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Underlying the Mechanisms of Doxorubicin-Induced Acute Cardiotoxicity: Oxidative Stress and Cell Death. Kong Chun-Yan,Guo Zhen,Song Peng,Zhang Xin,Yuan Yu-Pei,Teng Teng,Yan Ling,Tang Qi-Zhu International journal of biological sciences Cancer is a destructive disease that causes high levels of morbidity and mortality. Doxorubicin (DOX) is a highly efficient antineoplastic chemotherapeutic drug, but its use places survivors at risk for cardiotoxicity. Many studies have demonstrated that multiple factors are involved in DOX-induced acute cardiotoxicity. Among them, oxidative stress and cell death predominate. In this review, we provide a comprehensive overview of the mechanisms underlying the source and effect of free radicals and dependent cell death pathways induced by DOX. Hence, we attempt to explain the cellular mechanisms of oxidative stress and cell death that elicit acute cardiotoxicity and provide new insights for researchers to discover potential therapeutic strategies to prevent or reverse doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity. 10.7150/ijbs.65258
Galangin mitigates DOX-induced cognitive impairment in rats: Implication of NOX-1/Nrf-2/HMGB1/TLR4 and TNF-α/MAPKs/RIPK/MLKL/BDNF. Neurotoxicology The cognitive and behavioral decline observed in cancer survivors who underwent doxorubicin (DOX)-based treatment raises the need for therapeutic interventions to counteract these complications. Galangin (GAL) is a flavonoid-based phytochemical with pronounced protective effects in various neurological disorders. However, its impact on DOX-provoked neurotoxicity has not been clarified. Hence, the current investigation aimed to explore the ability of GAL to ameliorate DOX-provoked chemo-brain in rats. DOX (2 mg/kg, once/week, i.p.) and GAL (50 mg/kg, 5 times/week., via gavage) were administered for four successive weeks. The MWM and EPM tests were used to evaluate memory disruption and anxiety-like behavior, respectively. Meanwhile, targeted biochemical markers and molecular signals were examined by the aid of ELISA, Western blotting, and immune-histochemistry. In contrast to DOX-impaired rats, GAL effectively preserved hippocampal neurons, improved cognitive/behavioral functions, and enhanced the expression of the cell repair/growth index, BDNF. The antioxidant feature of GAL was confirmed by the amelioration of MDA, NO and NOX-1, along with restoring the Nrf-2/HO-1/GSH cue. In addition, GAL displayed marked anti-inflammatory properties as verified by the suppression of the HMGB1/TLR4 nexus and p-NF-κB p65 to inhibit TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β, and iNOS. This inhibitory impact extended to entail astrocyte activation, as evidenced by the diminution of GFAP. These beneficial effects were associated with a notable reduction in p-p38, p-JNK1/2, and p-ERK1/2, as well as the necroptosis cascade p-RIPK1/p-RIPK3/p-MLKL. Together, these pleiotropic protective impacts advocate the concurrent use of GAL as an adjuvant agent for managing DOX-driven neurodegeneration and cognitive/behavioral deficits. DATA AVAILABILITY: The authors confirm that all relevant data are included in the supplementary materials. 10.1016/j.neuro.2022.07.005
Berberine exerts protective effects on cardiac senescence by regulating the Klotho/SIRT1 signaling pathway. Biomedicine & pharmacotherapy = Biomedecine & pharmacotherapie Berberine (BBR), an isoquinoline alkaloid, exerts protective effects on various cardiac injuries, and also extends the lifespan of individuals. However, the cardioprotective effect of BBR on cardiac senescence remains unknown. This study investigated the effects of BBR on cardiac senescence and its underlying mechanism. Senescent H9c2 cells induced by doxorubicin (DOX) and naturally aged rats were used to evaluate the protective effects of BBR on cardiac senescence. The results showed that BBR protected H9c2 cells against DOX-induced senescence. Exogenous Klotho (KL) exerts similar effects to those of BBR. BBR significantly increased in protein expression of KL, while transfection with KL-specific siRNA (siKL) inhibited the protective effect of BBR against senescence. Both BBR and exogenous KL decreased the levels of reactive oxygen species, inhibited apoptosis, and alleviated mitochondrial dysfunction in these cells; and transfection with siKL attenuated these effects of BBR. In naturally aged rats, BBR indeed protected the animals from cardiac aging, at least partially, through lowering the levels of cardiac hypertrophy markers, and increased the expression of KL in cardiac tissue. Additionally, BBR markedly reversed downregulation of sirtuin1 (SIRTI) in the aged heart. In vitro experiments revealed that BBR and exogenous KL also increased the expression of SIRT1, whereas siKL limited this effect of BBR in senescent H9c2 cell. In summary, BBR upregulated KL expression and prevented heart from cardiac senescence through anti-oxidative and anti-apoptotic effects, as well as alleviation of mitochondrial dysfunction. These effects may be mediated via regulation of the Klotho/SIRT1 signaling pathway. 10.1016/j.biopha.2022.113097
Quercetin ameliorates kidney injury and fibrosis by modulating M1/M2 macrophage polarization. Lu Hong,Wu Lianfeng,Liu Leping,Ruan Qingqing,Zhang Xing,Hong Weilong,Wu Shijia,Jin Guihua,Bai Yongheng Biochemical pharmacology Interstitial inflammation is the main pathological feature in kidneys following injury, and the polarization of macrophages is involved in the process of inflammatory injury. Previous studies have shown that quercetin has a renal anti-inflammatory activity, but the potential molecular mechanism remains unknown. In obstructive kidneys, administration of quercetin inhibited tubulointerstitial injury and reduced the synthesis and release of inflammatory factors. Further study revealed that quercetin inhibited the infiltration of CD68+ macrophages in renal interstitium. Moreover, the decrease in levels of iNOS and IL-12, as well as the proportion of F4/80+/CD11b+/CD86+ macrophages, indicated quercetin-mediated inhibition of M1 macrophage polarization in the injured kidneys. In cultured macrophages, lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory polarization was suppressed by quercetin treatment, resulting in the reduction of the release of inflammatory factors. Notably, quercetin-induced inhibitory effects on inflammatory macrophage polarization were associated with down-regulated activities of NF-κB p65 and IRF5, and thus led to the inactivation of upstream signaling TLR4/Myd88. Interestingly, quercetin also inhibited the polarization of F4/80+/CD11b+/CD206+ M2 macrophages, and reduced excessive accumulation of extracellular matrix and interstitial fibrosis by antagonizing the TGF-β1/Smad2/3 signaling. Thus, quercetin ameliorates kidney injury via modulating macrophage polarization, and may have therapeutic potential for patients with kidney injury. 10.1016/j.bcp.2018.05.007
IL-23-induced macrophage polarization and its pathological roles in mice with imiquimod-induced psoriasis. Protein & cell Macrophages acquire distinct phenotypes during tissue stress and inflammatory responses. Macrophages are roughly categorized into two different subsets named inflammatory M1 and anti-inflammatory M2 macrophages. We herein identified a unique pathogenic macrophage subpopulation driven by IL-23 with a distinct gene expression profile including defined types of cytokines. The freshly isolated resting mouse peritoneal macrophages were stimulated with different cytokines in vitro, the expression of cytokines and chemokines were detected by microarray, real-time PCR, ELISA and multiple colors flow cytometry. Adoptive transfer of macrophages and imiquimod-induced psoriasis mice were used. In contrast to M1- and M2-polarized macrophages, IL-23-treated macrophages produce large amounts of IL-17A, IL-22 and IFN-γ. Biochemical and molecular studies showed that IL-23 induces IL-17A expression in macrophages through the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3)-retinoid related orphan receptor-γ T (RORγT) pathway. T-bet mediates the IFN-γ production in IL-23-treated macrophages. Importantly, IL-23-treated macrophages significantly promote the dermatitis pathogenesis in a psoriasis-like mouse model. IL-23-treated resting macrophages express a distinctive gene expression prolife compared with M1 and M2 macrophages. The identification of IL-23-induced macrophage polarization may help us to understand the contribution of macrophage subpopulation in Th17-cytokines-related pathogenesis. 10.1007/s13238-018-0505-z
