbiome. Genome medicine The human gut microbiome is a dynamic collection of bacteria, archaea, fungi, and viruses that performs essential functions for immune development, pathogen colonization resistance, and food metabolism. Perturbation of the gut microbiome's ecological balance, commonly by antibiotics, can cause and exacerbate diseases. To predict and successfully rescue such perturbations, first, we must understand the underlying taxonomic and functional dynamics of the microbiome as it changes throughout infancy, childhood, and adulthood. We offer an overview of the healthy gut bacterial architecture over these life stages and comment on vulnerability to short and long courses of antibiotics. Second, the resilience of the microbiome after antibiotic perturbation depends on key characteristics, such as the nature, timing, duration, and spectrum of a course of antibiotics, as well as microbiome modulatory factors such as age, travel, underlying illness, antibiotic resistance pattern, and diet. In this review, we discuss acute and chronic antibiotic perturbations to the microbiome and resistome in the context of microbiome stability and dynamics. We specifically discuss key taxonomic and resistance gene changes that accompany antibiotic treatment of neonates, children, and adults. Restoration of a healthy gut microbial ecosystem after routine antibiotics will require rationally managed exposure to specific antibiotics and microbes. To that end, we review the use of fecal microbiota transplantation and probiotics to direct recolonization of the gut ecosystem. We conclude with our perspectives on how best to assess, predict, and aid recovery of the microbiome after antibiotic perturbation. 10.1186/s13073-020-00782-x
Early-life interactions between the microbiota and immune system: impact on immune system development and atopic disease. Nature reviews. Immunology Prenatal and early postnatal life represent key periods of immune system development. In addition to genetics and host biology, environment has a large and irreversible role in the immune maturation and health of an infant. One key player in this process is the gut microbiota, a diverse community of microorganisms that colonizes the human intestine. The diet, environment and medical interventions experienced by an infant determine the establishment and progression of the intestinal microbiota, which interacts with and trains the developing immune system. Several chronic immune-mediated diseases have been linked to an altered gut microbiota during early infancy. The recent rise in allergic disease incidence has been explained by the 'hygiene hypothesis', which states that societal changes in developed countries have led to reduced early-life microbial exposures, negatively impacting immunity. Although human cohort studies across the globe have established a correlation between early-life microbiota composition and atopy, mechanistic links and specific host-microorganism interactions are still being uncovered. Here, we detail the progression of immune system and microbiota maturation in early life, highlight the mechanistic links between microbes and the immune system, and summarize the role of early-life host-microorganism interactions in allergic disease development. 10.1038/s41577-023-00874-w
versus the Microbiome. Rogers Andrew W L,Tsolis Renée M,Bäumler Andreas J Microbiology and molecular biology reviews : MMBR A balanced gut microbiota contributes to health, but the mechanisms maintaining homeostasis remain elusive. Microbiota assembly during infancy is governed by competition between species and by environmental factors, termed habitat filters, that determine the range of successful traits within the microbial community. These habitat filters include the diet, host-derived resources, and microbiota-derived metabolites, such as short-chain fatty acids. Once the microbiota has matured, competition and habitat filtering prevent engraftment of new microbes, thereby providing protection against opportunistic infections. Competition with endogenous , habitat filtering by short-chain fatty acids, and a host-derived habitat filter, epithelial hypoxia, also contribute to colonization resistance against serovars. However, at a high challenge dose, these frank pathogens can overcome colonization resistance by using their virulence factors to trigger intestinal inflammation. In turn, inflammation increases the luminal availability of host-derived resources, such as oxygen, nitrate, tetrathionate, and lactate, thereby creating a state of abnormal habitat filtering that enables the pathogen to overcome growth inhibition by short-chain fatty acids. Thus, studying the process of ecosystem invasion by serovars clarifies that colonization resistance can become weakened by disrupting host-mediated habitat filtering. This insight is relevant for understanding how inflammation triggers dysbiosis linked to noncommunicable diseases, conditions in which endogenous expand in the fecal microbiota using some of the same growth-limiting resources required by serovars for ecosystem invasion. In essence, ecosystem invasion by serovars suggests that homeostasis and dysbiosis simply represent states where competition and habitat filtering are normal or abnormal, respectively. 10.1128/MMBR.00027-19
