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Tolerance to Morphine-Induced Inhibition of TTX-R Sodium Channels in Dorsal Root Ganglia Neurons Is Modulated by Gut-Derived Mediators. iScience In the clinical setting, analgesic tolerance is a primary driver of diminished pain control and opioid dose escalations. Integral to this process are primary afferent sensory neurons, the first-order components of nociceptive sensation. Here, we characterize the factors modulating morphine action and tolerance in mouse small diameter dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons. We demonstrate that acute morphine inactivates tetrodotoxin-resistant (TTX-R) Na channels in these cells. Chronic exposure resulted in tolerance to this effect, which was prevented by treatment with oral vancomycin. Using colonic supernatants, we further show that mediators in the gut microenvironment of mice with chronic morphine exposure can induce tolerance and hyperexcitability in naive DRG neurons. Tolerance (but not hyperexcitability) in this paradigm was mitigated by oral vancomycin treatment. These findings collectively suggest that gastrointestinal microbiota modulate the development of morphine tolerance (but not hyperexcitability) in nociceptive primary afferent neurons, through a mechanism involving TTX-R Na channels. 10.1016/j.isci.2018.03.003
Microbiome and substances of abuse. Salavrakos M,Leclercq S,De Timary P,Dom G Progress in neuro-psychopharmacology & biological psychiatry There is a growing amount of evidence showing a reciprocal relation between the gut microbiota and the brain. Substance use disorders (SUD), which are a major cause of preventable morbidity and mortality worldwide, have an influence on the gut microbiota and on the gut-brain axis. The communication between the microbiota and the brain exists through different pathways: (1) the immune response elicited by bacterial products, coupled with alterations of the intestinal barrier allowing these products to enter the bloodstream, (2) the direct and indirect effects of bacterial metabolites such as short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) or tryptophan on the brain, (3) and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, whose peripheral afferents can be influenced by the microbiota, and can in turn activate microglia. Among substances of abuse, alcohol has been the subject of the greatest number of studies in this field. In some but not all patients suffering from alcohol-use-disorder (AUD), alcohol alters the composition of the gut microbiota and the permeability of the intestinal barrier, directly and through dysbiosis. It has also been well demonstrated that alcohol induces a peripheral inflammation; it is still unclear whether it induces a central inflammation, as there are contradictory results in human studies. In animal studies, it has been shown that neuroinflammation increases during alcohol withdrawal. Literature on opioids and stimulants is less numerous. Chronic morphine intake induces dysbiosis, increased intestinal permeability and a probable neuroinflammation, which could explain symptoms such as tolerance, hyperalgesia and deficit in reward behavior. Cocaine induces a dysbiosis and conversely the microbiome can modulate the behavioral response to stimulant drugs. Tobacco cessation is associated with an increase in microbiota diversity. Taken together, the findings of our narrative literature review suggest a bidirectional influence in the pathogenesis of substance use disorders. 10.1016/j.pnpbp.2020.110113
The role of the gut microbiome in opioid use. Behavioural pharmacology Although the gut and brain are separate organs, they communicate with each other via trillions of intestinal bacteria that collectively make up one's gut microbiome. Findings from both humans and animals support a critical role of gut microbes in regulating brain function, mood, and behavior. Gut bacteria influence neural circuits that are notably affected in addiction-related behaviors. These include circuits involved in stress, reward, and motivation, with substance use influencing gut microbial abnormalities, suggesting significant gut-brain interactions in drug addiction. Given the overwhelming rates of opioid overdose deaths driven by abuse and addiction, it is essential to characterize mechanisms mediating the abuse potential of opioids. We discuss in this review the role of gut microbiota in factors that influence opioid addiction, including incentive salience, reward, tolerance, withdrawal, stress, and compromised executive function. We present clinical and preclinical evidence supporting a bidirectional relationship between gut microbiota and opioid-related behaviors by highlighting the effects of opioid use on gut bacteria, and the effects of gut bacteria on behavioral responses to opioids. Further, we discuss possible mechanisms of this gut-brain communication influencing opioid use. By clarifying the relationship between the gut microbiome and opioid-related behaviors, we improve understanding on mechanisms mediating reward-, motivation-, and stress-related behaviors and disorders, which may contribute to the development of effective, targeted therapeutic interventions in opioid dependence and addiction. 10.1097/FBP.0000000000000538