Ecto-CD38-NADase inhibition modulates cardiac metabolism and protects mice against doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity. Cardiovascular research AIMS:Doxorubicin (DXR) is a chemotherapeutic agent that causes dose-dependent cardiotoxicity. Recently, it has been proposed that the NADase CD38 may play a role in doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity (DIC). CD38 is the main NAD+-catabolizing enzyme in mammalian tissues. Interestingly, in the heart, CD38 is mostly expressed as an ecto-enzyme that can be targeted by specific inhibitory antibodies. The goal of the present study is to characterize the role of CD38 ecto-enzymatic activity in cardiac metabolism and the development of DIC. METHODS AND RESULTS:Using both a transgenic animal model and a non-cytotoxic enzymatic anti-CD38 antibody, we investigated the role of CD38 and its ecto-NADase activity in DIC in pre-clinical models. First, we observed that DIC was prevented in the CD38 catalytically inactive (CD38-CI) transgenic mice. Both left ventricular systolic function and exercise capacity were decreased in wild-type but not in CD38-CI mice treated with DXR. Second, blocking CD38-NADase activity with the specific antibody 68 (Ab68) likewise protected mice against DIC and decreased DXR-related mortality by 50%. A reduction of DXR-induced mitochondrial dysfunction, energy deficiency, and inflammation gene expression were identified as the main mechanisms mediating the protective effects. CONCLUSION:NAD+-preserving strategies by inactivation of CD38 via a genetic or a pharmacological-based approach improve cardiac energetics and reduce cardiac inflammation and dysfunction otherwise seen in an acute DXR cardiotoxicity model. 10.1093/cvr/cvae025
Critical Role of the cGAS-STING Pathway in Doxorubicin-Induced Cardiotoxicity. Circulation research BACKGROUND:Doxorubicin is an effective chemotherapy drug for treating various types of cancer. However, lethal cardiotoxicity severely limits its clinical use. Recent evidence has indicated that aberrant activation of the cytosolic DNA-sensing cyclic guanosine monophosphate-adenosine monophosphate synthase (cGAS)-STING (stimulator of interferon genes) pathway plays a critical role in cardiovascular destruction. Here, we investigate the involvement of this mechanism in doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity (DIC). METHODS:Mice were treated with low-dose doxorubicin to induce chronic DIC. The role of the cGAS-STING pathway in DIC was evaluated in -deficiency (c), -deficiency (), and interferon regulatory factor 3 ()-deficiency () mice. Endothelial cell (EC)-specific conditional deficiency (/Cdh5-Cre) mice were used to assess the importance of this pathway in ECs during DIC. We also examined the direct effects of the cGAS-STING pathway on nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) homeostasis in vitro and in vivo. RESULTS:In the chronic DIC model, we observed significant activation of the cGAS-STING pathway in cardiac ECs. Global , , and deficiency all markedly ameliorated DIC. EC-specific deficiency significantly prevented DIC and endothelial dysfunction. Mechanistically, doxorubicin activated the cardiac EC cGAS-STING pathway and its target, IRF3, which directly induced CD38 expression. In cardiac ECs, the cGAS-STING pathway caused a reduction in NAD levels and subsequent mitochondrial dysfunction via the intracellular NAD glycohydrolase (NADase) activity of CD38. Furthermore, the cardiac EC cGAS-STING pathway also regulates NAD homeostasis and mitochondrial bioenergetics in cardiomyocytes through the ecto-NADase activity of CD38. We also demonstrated that pharmacological inhibition of TANK-binding kinase 1 or CD38 effectively ameliorated DIC without compromising the anticancer effects of doxorubicin. CONCLUSIONS:Our findings indicate a critical role of the cardiac EC cGAS-STING pathway in DIC. The cGAS-STING pathway may represent a novel therapeutic target for preventing DIC. 10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.122.321587
PDE10A Inactivation Prevents Doxorubicin-Induced Cardiotoxicity and Tumor Growth. Circulation research BACKGROUND:Cyclic nucleotides play critical roles in cardiovascular biology and disease. PDE10A (phosphodiesterase 10A) is able to hydrolyze both cAMP and cGMP. PDE10A expression is induced in various human tumor cell lines, and PDE10A inhibition suppresses tumor cell growth. Chemotherapy drug such as doxorubicin (DOX) is widely used in chemotherapy. However, cardiotoxicity of DOX remains to be a serious clinical complication. In the current study, we aim to determine the role of PDE10A and the effect of PDE10A inhibition on cancer growth and cardiotoxicity induced by DOX. METHODS:We used global PDE10A knockout (KO) mice and PDE10A inhibitor TP-10 to block PDE10A function. DOX-induced cardiotoxicity was evaluated in C57Bl/6J mice and nude mice with implanted ovarian cancer xenografts. Isolated adult mouse cardiomyocytes and a human ovarian cancer cell line were used for in vitro functional and mechanistic studies. RESULTS:We found that PDE10A deficiency or inhibition alleviated DOX-induced myocardial atrophy, apoptosis, and dysfunction in C57Bl/6J mice. RNA sequencing study revealed a number of PDE10A-regulated signaling pathways involved in DOX-induced cardiotoxicity. PDE10A inhibition increased the death, decreased the proliferation, and potentiated the effect of DOX on various human cancer cells. Importantly, in nude mice with implanted ovarian cancer xenografts, PDE10A inhibition attenuated tumor growth while protecting DOX-induced cardiotoxicity. In isolated cardiomyocytes, PDE10A contributed to DOX-induced cardiomyocyte death via increasing Top2β (topoisomerase 2β) expression, mitochondrial dysfunction, and DNA damage by antagonizing cGMP/PKG (protein kinase G) signaling. PDE10A contributed to cardiomyocyte atrophy via potentiating FoxO3 (forkhead box O3) signaling via both cAMP/PKA (protein kinase A)- and cGMP/PKG-dependent signaling. CONCLUSIONS:Taken together, our study elucidates a novel role for PDE10A in cardiotoxicity induced by DOX and cancer growth. Given that PDE10A has been already proven to be a safe drug target, PDE10A inhibition may represent a novel therapeutic strategy in cancer therapy, with effects preventing DOX-induced cardiotoxicity and simultaneously antagonizing cancer growth. 10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.122.322264
Pharmacological and Therapeutic Potential of Berbamine: A Potent Alkaloid from Genus Berberis. Current topics in medicinal chemistry Berbamine (Ber) is an active medicinal bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloid, which is usually obtained from different plants of the genus Berberis (family Berberidaceae) and is used to cure various disorders in traditional Chinese and Ayurvedic systems of medicine. Numerous in-vitro and in-vivo studies revealed the apoptotic and cytotoxic potential of Ber against different cell lines (SMMC-7721, A549, MDA-MB-231, and K562) by upregulating pro-apoptotic (Bax, p53) and downregulating anti-apoptotic (Bcl-2, survivin) proteins. Other pharmacological attributes ascribed to Ber included cardioprotective, anti-diabetic, anti-inflammatory, antimalarial, antioxidant, anti-hypercholesterolemic, and anti-allergic. Moreover, the synergistic effect of Ber improved the therapeutic potential of different drugs (paclitaxel (PTL), gemcitabine, dexamethasone, doxorubicin (DOX), and celecoxib) in different models. Various attempts could fabricate biologically active derivatives of Ber, such as 4-chlorobenzoyl berbamine (CBB) and O-4- ethoxyl-butyl-berbamine (EBB). The review focuses on the medicinal applications of Ber, particularly anti-cancer, cardioprotective, and anti-inflammatory, along with the mechanism of action. 10.2174/0115680266289292240420062705