The intestinal microbiota fuelling metabolic inflammation. Tilg Herbert,Zmora Niv,Adolph Timon E,Elinav Eran Nature reviews. Immunology Low-grade inflammation is the hallmark of metabolic disorders such as obesity, type 2 diabetes and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Emerging evidence indicates that these disorders are characterized by alterations in the intestinal microbiota composition and its metabolites, which translocate from the gut across a disrupted intestinal barrier to affect various metabolic organs, such as the liver and adipose tissue, thereby contributing to metabolic inflammation. Here, we discuss some of the recently identified mechanisms that showcase the role of the intestinal microbiota and barrier dysfunction in metabolic inflammation. We propose a concept by which the gut microbiota fuels metabolic inflammation and dysregulation. 10.1038/s41577-019-0198-4
Interaction Between the Microbiota, Epithelia, and Immune Cells in the Intestine. Kayama Hisako,Okumura Ryu,Takeda Kiyoshi Annual review of immunology The gastrointestinal tract harbors numerous commensal bacteria, referred to as the microbiota, that benefit host health by digesting dietary components and eliminating pathogens. The intestinal microbiota maintains epithelial barrier integrity and shapes the mucosal immune system, balancing host defense and oral tolerance with microbial metabolites, components, and attachment to host cells. To avoid aberrant immune responses, epithelial cells segregate the intestinal microbiota from immune cells by constructing chemical and physical barriers, leading to the establishment of host-commensal mutualism. Furthermore, intestinal immune cells participate in the maintenance of a healthy microbiota community and reinforce epithelial barrier functions. Perturbations of the microbiota composition are commonly observed in patients with autoimmune diseases and chronic inflammatory disorders. An understanding of the intimate interactions between the intestinal microbiota, epithelial cells, and immune cells that are crucial for the maintenance of intestinal homeostasis might promote advances in diagnostic and therapeutic approaches for various diseases. 10.1146/annurev-immunol-070119-115104
Interaction between microbiota and immunity in health and disease. Zheng Danping,Liwinski Timur,Elinav Eran Cell research The interplay between the commensal microbiota and the mammalian immune system development and function includes multifold interactions in homeostasis and disease. The microbiome plays critical roles in the training and development of major components of the host's innate and adaptive immune system, while the immune system orchestrates the maintenance of key features of host-microbe symbiosis. In a genetically susceptible host, imbalances in microbiota-immunity interactions under defined environmental contexts are believed to contribute to the pathogenesis of a multitude of immune-mediated disorders. Here, we review features of microbiome-immunity crosstalk and their roles in health and disease, while providing examples of molecular mechanisms orchestrating these interactions in the intestine and extra-intestinal organs. We highlight aspects of the current knowledge, challenges and limitations in achieving causal understanding of host immune-microbiome interactions, as well as their impact on immune-mediated diseases, and discuss how these insights may translate towards future development of microbiome-targeted therapeutic interventions. 10.1038/s41422-020-0332-7
A Comprehensive Review on the Role of the Gut Microbiome in Human Neurological Disorders. Clinical microbiology reviews The human body is full of an extensive number of commensal microbes, consisting of bacteria, viruses, and fungi, collectively termed the human microbiome. The initial acquisition of microbiota occurs from both the external and maternal environments, and the vast majority of them colonize the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). These microbial communities play a central role in the maturation and development of the immune system, the central nervous system, and the GIT system and are also responsible for essential metabolic pathways. Various factors, including host genetic predisposition, environmental factors, lifestyle, diet, antibiotic or nonantibiotic drug use, etc., affect the composition of the gut microbiota. Recent publications have highlighted that an imbalance in the gut microflora, known as dysbiosis, is associated with the onset and progression of neurological disorders. Moreover, characterization of the microbiome-host cross talk pathways provides insight into novel therapeutic strategies. Novel preclinical and clinical research on interventions related to the gut microbiome for treating neurological conditions, including autism spectrum disorders, Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia, multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer's disease, epilepsy, and stroke, hold significant promise. This review aims to present a comprehensive overview of the potential involvement of the human gut microbiome in the pathogenesis of neurological disorders, with a particular emphasis on the potential of microbe-based therapies and/or diagnostic microbial biomarkers. This review also discusses the potential health benefits of the administration of probiotics, prebiotics, postbiotics, and synbiotics and fecal microbiota transplantation in neurological disorders. 10.1128/CMR.00338-20