The role of the gut microbiome and microbial metabolism in mediating opioid-induced changes in the epigenome. Frontiers in microbiology The current opioid pandemic is a major public health crisis in the United States, affecting millions of people and imposing significant health and socioeconomic burdens. Preclinical and clinical research over the past few decades has delineated certain molecular mechanisms and identified various genetic, epigenetic, and environmental factors responsible for the pathophysiology and comorbidities associated with opioid use. Opioid use-induced epigenetic modifications have been identified as one of the important factors that mediate genetic changes in brain regions that control reward and drug-seeking behavior and are also implicated in the development of tolerance. Recently, it has been shown that opioid use results in microbial dysbiosis, leading to gut barrier disruption, which drives systemic inflammation, impacting the perception of pain, the development of analgesic tolerance, and behavioral outcomes. In this review, we highlight the potential role of microbiota and microbial metabolites in mediating the epigenetic modifications induced by opioid use. 10.3389/fmicb.2023.1233194
Pain regulation by gut microbiota: molecular mechanisms and therapeutic potential. Guo Ran,Chen Li-Hua,Xing Chungen,Liu Tong British journal of anaesthesia The relationship between gut microbiota and neurological diseases, including chronic pain, has received increasing attention. The gut microbiome is a crucial modulator of visceral pain, whereas recent evidence suggests that gut microbiota may also play a critical role in many other types of chronic pain, including inflammatory pain, headache, neuropathic pain, and opioid tolerance. We present a narrative review of the current understanding on the role of gut microbiota in pain regulation and discuss the possibility of targeting gut microbiota for the management of chronic pain. Numerous signalling molecules derived from gut microbiota, such as by-products of microbiota, metabolites, neurotransmitters, and neuromodulators, act on their receptors and remarkably regulate the peripheral and central sensitisation, which in turn mediate the development of chronic pain. Gut microbiota-derived mediators serve as critical modulators for the induction of peripheral sensitisation, directly or indirectly regulating the excitability of primary nociceptive neurones. In the central nervous system, gut microbiota-derived mediators may regulate neuroinflammation, which involves the activation of cells in the blood-brain barrier, microglia, and infiltrating immune cells, to modulate induction and maintenance of central sensitisation. Thus, we propose that gut microbiota regulates pain in the peripheral and central nervous system, and targeting gut microbiota by diet and pharmabiotic intervention may represent a new therapeutic strategy for the management of chronic pain. 10.1016/j.bja.2019.07.026
The bidirectional relationship between opioids and the gut microbiome: Implications for opioid tolerance and clinical interventions. International immunopharmacology Opioids are widely used in treating patients with acute and chronic pain; however, this class of drugs is also commonly abused. Opioid use disorder and associated overdoses are becoming more prevalent as the opioid crisis continues. Chronic opioid use is associated with tolerance, which decreases the efficacy of opioids over time, but also puts individuals at risk of fatal overdoses. Therefore, it is essential to identify strategies to reduce opioid tolerance in those that use these agents. The gut microbiome has been found to play a critical role in opioid tolerance, with opioids causing dysbiosis of the gut, and changes in the gut microbiome impacting opioid tolerance. These changes in turn have a detrimental effect on the gut microbiome, creating a positive feedback cycle. We review the bidirectional relationship between the gut microbiome and opioid tolerance, discuss the role of modulation of the gut microbiome as a potential therapeutic option in opioid-induced gut dysbiosis, and suggest opportunities for further research and clinical interventions. 10.1016/j.intimp.2023.111142