Anti-inflammatory agents and monoHER protect against DOX-induced cardiotoxicity and accumulation of CML in mice. Bruynzeel A M E,Abou El Hassan M A,Schalkwijk C,Berkhof J,Bast A,Niessen H W M,van der Vijgh W J F British journal of cancer Cardiac damage is the major limiting factor for the clinical use of doxorubicin (DOX). Preclinical studies indicate that inflammatory effects may be involved in DOX-induced cardiotoxicity. Nepsilon-(carboxymethyl) lysine (CML) is suggested to be generated subsequent to oxidative stress, including inflammation. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate whether CML increased in the heart after DOX and whether anti-inflammatory agents reduced this effect in addition to their possible protection on DOX-induced cardiotoxicity. These effects were compared with those of the potential cardioprotector 7-monohydroxyethylrutoside (monoHER).BALB/c mice were treated with saline, DOX alone or DOX preceded by ketoprofen (KP), dexamethasone (DEX) or monoHER. Cardiac damage was evaluated according to Billingham. Nepsilon-(carboxymethyl) lysine was quantified immunohistochemically. Compared to saline, a 21.6-fold increase of damaged cardiomyocytes was observed in mice treated with DOX (P<0.001). Addition of KP, DEX or monoHER before DOX significantly reduced the mean ratio of abnormal cardiomyocytes in comparison to mice treated with DOX alone (P<or=0.02). In addition, DOX induced a significant increase in the number of CML-stained intramyocardial vessels per mm2 (P=0.001) and also in the intensity of CML staining (P=0.001) compared with the saline-treated group. Nepsilon-(carboxymethyl) lysine positivity was significantly reduced (P<or=0.01) by DOX-DEX, DOX-KP and DOX-monoHER. These results confirm that inflammation plays a role in DOX-induced cardiotoxicity, which is strengthened by the observed DOX-induced accumulation of CML, which can be reduced by anti-inflammatory agents and monoHER. 10.1038/sj.bjc.6603640
Total flavonoid extract from Dracocephalum moldavica L. improves pulmonary fibrosis by reducing inflammation and inhibiting the hedgehog signaling pathway. Phytotherapy research : PTR Dracocephalum Moldavica L. is a traditional herb for improving pharynx and relieving cough. However, the effect on pulmonary fibrosis is not clear. In this study, we explored the impact and molecular mechanism of total flavonoid extract from Dracocephalum moldavica L. (TFDM) on bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis mouse model. Lung function testing, lung inflammation and fibrosis, and the related factors were detected by the lung function analysis system, HE and Masson staining, ELISA, respectively. The expression of proteins was studied through Western Blot, immunohistochemistry, and immunofluorescence while the expression of genes was analyzed by RT-PCR. The results showed that TFDM significantly improved lung function in mice, reduced the content of inflammatory factors, thereby reducing the inflammation. It was found that expression of collagen type I, fibronectin, and α-smooth muscle actin was significantly decreased by TFDM. The results further showed that TFDM interferes with hedgehog signaling pathway by decreasing the expression of Shh, Ptch1, and SMO proteins and thereby inhibiting the generation of downstream target gene Gli1 and thus improving pulmonary fibrosis. Conclusively, these findings suggest that TFDM improve pulmonary fibrosis by reducing inflammation and inhibition of the hedgehog signaling pathway. 10.1002/ptr.7771
[Effect of Dracocephalum moldavica total flavones on expression of TGF-β1/Smad signaling pathway and matrix metalloproteinase of atherosclerosis ApoE-/- mice]. Liu Yang,Quan Yi-Ning,Wang Xin-Chun,Guo Xin-Hong,Yuan Yong,Cao Wen-Jiang,Cheng Jiang Zhongguo Zhong yao za zhi = Zhongguo zhongyao zazhi = China journal of Chinese materia medica To investigate the effect and mechanism of Dracocephalum moldovica total flavones (TFDM) on the formation of atherosclerosis ApoE-/- mice induced by high fat diet. A total of 40 SPF 8-week-old male ApoE-/- mice were fed with high fat diet and randomly divided into 5 groups. TFDM high, medium, low-dose group were given 21, 42, 84 mg•kg⁻¹•d⁻¹ by gavage; Simvastatin group was fed with simvastatin 3.5 mg•kg⁻¹•d⁻¹; and model group was given the same dose of normal saline. The other eight male C57BL/6J mice of the same genetic background and age were set up as control group and fed with common diet. All of the groups were intragastrically intervened for 12 weeks. The aortic pathologic changes were observed with HE; qRT-PCR was adopted to detect TGF-β1, Smad2, Smad3, MMP-2 and MMP-9 gene levels in tissues. Compared with model group, HE staining in TFDM group showed obvious relief of aortic atherosclerotic tissue injury; each TFDM group showed inhibition in mRNA expressions of TGF-β1, Smad2, Smad3, MMP-2 and MMP-9. This suggests that TFDM can inhibit atherosclerosis formation, which may be related to the intervention of TGF-β1/Smads signal transduction. 10.19540/j.cnki.cjcmm.20170609.005
Corrigendum to "AMPK/PGC1α activation by melatonin attenuates acute doxorubicin cardiotoxicity via alleviating mitochondrial oxidative damage and apoptosis" [Free Radic. Biol. Med. 129 (2018) 59-72]. Free radical biology & medicine 10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2024.03.013
Ratiometric delivery of doxorubicin and berberine by liposome enables superior therapeutic index than Doxil. Zhang Ruoshi,Zhang Yingxi,Zhang Yue,Wang Xin,Gao Xuanming,Liu Yuyan,Zhang Xuanbo,He Zhonggui,Wang Dun,Wang Yongjun Asian journal of pharmaceutical sciences Although the appearance of Doxil alleviated the cardiotoxicity of DOX, the progression-free survival of patients was not prolonged compared with traditional medication regimens, and side effects such as hand-foot syndrome has occurred. In order to solve this dilemma, we have designed a novel co-delivery strategy to construct a co-loaded liposome of berberine (BER) and doxorubicin (DOX), which was called LipoBeDo. The optimal synergistic ratio of the two drugs was screened by cell cytotoxicity experiments , and the optimal attenuation ratio was further determined by cardiac H&E staining pathological sections. The optimal combination treatment caused a robust increase in apoptotic cells of 4T1, as compared to drug alone treatment. The prepared co-loaded liposome, LipoBeDo, had high encapsulation efficiency and good stability. The nanoliposome carrier controlled the biological fate of the drugs and maintained a pre-defined optimal ratio . The LipoBeDo significantly inhibited tumor growth in 4T1 murine mammary carcinoma model compared with Doxil ( < 0.05), and completely overcame the myocardial rupture toxicity caused by Doxil in mice. Our co-loaded liposome delivery platform technology provided a new direction for the clinical treatment of triple-negative breast cancer and the safe application of DOX. 10.1016/j.ajps.2019.04.007
Bcl-xL is required for the protective effects of low-dose berberine against doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity through blocking apoptosis and activating mitophagy-mediated ROS elimination. Phytomedicine : international journal of phytotherapy and phytopharmacology BACKGROUND:Doxorubicin (DOX)-induced cardiotoxicity is related to abnormal autophagy and apoptosis in the heart. Berberine (BBR) is a well-known natural compound with potential cardioprotective and autophagic modulatory properties. HYPOTHESIS:We hypothesized that BBR ameliorates DOX-induced cardiotoxicity by balancing cardiomyocyte autophagy and apoptosis. STUDY DESIGN/METHODS:DOX was used to generate in vivo and in vitro cardiotoxic models. Larval and adult zebrafish and human AC16 cells were used to study (i) the effects of BBR on autophagy and apoptosis upon DOX challenge and (ii) the underlying mechanisms. RESULTS:BBR protected AC16 cells and zebrafish hearts from DOX-induced cytotoxicity and apoptosis. Bcl-xL knockdown in AC16 cells and zebrafish demonstrated that Bcl-xL is required for BBR's anti-apoptotic activity. DOX treatment promoted Beclin1 binding to Bcl-xL, disrupted mitophagy, and increased ROS accumulation in AC16 cells. In AC16 cells and zebrafish hearts, pretreatment with BBR enhanced mitophagy via dissociation of the Bcl-xL-Beclin1 complex and decreased ROS accumulation. Inhibition of autophagy attenuated this effect of BBR. Intriguingly, BBR increased Bcl-xL binding to Bnip3, sequestration, and mitophagy, indicating that Bcl-xL may play a beneficial role in BBR-induced mitophagy. Additionally, BBR significantly ameliorated DOX-induced cardiac dysfunction in zebrafish, whereas Bcl-xL knockdown abolished this effect. Notably, we discovered that BBR exerts biphasic dose-response effects in response to DOX; the cardioprotective properties were observed upon treatment with low-dose BBR (≤ 1 μM in cells, ≤ 10 μM in zebrafish), but not with relatively high-dose BBR. CONCLUSION:These findings indicate that the protective effects of low-dose BBR against DOX-induced cardiotoxicity are mediated by Bcl-xL. 10.1016/j.phymed.2022.154130