The Intestinal Epithelium: Central Coordinator of Mucosal Immunity. Allaire Joannie M,Crowley Shauna M,Law Hong T,Chang Sun-Young,Ko Hyun-Jeong,Vallance Bruce A Trends in immunology The gastrointestinal (GI) tract represents a unique challenge to the mammalian immune system. It must tolerate the presence of the luminal microbiota and thus not respond to their products, but still protect the intestinal mucosa from potentially harmful dietary antigens and invading pathogens. The intestinal epithelium, composed of a single layer of cells, is crucial for preserving gut homeostasis and acts both as a physical barrier and as a coordinating hub for immune defense and crosstalk between bacteria and immune cells. We highlight here recent findings regarding communication between microbes and intestinal epithelial cells (IECs), as well as the immune mechanisms employed by distinct IEC subsets to promote homeostasis, emphasizing the central and active role that these cells play in host enteric defense. 10.1016/j.it.2018.04.002
Targeting the gut microbiota for cancer therapy. Nature reviews. Cancer Growing evidence suggests that the gut microbiota modulates the efficacy and toxicity of cancer therapy, most notably immunotherapy and its immune-related adverse effects. The poor response to immunotherapy in patients treated with antibiotics supports this influential role of the microbiota. Until recently, results pertaining to the identification of the microbial species responsible for these effects were incongruent, and relatively few studies analysed the underlying mechanisms. A better understanding of the taxonomy of the species involved and of the mechanisms of action has since been achieved. Defined bacterial species have been shown to promote an improved response to immune-checkpoint inhibitors by producing different products or metabolites. However, a suppressive effect of Gram-negative bacteria may be dominant in some unresponsive patients. Machine learning approaches trained on the microbiota composition of patients can predict the ability of patients to respond to immunotherapy with some accuracy. Thus, interest in modulating the microbiota composition to improve patient responsiveness to therapy has been mounting. Clinical proof-of-concept studies have demonstrated that faecal microbiota transplantation or dietary interventions might be utilized clinically to improve the success rate of immunotherapy in patients with cancer. Here, we review recent advances and discuss emerging strategies for microbiota-based cancer therapies. 10.1038/s41568-022-00513-x
Targeting the gut and tumor microbiota in cancer. Nature medicine Microorganisms within the gut and other niches may contribute to carcinogenesis, as well as shaping cancer immunosurveillance and response to immunotherapy. Our understanding of the complex relationship between different host-intrinsic microorganisms, as well as the multifaceted mechanisms by which they influence health and disease, has grown tremendously-hastening development of novel therapeutic strategies that target the microbiota to improve treatment outcomes in cancer. Accordingly, the evaluation of a patient's microbial composition and function and its subsequent targeted modulation represent key elements of future multidisciplinary and precision-medicine approaches. In this Review, we outline the current state of research toward harnessing the microbiome to better prevent and treat cancer. 10.1038/s41591-022-01779-2
Gut microbiota, immunity and pain. Santoni Matteo,Miccini Francesca,Battelli Nicola Immunology letters The interplay between microbiota and nervous system has been associated with a variety of diseases, including stress, anxiety, depression and cognition. The growing body of evidences on the essential role of gut microbiota in modulating acute and chronic pain has opened a new frontier for pain management. Gut microbiota is involved in the development of visceral, inflammatory and neuropathic pain. Bacterial alterations due to chronic opioid administration have been directly related to the development of drug tolerance, which can be potentially restored by the use of probiotics and antibiotics. In this review we describe the mechanisms underlying the brain/gut axis and the relationship between gut microbiota, immunity and pain. 10.1016/j.imlet.2020.11.010