The gut microbiome contributes to somatic morphine withdrawal behavior and implicates a TLR2 mediated mechanism. Gut microbes The ongoing opioid epidemic has left millions of people suffering from opioid use disorder due to the over-prescription of highly addictive substances. Chronic opioid exposure leads to dependence, where the absence of the drug results in negative symptoms of withdrawal, often driving patients to continue drug use; however, few therapeutic strategies are currently available to combat the cycle of addiction and the severity of morphine withdrawal. This study investigates the microbiome as a potential therapeutic target for morphine withdrawal, as gut dysbiosis caused by morphine use has been proven to contribute to other aspects of opioid use disorders, such as tolerance. Results show that although the microbiome during morphine withdrawal trends toward recovery from morphine-induced dysbiosis, there continues to be a disruption in the alpha and beta diversity as well as the abundance of gram-positive bacteria that may still contribute to the severity of morphine withdrawal symptoms. Germ-free mice lacking the microbiome did not develop somatic withdrawal symptoms, indicating that the microbiome is necessary for the development of somatic withdrawal behavior. Notably, only TLR2 but not TLR4 whole-body knockout models display less withdrawal severity, implicating that the microbiome, through a gram-positive, TLR2 mediated mechanism, drives opioid-induced somatic withdrawal behavior. 10.1080/19490976.2023.2242610
Opioid system influences gut-brain axis: Dysbiosis and related alterations. Rueda-Ruzafa Lola,Cruz Francisco,Cardona Diana,Hone Arik J,Molina-Torres Guadalupe,Sánchez-Labraca Nuria,Roman Pablo Pharmacological research Opioid drugs are widely used to treat chronic pain, but their misuse can lead to tolerance, dependence, and addiction and have created a significant public health problem. In addition, food-derived opioid peptides, known as exorphins, like gluten exorphins have been shown to have harmful effects in certain pathologies like celiac disease, for example. Several studies support the involvement of the opioid system in the development of disorders such as autism spectrum syndrome. Moreover, bidirectional communication between the intestine and brain has been shown to be altered in various neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer´s and Parkinson´s. The presence of opioid receptors in both the digestive tract and the central nervous system (CNS) suggests that opioid drugs and exorphins may modulate the gut-brain axis. Morphine, for example, has shown a dysbiotic effect on the bacterial microbiota in addition to inducing an increase in intestinal permeability facilitating bacterial translocation. Furthermore, certain components of bacteria can modify the expression of opioid receptors at the central level increasing sensitivity to pain. Strategies based on use of probiotics have resulted in improvements in symptoms of autism and Parkinson´s disease. In this manuscript, we review the role of the opioid system in disorders and CNS pathologies and the involvement of the gut-brain axis. 10.1016/j.phrs.2020.104928
The role of morphine- and fentanyl-induced impairment of intestinal epithelial antibacterial activity in dysbiosis and its impact on the microbiota-gut-brain axis. FASEB journal : official publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology Recent evidence suggests that chronic exposure to opioid analgesics such as morphine disrupts the intestinal epithelial layer and causes intestinal dysbiosis. Depleting gut bacteria can preclude the development of tolerance to opioid-induced antinociception, suggesting an important role of the gut-brain axis in mediating opioid effects. The mechanism underlying opioid-induced dysbiosis, however, remains unclear. Host-produced antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are critical for the integrity of the intestinal epithelial barrier as they prevent the pathogenesis of the enteric microbiota. Here, we report that chronic morphine or fentanyl exposure reduces the antimicrobial activity in the ileum, resulting in changes in the composition of bacteria. Fecal samples from morphine-treated mice had increased levels of Akkermansia muciniphila with a shift in the abundance ratio of Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes. Fecal microbial transplant (FMT) from morphine-naïve mice or oral supplementation with butyrate restored (a) the antimicrobial activity, (b) the expression of the antimicrobial peptide, Reg3γ, (c) prevented the increase in intestinal permeability and (d) prevented the development of antinociceptive tolerance in morphine-dependent mice. Improved epithelial barrier function with FMT or butyrate prevented the enrichment of the mucin-degrading A. muciniphila in morphine-dependent mice. These data implicate impairment of the antimicrobial activity of the intestinal epithelium as a mechanism by which opioids disrupt the microbiota-gut-brain axis. 10.1096/fj.202301590RR