Assessing the cardioprotective effect of necrosulfonamide in doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity in mice. Journal of medicine and life This study aimed to determine the cardioprotective effect of necrosulfonamide (NSA), a pyroptosis and necroptosis inhibitor, against acute doxorubicin cardiotoxicity. Fifteen male mice were divided into three groups (n=5/group). Cardiotoxicity was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of 20 mg/kg of DOX on the 3 day of the experiment. The control group received daily intraperitoneal (i.p.) injections of 5% DMSO for five consecutive days. The second group, the DOX group, received a single i.p. injection of 20 mg/kg DOX on the third day of the experiment. The third group, the DOX plus necrosulfonamide (NSA) group, received DOX injections like the second group and 5 mg/kg of NSA i.p. daily for five days, starting two days before the DOX injection. At the end of the study, animals were euthanized, and blood and tissue samples were collected. Various parameters, including cardiac troponin I (cTnI), TNF-α, IL-1β, caspase-1, glutathione peroxidase-4 (GPX-4), and hemeoxygenase 1 (Hmox-1), were measured using ELISA. Cardiac expression of the NF-κB gene was determined by RT-qPCR. A histopathological assessment of myocardial lesions was also performed. DOX administration significantly increased serum cTnI levels and tissue inflammatory biomarkers (TNF-α, IL-1β, caspase-1) while reducing tissue antioxidant enzymes (GPX-4, Hmox-1). In addition, it significantly increased nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) gene expression compared to the control (about 10.5-fold elevation). Histopathological analysis revealed marked vacuolization and necrosis. However, pretreatment with NSA dramatically altered these findings, with serum cTnI levels significantly lower in this group compared to DOX. Inflammatory indicators decreased, and antioxidant enzymes were restored to varying degrees. NSA pretreatment downregulated NF-κβ gene expression and preserved near-normal myocardial morphology. Our results showed that NSA protected against DOX-induced cardiotoxicity, an effect likely mediated by its anti-pyroptotic, anti-necroptotic, and antioxidant properties. 10.25122/jml-2023-0091
Protective Effects of Oroxylin A against Doxorubicin-Induced Cardiotoxicity via the Activation of Sirt1 in Mice. Oxidative medicine and cellular longevity Doxorubicin- (DOX-) related cardiac injury impairs the life quality of patients with cancer. This largely limited the clinical use of DOX. It is of great significance to find a novel strategy to reduce DOX-related cardiac injury. Oroxylin A (OA) has been identified to exert beneficial effects against inflammatory diseases and cancers. Here, we investigated whether OA could attenuate DOX-induced acute cardiotoxicity in mice. A single dose of DOX was used to induce acute cardiac injury in mice. To explore the protective effects, OA was administered to mice for ten days beginning from five days before DOX injection. The data in our study indicated that OA inhibited DOX-induced heart weight loss, reduction in cardiac function, and the elevation in myocardial injury markers. DOX injection resulted in increased oxidative damage, inflammation accumulation, and myocardial apoptosis in vivo and in vitro, and these pathological alterations were alleviated by treatment of OA. OA activated the sirtuin 1 (Sirt1) signaling pathway via the cAMP/protein kinase A, and its protective effects were blocked by Sirt1 deficiency. OA treatment did not affect the tumor-killing action of DOX in tumor-bearing mice. In conclusion, OA protected against DOX-related acute cardiac injury via the regulation of Sirt1. 10.1155/2021/6610543
Berberine Ameliorates Doxorubicin-Induced Cardiotoxicity via a SIRT1/p66Shc-Mediated Pathway. Wu Yan-Zhao,Zhang Lan,Wu Zi-Xiao,Shan Tong-Tong,Xiong Chen Oxidative medicine and cellular longevity Doxorubicin- (DOX-) induced cardiotoxicity is associated with oxidative stress and cardiomyocyte apoptosis. The adaptor protein p66Shc regulates the cellular redox status and determines cell susceptibility to apoptosis. This study is aimed at investigating the involvement of sirtuin 1- (SIRT1-) mediated p66Shc inhibition in DOX-induced redox signalling and exploring the possible protective mechanisms of berberine (Ber) against DOX-triggered cardiac injury in rats and a cultured H9c2 cell line. Our results showed that the Ber pretreatment markedly increased CAT, SOD, and GSH-PX activities, decreased the levels of MDA, and improved the electrocardiogram and histopathological changes in the myocardium in DOX-treated rats (in vivo). Furthermore, Ber significantly ameliorated the DOX-induced oxidative insult and mitochondrial damage by adjusting the levels of intracellular ROS, ΔΨ, and [Ca] in H9c2 cells (in vitro). Importantly, the Ber pretreatment increased SIRT1 expression following DOX exposure but downregulated p66Shc. Consistent with the results demonstrating the SIRT1-mediated inhibition of p66Shc expression, the Ber pretreatment inhibited DOX-triggered cardiomyocyte apoptosis and mitochondrial dysfunction. After exposing H9c2 cells to DOX, the increased SIRT1 expression induced by Ber was abrogated by a SIRT1-specific inhibitor (EX527) or the use of siRNA against SIRT1. Accordingly, SIRT1 inhibition significantly abrogated the suppression of p66Shc expression and protection of Ber against DOX-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis. These results suggest that Ber protects the heart from DOX injury through SIRT1-mediated p66Shc suppression, offering a novel mechanism responsible for the protection of Ber against DOX-induced cardiomyopathy. 10.1155/2019/2150394
Inhibition of CACNA1H attenuates doxorubicin-induced acute cardiotoxicity by affecting endoplasmic reticulum stress. Hu Junxia,Wu Qi,Wang Zhiwei,Hong Junmou,Chen Ruoshi,Li Bowen,Hu Zhipeng,Hu Xiaoping,Zhang Min Biomedicine & pharmacotherapy = Biomedecine & pharmacotherapie BACKGROUND:Doxorubicin (DOX) is an anticancer drug that has been widely used in the clinic. However, recently its application has been limited due to the cardiotoxic effects it has caused. Severe cardiotoxicity of DOX causes cardiac hypertrophy that may lead to heart failure. It has previously been demonstrated that CACNA1H is re-expressed in hypertrophic cardiomyocytes. In this study, we aimed to investigate the role of CACNA1H in DOX-induced acute cardiotoxicity, and to investigate its possible underlying mechanisms of action involved. METHODS:Firstly, DOX-induced cardiac injury and changes in the expression of CACNA1H were evaluated. We explored the role of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and apoptosis in mice that underwent DOX-induced cardiac injury. Next, to explore the role of CACNA1H in this process, we evaluated the changes in DOX-induced cardiac injury and ER stress after treatment with the CACNA1H specific inhibitor ABT-639. Next, we used ER stress inhibitor UR906 to verify the role of ER stress in DOX induced cardiotoxicity in H9C2 cells. RESULTS:DOX-treatment caused acute heart injury, leading to a decrease in cardiac function in mice, an increase in apoptosis of cardiac myocytes, and a significant increase in the expression level of CACNA1H in heart tissue. Next, mice were treated with CACNA1H inhibitor ABT-639 and we demonstrated that it partly protects myocardial function and reduces myocardial cell apoptosis. In addition, our data indicated that CACNA1H may play a role in alleviating DOX-induced cardiotoxicity by reducing the severity of ER stress because the use of ABT-639 significantly changed ER stress-related proteins, including p-PERK, PERK, CHOP, GRP78, ATF6, and ATF4. Furthermore, we found that the use of ER stress inhibitor UR906 in H9C2 cells significantly alleviated the increased expression of ER stress related proteins and apoptosis related proteins caused by DOX, and meanwhile reduced the degree of intracellular oxidative stress and intracellular calcium ion concentration. CONCLUSION:CACNA1H inhibitors significantly alleviated DOX-induced cardiotoxicity and apoptosis induced by ER stress. 10.1016/j.biopha.2019.109475
Galangin attenuates doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity via activating nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2/heme oxygenase 1 signaling pathway to suppress oxidative stress and inflammation. Phytotherapy research : PTR Doxorubicin (DOX) has aroused contradiction between its potent anti-tumor capacity and severe cardiotoxicity. Galangin (Gal) possesses antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antiapoptotic activities. We aimed to explore the role and underlying mechanisms of Gal on DOX-induced cardiotoxicity. Mice were intraperitoneally injected with DOX (3 mg/kg, every 2 days for 2 weeks) to generate cardiotoxicity model and Gal (15 mg/kg, 2 weeks) was co-administered via gavage daily. Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) specific inhibitor, ML385, was employed to explore the underlying mechanisms. Compared to DOX-insulted mice, Gal effectively improved cardiac dysfunction and ameliorated myocardial damage. DOX-induced increase of reactive oxygen species, malondialdehyde, and NADPH oxidase activity and downregulation of superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity were blunted by Gal. Gal also markedly blocked increase of IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α in DOX-insulted heart. Mechanistically, Gal reversed DOX-induced downregulation of Nrf2, HO-1, and promoted nuclear translocation of Nrf2. ML385 markedly blunted the cardioprotective effects of Gal, as well as inhibitive effects on oxidative stress and inflammation. Gal ameliorates DOX-induced cardiotoxicity by suppressing oxidative stress and inflammation via activating Nrf2/HO-1 signaling pathway. Gal may serve as a promising cardioprotective agent for DOX-induced cardiotoxicity. 10.1002/ptr.7991