Neurotransmitter modulation by the gut microbiota. Strandwitz Philip Brain research The gut microbiota - the trillions of bacteria that reside within the gastrointestinal tract - has been found to not only be an essential component immune and metabolic health, but also seems to influence development and diseases of the enteric and central nervous system, including motility disorders, behavioral disorders, neurodegenerative disease, cerebrovascular accidents, and neuroimmune-mediated disorders. By leveraging animal models, several different pathways of communication have been identified along the "gut-brain-axis" including those driven by the immune system, the vagus nerve, or by modulation of neuroactive compounds by the microbiota. Of the latter, bacteria have been shown to produce and/or consume a wide range of mammalian neurotransmitters, including dopamine, norepinephrine, serotonin, or gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). Accumulating evidence in animals suggests that manipulation of these neurotransmitters by bacteria may have an impact in host physiology, and preliminary human studies are showing that microbiota-based interventions can also alter neurotransmitter levels. Nonetheless, substantially more work is required to determine whether microbiota-mediated manipulation of human neurotransmission has any physiological implications, and if so, how it may be leveraged therapeutically. In this review this exciting route of communication along the gut-brain-axis, and accompanying data, are discussed. 10.1016/j.brainres.2018.03.015
Interaction between drugs and the gut microbiome. Weersma Rinse K,Zhernakova Alexandra,Fu Jingyuan Gut The human gut microbiome is a complex ecosystem that can mediate the interaction of the human host with their environment. The interaction between gut microbes and commonly used non-antibiotic drugs is complex and bidirectional: gut microbiome composition can be influenced by drugs, but, vice versa, the gut microbiome can also influence an individual's response to a drug by enzymatically transforming the drug's structure and altering its bioavailability, bioactivity or toxicity (pharmacomicrobiomics). The gut microbiome can also indirectly impact an individual's response to immunotherapy in cancer treatment. In this review we discuss the bidirectional interactions between microbes and drugs, describe the changes in gut microbiota induced by commonly used non-antibiotic drugs, and their potential clinical consequences and summarise how the microbiome impacts drug effectiveness and its role in immunotherapy. Understanding how the microbiome metabolises drugs and reduces treatment efficacy will unlock the possibility of modulating the gut microbiome to improve treatment. 10.1136/gutjnl-2019-320204
The Impact of the Gut Microbiota on Drug Metabolism and Clinical Outcome. Enright Elaine F,Gahan Cormac G M,Joyce Susan A,Griffin Brendan T The Yale journal of biology and medicine The significance of the gut microbiota as a determinant of drug pharmacokinetics and accordingly therapeutic response is of increasing importance with the advent of modern medicines characterised by low solubility and/or permeability, or modified-release. These physicochemical properties and release kinetics prolong drug residence times within the gastrointestinal tract, wherein biotransformation by commensal microbes can occur. As the evidence base in support of this supplementary metabolic "organ" expands, novel opportunities to engineer the microbiota for clinical benefit have emerged. This review provides an overview of microbe-mediated alteration of drug pharmacokinetics, with particular emphasis on studies demonstrating proof of concept . Additionally, recent advances in modulating the microbiota to improve clinical response to therapeutics are explored.
The Association of Altered Gut Microbiota and Intestinal Mucosal Barrier Integrity in Mice With Heroin Dependence. Yang Jiqing,Xiong Pu,Bai Ling,Zhang Zunyue,Zhou Yong,Chen Cheng,Xie Zhenrong,Xu Yu,Chen Minghui,Wang Huawei,Zhu Mei,Yu Juehua,Wang Kunhua Frontiers in nutrition The gut microbiota is believed to play a significant role in psychological and gastrointestinal symptoms in heroin addicts. However, the underlying mechanism remains largely unknown. We show here that heroin addicts had a decrease in body mass index (BMI) and abnormal serum D-lactic acid (DLA), endotoxin (ET) and diamine oxidase (DAO) levels during their withdrawal stage, suggesting a potential intestinal injury. The gut microbial profiles in the mouse model with heroin dependence showed slightly decreased alpha diversity, as well as higher levels of and and a decrease in at genus level compared to the control group. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) further confirmed that the microbiota altered by heroin dependence was sufficient to impair body weight and intestinal mucosal barrier integrity in recipient mice. Moreover, short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) profiling revealed that microbiota-derived propionic acid significantly decreased in heroin dependent mice compared to controls. Overall, our study shows that heroin dependence significantly altered gut microbiota and impaired intestinal mucosal barrier integrity in mice, highlighting the role of the gut microbiota in substance use disorders and the pathophysiology of withdrawal symptoms. 10.3389/fnut.2021.765414
Gut microbiota: what is its place in pharmacology? Tarasiuk Aleksandra,Fichna Jakub Expert review of clinical pharmacology : In each section of the human gastrointestinal (GI) tract we may find bacteria that are adapted to local conditions and fulfill an important role in the proper functioning of the body. The gut microorganisms are crucial in human physiology in areas as diverse as the brain and the immune system functions. Therefore, there is a close relationship between the intestinal microbiota, its metabolic activity, and health of the host. : In this review, we explore the host-microbiome interactions and characterize the role they may play in drug metabolism and toxicity. The study is based on pertinent papers that were retrieved by a selective search using relevant keywords in PubMed and ScienceDirect databases. : Increasing unhealthy eating habits, stress, antibiotic therapy, unfavorable environmental factors, and genetic predisposition contribute to imbalances in the composition and function of the GI tract microbes and the initiation and progression of disease processes. Restoration of the balanced gut microbiota composition is possible by oral administration of probiotics. 10.1080/17512433.2019.1670058