Morphine tolerance is attenuated in germfree mice and reversed by probiotics, implicating the role of gut microbiome. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America Prolonged exposure to opioids results in analgesic tolerance, drug overdose, and death. The mechanism underlying morphine analgesic tolerance still remains unresolved. We show that morphine analgesic tolerance was significantly attenuated in germfree (GF) and in pan-antibiotic-treated mice. Reconstitution of GF mice with naïve fecal microbiota reinstated morphine analgesic tolerance. We further demonstrated that tolerance was associated with microbial dysbiosis with selective depletion in and Probiotics, enriched with these bacterial communities, attenuated analgesic tolerance in morphine-treated mice. These results suggest that probiotic therapy during morphine administration may be a promising, safe, and inexpensive treatment to prolong morphine's efficacy and attenuate analgesic tolerance. We hypothesize a vicious cycle of chronic morphine tolerance: morphine-induced gut dysbiosis leads to gut barrier disruption and bacterial translocation, initiating local gut inflammation through TLR2/4 activation, resulting in the activation of proinflammatory cytokines, which drives morphine tolerance. 10.1073/pnas.1901182116
Gut Homeostasis, Microbial Dysbiosis, and Opioids. Wang Fuyuan,Roy Sabita Toxicologic pathology Gut homeostasis plays an important role in maintaining animal and human health. The disruption of gut homeostasis has been shown to be associated with multiple diseases. The mutually beneficial relationship between the gut microbiota and the host has been demonstrated to maintain homeostasis of the mucosal immunity and preserve the integrity of the gut epithelial barrier. Currently, rapid progress in the understanding of the host-microbial interaction has redefined toxicological pathology of opioids and their pharmacokinetics. However, it is unclear how opioids modulate the gut microbiome and metabolome. Our study, showing opioid modulation of gut homeostasis in mice, suggests that medical interventions to ameliorate the consequences of drug use/abuse will provide potential therapeutic and diagnostic strategies for opioid-modulated intestinal infections. The study of morphine's modulation of the gut microbiome and metabolome will shed light on the toxicological pathology of opioids and its role in the susceptibility to infectious diseases. 10.1177/0192623316679898
Chronic opioid use modulates human enteric microbiota and intestinal barrier integrity. Cruz-Lebrón Angélica,Johnson Ramona,Mazahery Claire,Troyer Zach,Joussef-Piña Samira,Quiñones-Mateu Miguel E,Strauch Christopher M,Hazen Stanley L,Levine Alan D Gut microbes Over the past three decades the United States has experienced a devastating opioid epidemic. One of the many debilitating side effects of chronic opioid use is opioid-induced bowel dysfunction. We investigated the impact of methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) on the gut microbiome, the gut bacterial metabolite profile, and intestinal barrier integrity. An imbalance in key bacterial communities required for production of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), mucus degradation, and maintenance of barrier integrity was identified. Consistent with dysbiosis, levels of fecal SCFAs were reduced in MMT. We demonstrated that metabolites synthesized by modulate intestinal barrier integrity by strengthening the pore pathway and regulating tight junction protein expression. This study provides essential information about the therapeutic potential of and warrants development of new clinical strategies that aim to normalize the gut microbiome in individuals affected by chronic opioid use. 10.1080/19490976.2021.1946368
Progress in the study of intestinal microbiota involved in morphine tolerance. Heliyon Morphine is a widely used opioid for treatment of pain. The attendant problems including morphine tolerance and morphine dependence pose a major public health challenge. In recent years, there has been increasing interest in the gastrointestinal microbiota in many physiological and pathophysiological processes. The connectivity network between the gut microbiota and the brain is involved in multiple biological systems, and bidirectional communication between them is critical in gastrointestinal tract homeostasis, the central nervous system, and the microbial system. Many research have previously shown that morphine has a variety of effects on the gastrointestinal tract, but none have determined the function of intestinal microbiota in morphine tolerance. This study reviewed the mechanisms of morphine tolerance from the perspective of dysregulation of microbiota-gut-brain axis homeostasis, by summarizing the possible mechanisms originating from the gut that may affect morphine tolerance and the improvement of morphine tolerance through the gut microbiota. 10.1016/j.heliyon.2024.e27187