PAE ameliorates doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity via suppressing NHE1 phosphorylation and stimulating PI3K/AKT phosphorylation. International immunopharmacology Doxorubicin (DOX), a broad-spectrum anti-tumor drug, has severe cardiotoxic side effects that limit its clinical application. Perillaldehyde (PAE) is the main component of volatile oil extracted from the stems and leaves of Herbaceous plant-perilla, which demonstrates antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, hypolipidemic, and other health functions. The present study aimed to explore the protective effect of perillaldehyde on DOX-induced cardiotoxicity in rats and to confirm its possible mechanism. The results showed that PAE could significantly improve cardiac function, alleviate myocardial fibrosis, and attenuate oxidative stress and inflammatory responses in DOX-induced cardiotoxicity in rats. Mechanistically, PAE could DOX-induced cardiotoxicity, which is related to its regulation of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway and inhibition of NHE1 phosphorylation. Therefore, the finding demonstrates that perillaldehyde may be a promising cardioprotective agent for the prevention and treatment of cardiotoxicity caused by DOX. 10.1016/j.intimp.2022.109274
Natural compounds against doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity: A review on the involvement of Nrf2/ARE signaling pathway. Yarmohammadi Fatemeh,Rezaee Ramin,Karimi Gholamreza Phytotherapy research : PTR Cardiotoxicity is the main concern for long-term use of the doxorubicin (DOX). Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation leads to oxidative stress that significantly contributes to the cardiac damage induced by DOX. The nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor (Nrf2) acts as a protective player against DOX-induced myocardial oxidative stress. Several natural compounds (NCs) with anti-oxidative effects, were examined to suppress DOX cardiotoxicity such as asiatic acid, α-linolenic acid, apigenin, baicalein, β-lapachone, curdione, dioscin, ferulic acid, Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides, genistein, ginsenoside Rg3, indole-3-carbinol, naringenin-7-O-glucoside, neferine, p-coumaric acid, pristimerin, punicalagin, quercetin, sulforaphane, and tanshinone IIA. The present article, reviews NCs that showed protective effects against DOX-induced cardiac injury through induction of Nrf2 signaling pathway. 10.1002/ptr.6882
Polyguluronic acid alleviates doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity by suppressing Peli1-NLRP3 inflammasome-mediated pyroptosis. Carbohydrate polymers Polyguluronic acid (PG), a polysaccharide from alginate, possesses excellent bioactivities. We prepared high-purity PG with 10.41 kDa molecular weight (Mw) and a 59 average degree of polymerization (DP) by acid hydrolysis, three pH grades, Q-Sepharose column elution, and Sephadex G-25 column desalination. Then, we evaluated the PG protective effects on doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity (DIC) in vitro and in vivo. The nontoxic PG enhanced cellular viability, reduced cell pyroptosis morphology, diminished the LDH and IL-1β release, and downregulated expressions of ASC oligomerization, NLRP3, cl-CASP1, and GSDMD, by which PG protected the cardiomyocytes from NLRP3 inflammasome-mediated pyroptosis in doxorubicin-stimulated HL-1 cells and C57BL/6J mice. The probable underlying mechanism may be that PG downregulated doxorubicin -induced Peli1, the deficiency of which could inhibit doxorubicin-induced NLRP3 inflammasome-mediated pyroptosis. These results suggested that polysaccharide PG from alginate could prevent DIC and may be a potential therapeutic agent or bioactive material for preventing DIC. 10.1016/j.carbpol.2023.121334
Natural compound glycyrrhetinic acid protects against doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity by activating the Nrf2/HO-1 signaling pathway. Phytomedicine : international journal of phytotherapy and phytopharmacology BACKGROUND:As one of the most classic antineoplastic agents, doxorubicin (Dox) is extensively used to treat a wide range of cancers. Nevertheless, the clinical outcomes of Dox-based therapies are severely hampered due to the significant cardiotoxicity. Glycyrrhetinic acid (GA) is the major biologically active compound of licorice, one of the most well-known food additives and medicinal plants in the world. We previously demonstrated that GA has the potential capability to protect mice from Dox-induced cardiac injuries. However, the underlying cardioprotective mechanism remains unexplored. PURPOSE:To investigate the cardioprotective benefits of GA against Dox-induced cardiotoxicity and to elucidate its mechanisms of action. STUDY DESIGN/METHODS:H9c2 cardiomyoblasts and AC16 cardiomyocytes were used as the cell models in vitro. A transgenic zebrafish model and a 4T1 mouse breast cancer model were applied to explore the cardioprotective effects of GA in vivo. RESULTS:In vitro, GA inhibited Dox-induced cell death and LDH release in H9c2 and AC16 cells without affecting the anti-cancer effects of Dox. GA significantly alleviated Dox-induced ROS generation, mitochondrial dysfunction, and apoptosis in H9c2 cells. Moreover, GA abolished the expression of pro-apoptotic proteins and restored Nrf2/HO-1 signaling pathway in Dox-treated H9c2 cells. On the contrary, Nrf2 knockdown strongly abrogated the cardioprotective effects of GA on Dox-treated H9c2 cells. In vivo, GA attenuated Dox-induced cardiac dysfunction by restoring stroke volume, cardiac output, and fractional shortening in the transgenic zebrafish embryos. In a 4T1 mouse breast cancer model, GA dramatically prevented body weight loss, attenuated cardiac dysfunction, and prolonged survival rate in Dox-treated mice, without compromising Dox's anti-tumor efficacy. Consistently, GA attenuated oxidative injury, reduced cardiomyocytes apoptosis, and restored the expressions of Nrf2 and HO-1 in Dox-treated mouse hearts. CONCLUSION:GA protects against Dox-induced cardiotoxicity by suppressing oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and apoptosis via upregulating Nrf2/HO-1 signaling pathway. These findings could provide solid evidence to support the further development of GA as a feasible and safe adjuvant to Dox chemotherapy for overcoming Dox-induced cardiotoxicity. 10.1016/j.phymed.2022.154407
Meteorin-like protein attenuates doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity via activating cAMP/PKA/SIRT1 pathway. Hu Can,Zhang Xin,Song Peng,Yuan Yu-Pei,Kong Chun-Yan,Wu Hai-Ming,Xu Si-Chi,Ma Zhen-Guo,Tang Qi-Zhu Redox biology Meteorin-like (METRNL) protein is a newly identified myokine that functions to modulate energy expenditure and inflammation in adipose tissue. Herein, we aim to investigate the potential role and molecular basis of METRNL in doxorubicin (DOX)-induced cardiotoxicity. METRNL was found to be abundantly expressed in cardiac muscle under physiological conditions that was decreased upon DOX exposure. Cardiac-specific overexpression of METRNL by adeno-associated virus serotype 9 markedly improved oxidative stress, apoptosis, cardiac dysfunction and survival status in DOX-treated mice. Conversely, knocking down endogenous METRNL by an intramyocardial injection of adenovirus exacerbated DOX-induced cardiotoxicity and death. Meanwhile, METRNL overexpression attenuated, while METRNL silence promoted oxidative damage and apoptosis in DOX-treated H9C2 cells. Systemic METRNL depletion by a neutralizing antibody aggravated DOX-related cardiac injury and dysfunction in vivo, which were notably alleviated by METRNL overexpression within the cardiomyocytes. Besides, we detected robust METRNL secretion from isolated rodent hearts and cardiomyocytes, but to a less extent in those with DOX treatment. And the beneficial effects of METRNL in H9C2 cells disappeared after the incubation with a METRNL neutralizing antibody. Mechanistically, METRNL activated SIRT1 via the cAMP/PKA pathway, and its antioxidant and antiapoptotic capacities were blocked by SIRT1 deficiency. More importantly, METRNL did not affect the tumor-killing action of DOX in 4T1 breast cancer cells and tumor-bearing mice. Collectively, cardiac-derived METRNL activates SIRT1 via cAMP/PKA signaling axis in an autocrine manner, which ultimately improves DOX-elicited oxidative stress, apoptosis and cardiac dysfunction. Targeting METRNL may provide a novel therapeutic strategy for the prevention of DOX-associated cardiotoxicity. 10.1016/j.redox.2020.101747