Microbiome-based therapeutics. Nature reviews. Microbiology Symbiotic microorganisms inhabiting the gastrointestinal tract promote health by decreasing susceptibility to infection and enhancing resistance to a range of diseases. In this Review, we discuss our increasing understanding of the impact of the microbiome on the mammalian host and recent efforts to culture and characterize intestinal symbiotic microorganisms that produce or modify metabolites that impact disease pathology. Manipulation of the intestinal microbiome has great potential to reduce the incidence and/or severity of a wide range of human conditions and diseases, and the biomedical research community now faces the challenge of translating our understanding of the microbiome into beneficial medical therapies. Our increasing understanding of symbiotic microbial species and the application of ecological principles and machine learning are providing exciting opportunities for microbiome-based therapeutics to progress from faecal microbiota transplantation to the administration of precisely defined and clinically validated symbiotic microbial consortia that optimize disease resistance. 10.1038/s41579-021-00667-9
Gut microbiota in human metabolic health and disease. Fan Yong,Pedersen Oluf Nature reviews. Microbiology Observational findings achieved during the past two decades suggest that the intestinal microbiota may contribute to the metabolic health of the human host and, when aberrant, to the pathogenesis of various common metabolic disorders including obesity, type 2 diabetes, non-alcoholic liver disease, cardio-metabolic diseases and malnutrition. However, to gain a mechanistic understanding of how the gut microbiota affects host metabolism, research is moving from descriptive microbiota census analyses to cause-and-effect studies. Joint analyses of high-throughput human multi-omics data, including metagenomics and metabolomics data, together with measures of host physiology and mechanistic experiments in humans, animals and cells hold potential as initial steps in the identification of potential molecular mechanisms behind reported associations. In this Review, we discuss the current knowledge on how gut microbiota and derived microbial compounds may link to metabolism of the healthy host or to the pathogenesis of common metabolic diseases. We highlight examples of microbiota-targeted interventions aiming to optimize metabolic health, and we provide perspectives for future basic and translational investigations within the nascent and promising research field. 10.1038/s41579-020-0433-9
Intestinal microbiota shapes gut physiology and regulates enteric neurons and glia. Microbiome BACKGROUND:The intestinal microbiota plays an important role in regulating gastrointestinal (GI) physiology in part through interactions with the enteric nervous system (ENS). Alterations in the gut microbiome frequently occur together with disturbances in enteric neural control in pathophysiological conditions. However, the mechanisms by which the microbiota regulates GI function and the structure of the ENS are incompletely understood. Using a mouse model of antibiotic (Abx)-induced bacterial depletion, we sought to determine the molecular mechanisms of microbial regulation of intestinal function and the integrity of the ENS. Spontaneous reconstitution of the Abx-depleted microbiota was used to assess the plasticity of structure and function of the GI tract and ENS. Microbiota-dependent molecular mechanisms of ENS neuronal survival and neurogenesis were also assessed. RESULTS:Adult male and female Abx-treated mice exhibited alterations in GI structure and function, including a longer small intestine, slower transit time, increased carbachol-stimulated ion secretion, and increased intestinal permeability. These alterations were accompanied by the loss of enteric neurons in the ileum and proximal colon in both submucosal and myenteric plexuses. A reduction in the number of enteric glia was only observed in the ileal myenteric plexus. Recovery of the microbiota restored intestinal function and stimulated enteric neurogenesis leading to increases in the number of enteric glia and neurons. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) supplementation enhanced neuronal survival alongside bacterial depletion, but had no effect on neuronal recovery once the Abx-induced neuronal loss was established. In contrast, short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) were able to restore neuronal numbers after Abx-induced neuronal loss, demonstrating that SCFA stimulate enteric neurogenesis in vivo. CONCLUSIONS:Our results demonstrate a role for the gut microbiota in regulating the structure and function of the GI tract in a sex-independent manner. Moreover, the microbiota is essential for the maintenance of ENS integrity, by regulating enteric neuronal survival and promoting neurogenesis. Molecular determinants of the microbiota, LPS and SCFA, regulate enteric neuronal survival, while SCFA also stimulates neurogenesis. Our data reveal new insights into the role of the gut microbiota that could lead to therapeutic developments for the treatment of enteric neuropathies. Video abstract. 10.1186/s40168-021-01165-z