Cardiac SIRT1 ameliorates doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity by targeting sestrin 2. Redox biology Although it is known that the expression and activity of sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) significantly decrease in doxorubicin (DOX)-induced cardiomyopathy, the role of interaction between SIRT1 and sestrin 2 (SESN2) is largely unknown. In this study, we investigated whether SESN2 could be a crucial target of SIRT1 and the effect of their regulatory interaction and mechanism on DOX-induced cardiac injury. Here, using DOX-treated cardiomyocytes and cardiac-specific Sirt1 knockout mice models, we found SIRT1 deficiency aggravated DOX-induced cardiac structural abnormalities and dysfunction, whereas the activation of SIRT1 by resveratrol (RES) treatment or SIRT1 overexpression possessed cardiac protective effects. Further studies indicated that SIRT1 exerted these beneficial effects by markedly attenuating DOX-induced oxidative damage and apoptosis in a SESN2-dependent manner. Knockdown of Sesn2 impaired RES/SIRT1-mediated protective effects, while upregulation of SESN2 efficiently rescued DOX-induced oxidative damage and apoptosis. Most importantly, SIRT1 activation could reduce DOX-induced SESN2 ubiquitination possibly through reducing the interaction of SESN2 with mouse double minute 2 (MDM2). The recovery of SESN2 stability in DOX-impaired primary cardiomyocytes by SIRT1 was confirmed by Mdm2-siRNA transfection. Taken together, our findings indicate that disrupting the interaction between SESN2 and MDM2 by SIRT1 to reduce the ubiquitination of SESN2 is a novel regulatory mechanism for protecting hearts from DOX-induced cardiotoxicity and suggest that the activation of SIRT1-SESN2 axis has potential as a therapeutic approach to prevent DOX-induced cardiotoxicity. 10.1016/j.redox.2022.102310
Tirzepatide protects against doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity by inhibiting oxidative stress and inflammation via PI3K/Akt signaling. Peptides BACKGROUND:Doxorubicin (DOX) is a highly effective and widely used cytotoxic agent with application for various malignancies, but it's clinically limited due to its cardiotoxicity Oxidative stress and inflammation were reported to take part in DOX-induced cardiotoxicity. Tirzepatide, a dual glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) receptor agonist has been approved to treat type 2 diabetes. However, its role in DOX-induced cardiotoxicity and the underlying mechanisms has not been explored. METHODS:The cardioprotective properties of Tirzepatide against DOX-induced cardiotoxicity are examined in this work both in vivo and in vitro. For four weeks, an intraperitoneal injection of 4 mg/kg DOX was used to cause cardiotoxicity in C57BL/6 mice. To ascertain the cardioprotective function and underlying mechanisms of Tirzepatide against DOX-induced cardiotoxicity, mice and H9c2 cells were treated with and without Tirzepatide. RESULTS:Tirzepatide treatment significantly inhibited DOX-induced oxidative stress, inflammation and cardiac injury. Mechanistically, PI3K/Akt signaling pathway contributes to the protective effect of Tirzepatide against DOX-induced cardiotoxicity and inhibited PI3K/Akt signaling pathway with LY294002 almost blocked its therapeutic effect. CONCLUSIONS:Collectively, Tirzepatide could alleviate DOX-induced oxidative stress, inflammation and cardiac injury via activating PI3K/Akt signaling pathway and Tirzepatide may be a novel therapeutic target for DOX-induced cardiotoxicity. 10.1016/j.peptides.2024.171245
Apigenin alleviates doxorubicin-induced myocardial pyroptosis by inhibiting glycogen synthase kinase-3β in vitro and in vivo. Drug development research Apigenin, a natural flavonoid compound found in chamomile (Matricaia chamomilla L.) from the Asteraceae family, has been shown in our previous study to possess antimyocardial hypertrophy and anti-cardiac fibrosis effects. However, its effects and mechanisms on the pyroptosis of cardiomyocytes induced by doxorubicin (DOX) are poorly understood. The objective of this study was to investigate the role of GSK-3β and the effects of apigenin in DOX-induced cardiotoxicity. H9c2 cells stimulated with DOX were treated with SB216763 and apigenin. Additionally, a mouse model of DOX-induced cardiotoxicity was prepared and further treated with apigenin and SB216763 for 30 days. The findings revealed that treatment with SB216763 or apigenin resulted in a significant reduction in the levels of pyroptosis-related factors. Furthermore, the phosphorylation of GSK-3β was enhanced while the phosphorylation of nuclear factor-kB (NF-κB) p65 was reduced following treatment with either SB216763 or apigenin. Conversely, the effects of apigenin treatment were nullified in siRNA-GSK-3β-transfected cells. Results from computer simulation and molecular docking analysis supported that apigenin could directly target the regulation of GSK-3β. Therefore, our study confirmed that the inhibition of GSK-3β and treatment with apigenin effectively suppressed the pyroptosis of cardiomyocytes in both DOX-stimulated H9c2 cells and mice. These benefits may be attributed in part to the decrease in GSK-3β expression and subsequent reduction in NF-κB p65 activation. Overall, our findings revealed that the pharmacological targeting of GSK-3β may offer a promising therapeutic approach for alleviating DOX-induced cardiotoxicity. 10.1002/ddr.22196
The therapeutic effect of phellopterin on colitis-associated cancer and its effects on TLR4/NF-κB pathway and macrophage M2 polarization. Cellular and molecular biology (Noisy-le-Grand, France) This study was conducted to investigate the effect and mechanism of phellopterin on colitis-associated cancer (CAC). For this purpose, CAC mouse model was established by AOM/DSS method, and the therapeutic effects of phellopterin in different doses were compared. The levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-1β, IL-10, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in peripheral blood were detected by ELISA. The changes in T lymphocyte subsets and the expressions of CD163, CD206, Arg-1, and Ym-1 in colonic macrophages were detected. The expression of TLR4 and NF-κB p65 in the colon was tested by Western blot. Results showed that as against the Model group, the body weight and survival rate of mice treated with phellopterin were increased, the disease activity index, hematochezia rate, and tumor formation rate were decreased, the colon length was increased, and the number of tumors and spleen index were decreased (P<0.05). As against the Model group, the proportion of CD4+ and CD8+ in the peripheral blood of phellopterin intervention mice increased, the content of IL-6, IL-1β, and TNF-α decreased, and the content of IL-10 increased. The expression of CD163, CD206, Arg-1, and Ym-1 in colonic macrophages was decreased. The protein expressions of TLR4 and NF-κB p65 in colon tissue were decreased (P<0.05). The effect of phellopterin intervention on CAC was dose-dependent. In conclusion, phellopterin can improve the symptoms and inflammatory response of CAC and inhibit the occurrence of colon cancer (CC) by inhibiting M2 polarization of macrophages and activation of the TLR4/NF-κB pathway. 10.14715/cmb/2023.69.15.8
Nerolidol Attenuates Oxidative Stress, Inflammation, and Apoptosis by Modulating Nrf2/MAPK Signaling Pathways in Doxorubicin-Induced Acute Cardiotoxicity in Rats. Arunachalam Seenipandi,Nagoor Meeran M F,Azimullah Sheikh,Sharma Charu,Goyal Sameer N,Ojha Shreesh Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland) The clinical usage of doxorubicin (DOX), a potent anthracycline antineoplastic drug, is often limited by its cardiotoxic effects. Thus, for improving usage of DOX, the aim of this study was to assess the cardioprotective effects of nerolidol (NERO) in a rat model of DOX-induced acute cardiotoxicity and examine underlying molecular mechanisms that contribute to these effects. To induce acute cardiotoxicity male albino Wistar rats were injected with single dose intraperitoneal DOX (12.5 mg/kg). The rats were treated with NERO (50 mg/kg, orally) for five days. DOX-injected rats showed elevated levels of cardiac marker enzymes and enhanced oxidative stress markers along with altered Nrf2/Keap1/HO-1 signaling pathways. DOX administration also induced the activation of NF-κB/MAPK signaling and increased the levels and expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β) as well as expression of inflammatory mediators (iNOS and COX-2) in the heart. DOX also triggered DNA damage and apoptotic cell death in the myocardium. Additionally, histological studies revealed structural alterations of the myocardium. NERO treatment exhibited protection against the deleterious results of DOX on myocardium, as evidenced by the restoration of altered biochemical parameters, mitigated oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis. The findings of the present study demonstrate that NERO provides cardioprotective effects against DOX-induced acute cardiotoxicity attributed to its potent antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antiapoptotic activities through modulating cellular signaling pathways. 10.3390/antiox10060984
A combination of isoliquiritigenin with Artemisia argyi and Ohwia caudata water extracts attenuates oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis by modulating Nrf2/Ho-1 signaling pathways in SD rats with doxorubicin-induced acute cardiotoxicity. Environmental toxicology Ohwia caudata (Thunb.) H. Ohashi (Leguminosae) also called as "Evergreen shrub" and Artemisia argyi H.Lév. and Vaniot (Compositae) also named as "Chinese mugwort" those two-leaf extracts frequently used as herbal medicine, especially in south east Asia and eastern Asia. Anthracyclines such as doxorubicin (DOX) are commonly used as effective chemotherapeutic drugs in anticancer therapy around the world. However, chemotherapy-induced cardiotoxicity, dilated cardiomyopathy, and congestive heart failure are seen in patients who receive DOX therapy, with the mechanisms underlying DOX-induced cardiac toxicity remaining unclear. Mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress, inflammatory response, and cardiomyocytes have been shown to play crucial roles in DOX-induced cardiotoxicity. Isoliquiritigenin (ISL, 10 mg/kg) is a bioactive flavonoid compound with protective effects against inflammation, neurodegeneration, cancer, and diabetes. Here, in this study, our aim is to find out the Artemisia argyi (AA) and Ohwia caudata (OC) leaf extract combination with Isoliquiritigenin in potentiating and complementing effect against chemo drug side effect to ameliorate cardiac damage and improve the cardiac function. In this study, we showed that a combination of low (AA 300 mg/kg; OC 100 mg/kg) and high-dose(AA 600 mg/kg; OC 300 mg/kg) AA and OC water extract with ISL activated the cell survival-related AKT/PI3K signaling pathway in DOX-treated cardiac tissue leading to the upregulation of the antioxidant markers SOD, HO-1, and Keap-1 and regulated mitochondrial dysfunction through the Nrf2 signaling pathway. Moreover, the water extract of AA and OC with ISL inhibited the inflammatory response genes IL-6 and IL-1β, possibly through the NFκB/AKT/PI3K/p38α/NRLP3 signaling pathways. The water extract of AA and OC with ISL could be a potential herbal drug treatment for cardiac hypertrophy, inflammatory disease, and apoptosis, which can lead to sudden heart failure. 10.1002/tox.23936
Cardioprotective Effects of Latifolin Against Doxorubicin-Induced Cardiotoxicity by Macrophage Polarization in Mice. Journal of cardiovascular pharmacology Latifolin, one of the major flavonoids extracted from lignum dalbergiae odoriferae, has been documented to protect the heart from acute myocardial ischemia induced by pituitrin and isoproterenol in rats and has also been found to inhibit inflammation. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether latifolin could protect the heart from doxorubicin (DOX)-induced cardiotoxicity and elucidate its underlying mechanisms. Male mice were treated with an intraperitoneal dose of DOX (20 mg/kg) plus oral latifolin at a dose of 50 or 100 mg/kg for 12 days. After exposure, we assessed cardiac function, myocardial injury, and macrophage polarization in excised cardiac tissue. Our results demonstrated that latifolin prevented DOX-induced cardiac dysfunction and produced macrophage polarization in mice challenged with latifolin. In cultured peritoneal macrophages, latifolin significantly reduced inflammatory cytokines (P < 0.05). Furthermore, latifolin remarkably decreased the percentage of macrophage M1/M2 polarization (P < 0.05). The results from the present study highlight the benefits of treatment with latifolin in DOX-induced cardiotoxicity, and the mechanism involved in mediating the polarization phenotype change of M1/M2 macrophages. 10.1097/FJC.0000000000000827
Elabela ameliorates doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity by promoting autophagic flux through TFEB pathway. Pharmacological research Doxorubicin (DOX) is a widely used and effective antineoplastic drug; however, its clinical application is limited by cardiotoxicity. A safe and effective strategy to prevent from doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity (DIC) is still beyond reach. Elabela (ELA), a new APJ ligand, has exerted cardioprotective effect against multiple cardiovascular diseases. Here, we asked whether ELA alleviates DIC. Mice were injected with DOX to established acute DIC. In vivo studies were assessed with echocardiography, serum cTnT and CK-MB, HW/BW ratio and WGA staining. Cell death and atrophy were measured by AM/PI staining and phalloidin staining respectively in vitro. Autophagic flux was monitored with Transmission electron microscopy in vivo, as well as LysoSensor and mRFP-GFP-LC3 puncta in vitro. Our results showed that ELA improved cardiac dysfunction in DIC mice. ELA administration also attenuated cell death and atrophy in DOX-challenged neonatal rat cardiomyocytes (NRCs). Additionally, we found that ELA restored DOX-induced autophagic flux blockage, which was evidenced by the reverse of p62 and LC3II, improvement of lysosome function and accelerated degradation of accumulated autolysosomes. Chloroquine, a classical autophagic flux inhibitor, blunted the improvement of ELA on cardiac dysfunction. At last, we revealed that ELA reversed DOX-induced downregulation of transcription factor EB (TFEB), and silencing TFEB by siRNA abrogated the effects of ELA on autophagic flux as well as cell death and atrophy in NRCs. In conclusion, this study indicated that ELA ameliorated DIC through enhancing autophagic flux via activating TFEB. ELA may become a potential target against DIC. 10.1016/j.phrs.2022.106186
Ferroptosis as a target for protection against cardiomyopathy. Fang Xuexian,Wang Hao,Han Dan,Xie Enjun,Yang Xiang,Wei Jiayu,Gu Shanshan,Gao Feng,Zhu Nali,Yin Xiangju,Cheng Qi,Zhang Pan,Dai Wei,Chen Jinghai,Yang Fuquan,Yang Huang-Tian,Linkermann Andreas,Gu Wei,Min Junxia,Wang Fudi Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America Heart disease is the leading cause of death worldwide. A key pathogenic factor in the development of lethal heart failure is loss of terminally differentiated cardiomyocytes. However, mechanisms of cardiomyocyte death remain unclear. Here, we discovered and demonstrated that ferroptosis, a programmed iron-dependent cell death, as a mechanism in murine models of doxorubicin (DOX)- and ischemia/reperfusion (I/R)-induced cardiomyopathy. In canonical apoptosis and/or necroptosis-defective , , or mice, DOX-treated cardiomyocytes showed features of typical ferroptotic cell death. Consistently, compared with dexrazoxane, the only FDA-approved drug for treating DOX-induced cardiotoxicity, inhibition of ferroptosis by ferrostatin-1 significantly reduced DOX cardiomyopathy. RNA-sequencing results revealed that heme oxygenase-1 () was significantly up-regulated in DOX-treated murine hearts. Administering DOX to mice induced cardiomyopathy with a rapid, systemic accumulation of nonheme iron via heme degradation by Nrf2-mediated up-regulation of Hmox1, which effect was abolished in -deficent mice. Conversely, zinc protoporphyrin IX, an Hmox1 antagonist, protected the DOX-treated mice, suggesting free iron released on heme degradation is necessary and sufficient to induce cardiac injury. Given that ferroptosis is driven by damage to lipid membranes, we further investigated and found that excess free iron accumulated in mitochondria and caused lipid peroxidation on its membrane. Mitochondria-targeted antioxidant MitoTEMPO significantly rescued DOX cardiomyopathy, supporting oxidative damage of mitochondria as a major mechanism in ferroptosis-induced heart damage. Importantly, ferrostatin-1 and iron chelation also ameliorated heart failure induced by both acute and chronic I/R in mice. These findings highlight that targeting ferroptosis serves as a cardioprotective strategy for cardiomyopathy prevention. 10.1073/pnas.1821022116