Metabolism and Metabolic Disorders and the Microbiome: The Intestinal Microbiota Associated With Obesity, Lipid Metabolism, and Metabolic Health-Pathophysiology and Therapeutic Strategies. Aron-Wisnewsky Judith,Warmbrunn Moritz V,Nieuwdorp Max,Clément Karine Gastroenterology Changes in the intestinal microbiome have been associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes, in epidemiological studies and studies of the effects of fecal transfer in germ-free mice. We review the mechanisms by which alterations in the intestinal microbiome contribute to development of metabolic diseases, and recent advances, such as the effects of the microbiome on lipid metabolism. Strategies have been developed to modify the intestinal microbiome and reverse metabolic alterations, which might be used as therapies. We discuss approaches that have shown effects in mouse models of obesity and metabolic disorders, and how these might be translated to humans to improve metabolic health. 10.1053/j.gastro.2020.10.057
Intestinal Microbiota: A Novel Target to Improve Anti-Tumor Treatment? Villéger Romain,Lopès Amélie,Carrier Guillaume,Veziant Julie,Billard Elisabeth,Barnich Nicolas,Gagnière Johan,Vazeille Emilie,Bonnet Mathilde International journal of molecular sciences Recently, preclinical and clinical studies targeting several types of cancer strongly supported the key role of the gut microbiota in the modulation of host response to anti-tumoral therapies such as chemotherapy, immunotherapy, radiotherapy and even surgery. Intestinal microbiome has been shown to participate in the resistance to a wide range of anticancer treatments by direct interaction with the treatment or by indirectly stimulating host response through immunomodulation. Interestingly, these effects were described on colorectal cancer but also in other types of malignancies. In addition to their role in therapy efficacy, gut microbiota could also impact side effects induced by anticancer treatments. In the first part of this review, we summarized the role of the gut microbiome on the efficacy and side effects of various anticancer treatments and underlying mechanisms. In the second part, we described the new microbiota-targeting strategies, such as probiotics and prebiotics, antibiotics, fecal microbiota transplantation and physical activity, which could be effective adjuvant therapies developed in order to improve anticancer therapeutic efficiency. 10.3390/ijms20184584
Intestinal microbiota in health and disease. Kåhrström Christina Tobin,Pariente Nonia,Weiss Ursula Nature 10.1038/535047a
The resilience of the intestinal microbiota influences health and disease. Sommer Felix,Anderson Jacqueline Moltzau,Bharti Richa,Raes Jeroen,Rosenstiel Philip Nature reviews. Microbiology The composition of the intestinal microbiota varies among individuals and throughout development, and is dependent on host and environmental factors. However, although the microbiota is constantly exposed to environmental challenges, its composition and function in an individual are stable against perturbations, as microbial communities are resilient and resistant to change. The maintenance of a beneficial microbiota requires a homeostatic equilibrium within microbial communities, and also between the microorganisms and the intestinal interface of the host. The resilience of the healthy microbiota protects us from dysbiosis-related diseases, such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) or metabolic disorder. By contrast, a resilient dysbiotic microbiota may cause disease. In this Opinion article, we propose that microbial resilience has a key role in health and disease. We will discuss the concepts and mechanisms of microbial resilience against dietary, antibiotic or bacteriotherapy-induced perturbations and the implications for human health. 10.1038/nrmicro.2017.58
The Intestinal Microbiota in Colorectal Cancer. Tilg Herbert,Adolph Timon E,Gerner Romana R,Moschen Alexander R Cancer cell Experimental evidence from the past years highlights a key role for the intestinal microbiota in inflammatory and malignant gastrointestinal diseases. Diet exhibits a strong impact on microbial composition and provides risk for developing colorectal carcinoma (CRC). Large metagenomic studies in human CRC associated microbiome signatures with the colorectal adenoma-carcinoma sequence, suggesting a fundamental role of the intestinal microbiota in the evolution of gastrointestinal malignancy. Basic science established a critical function for the intestinal microbiota in promoting tumorigenesis. Further studies are needed to decipher the mechanisms of tumor promotion and microbial co-evolution in CRC, which may be exploited therapeutically in the future. 10.1016/j.ccell.2018.03.004