Protective effects of tannic acid on acute doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity: Involvement of suppression in oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis. Zhang Jianping,Cui Lijing,Han Xue,Zhang Yuanyuan,Zhang Xuan,Chu Xi,Zhang Fenghua,Zhang Ying,Chu Li Biomedicine & pharmacotherapy = Biomedecine & pharmacotherapie Doxorubicin (DOX) is a highly effective drug, but its cardiotoxicity restricts its therapeutic index. Oxidative stress is the major etiopathological factor in DOX-induced cardiotoxicity. Tannic acid (TA) has various anti-cancer, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory activities. The purpose of the study was to survey the possible effects of TA against acute DOX-induced cardiotoxicity. Male Sprague-Dawleyrats were randomly divided into five groups: control, DOX (10mg/kg) alone, DOX with TA (20 and 40mg/kg), or DOX withcaptopril (30mg/kg) treatments. TA or captopril was administered once daily for six days, and DOX was injected intraperitoneally on the fourth day. TA significantlyattenuated DOX myocardial effects. Pretreatment with TA caused a decrease in levels of the serum enzymes lactate dehydrogenase, creatine kinase, and creatine kinase isoenzyme-MB to normal values. As indicators of oxidative stress, the levels of glutathione peroxidasesuperoxide dismutase and catalasesignificantly increased while the levels of malondialdehyde decreased after TA treatment. Additionally, DOX provoked inflammatory responses by causing anincrease in levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β), endothelin (ET)-1 levels, and nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) expression while TA pretreatment significantly inhibited TNF-α, IL-1β, ET-1, and NF-κB. Furthermore, DOX induced apoptosis by increasing bcl-2like protein and caspase-3 activities and c-fos and c-jun levels while causing a decrease in B-cell lymphoma-2 levels. Overall, there was evidence that TA could inhibit DOX-induced cardiotoxicity by inhibiting oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptotic damage. 10.1016/j.biopha.2017.07.051
Sex-dependent alteration of cardiac cytochrome P450 gene expression by doxorubicin in C57Bl/6 mice. Grant Marianne K O,Seelig Davis M,Sharkey Leslie C,Zordoky Beshay N Biology of sex differences BACKGROUND:There is inconclusive evidence about the role of sex as a risk factor for doxorubicin (DOX)-induced cardiotoxicity. Recent experimental studies have shown that adult female rats are protected against DOX-induced cardiotoxicity. However, the mechanisms of this sexual dimorphism are not fully elucidated. We have previously demonstrated that DOX alters the expression of several cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes in the hearts of male rats. Nevertheless, the sex-dependent effect of DOX on the expression of CYP enzymes is still not known. Therefore, in the present study, we determined the effect of acute DOX exposure on the expression of CYP genes in the hearts of both male and female C57Bl/6 mice. METHODS:Acute DOX cardiotoxicity was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of 20 mg/kg DOX in male and female adult C57Bl/6 mice. Cardiac function was assessed 5 days after DOX exposure by trans-thoracic echocardiography. Mice were euthanized 1 day or 6 days after DOX or saline injection. Thereafter, the hearts were harvested and weighed. Heart sections were evaluated for pathological lesions. Total RNA was extracted and expression of natriuretic peptides, inflammatory and apoptotic markers, and CYP genes was measured by real-time PCR. RESULTS:Adult female C57Bl/6 mice were protected from acute DOX-induced cardiotoxicity as they show milder pathological lesions, less inflammation, and faster recovery from DOX-induced apoptosis and DOX-mediated inhibition of beta-type natriuretic peptide. Acute DOX exposure altered the gene expression of multiple CYP genes in a sex-dependent manner. In 24 h, DOX exposure caused male-specific induction of Cyp1b1 and female-specific induction of Cyp2c29 and Cyp2e1. CONCLUSIONS:Acute DOX exposure causes sex-dependent alteration of cardiac CYP gene expression. Since cardiac CYP enzymes metabolize several endogenous compounds to biologically active metabolites, sex-dependent alteration of CYP genes may play a role in the sexual dimorphism of acute DOX-induced cardiotoxicity. 10.1186/s13293-016-0124-4
Dihydromyricetin alleviates doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity by inhibiting NLRP3 inflammasome through activation of SIRT1. Sun Zhenzhu,Lu Wenqiang,Lin Na,Lin Hui,Zhang Jie,Ni Tingjuan,Meng Liping,Zhang Chuanjing,Guo Hangyuan Biochemical pharmacology Doxorubicin (DOX) is a powerful anthracycline antineoplastic drug whose clinical application is limited by serious cardiotoxic side effects. Dihydromyricetin (DHM), a flavonoid compound extracted from the Japanese raisin tree (Hovenia dulcis), is cardioprotective in patients with heart failure; however, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. The aim of this study was to assess the possible anti-inflammatory properties of DHM in a rat model of DOX-induced cardiotoxicity and DOX-treated H9C2 cells, and gain insights into the molecular mechanisms that mediate these effects. The results showed that DHM treatment significantly improved the myocardial structure and function in DOX-exposed rats by alleviating NLRP3 inflammasome-mediated inflammation. DHM also inhibited DOX-induced activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome in H9C2 cells. This effect was mediated by inhibition of caspase-1 activity, suppression of IL-1β and IL-18 release, and upregulation of SIRT1 protein levels in vivo and in vitro. Moreover, selective inhibition of SIRT1 blocked the protective effects of DHM. Collectively, our findings indicate that DHM protects against DOX-induced cardiotoxicity by inhibiting NLRP3 inflammasome activation via stimulation of the SIRT1 pathway. 10.1016/j.bcp.2020.113888
Involvement of ROS/NLRP3 Inflammasome Signaling Pathway in Doxorubicin-Induced Cardiotoxicity. Cardiovascular toxicology Doxorubicin (Dox) is widely used in cancer therapy, but the clinical application is limited by its cardiotoxicity. The underlying mechanism of Dox-induced cardiotoxicity remains unclear. Present study aimed to evaluate the role of NLRP3 inflammasome in Dox-induced cardiotoxicity. The NLRP3 inflammasome was activated in the myocardium of Dox-treating (5 mg/kg, once every other day, cumulative dosage to 15 mg/kg and sacrificed after 2 days of last Dox injection) C57BL/6 mice as shown by the up-regulation of NLRP3 and Caspase-1 p20. Dox (1 μM for 48 h) induced the apoptosis of H9c2 cells and primary cardiomyocytes concomitantly with up-regulation of NLRP3, ASC and Caspase-1 p20 expressions, as well as the increased IL-1β secretion, suggesting the activation of NLRP3 inflammasome. These effects of Dox on H9c2 cells and primary cardiomyocytes can be reversed by MCC950, a specific inhibitor of NLRP3. In view of the key role of ROS on the Dox-induced cardiotoxicity, the relationship between ROS and NLRP3 was further investigated. The ROS level was increased in myocardium, H9c2 cells and primary cardiomyocytes after treating with Dox. Decreasing ROS level by NAC can inhibit the NLRP3 inflammasome activation, secretion of IL-1β and apoptosis in Dox-treating H9c2 cells and primary cardiomyocytes. Collectively, this study reveals a crucial role of ROS/NLRP3-associated inflammasome activation in Dox-induced cardiotoxicity, and NLRP3 inflammasome may represent a new therapeutic target for Dox-induced cardiotoxicity. 10.1007/s12012-020-09576-4
α-Bisabolol, a Dietary Sesquiterpene, Attenuates Doxorubicin-Induced Acute Cardiotoxicity in Rats by Inhibiting Cellular Signaling Pathways, Nrf2/Keap-1/HO-1, Akt/mTOR/GSK-3β, NF-κB/p38/MAPK, and NLRP3 Inflammasomes Regulating Oxidative Stress and Inflammatory Cascades. International journal of molecular sciences Cancer chemotherapy with doxorubicin (DOX) may have multiorgan toxicities including cardiotoxicity, and this is one of the major limitations of its clinical use. The present study aimed to evaluate the cardioprotective role of α-Bisabolol (BSB) in DOX-induced acute cardiotoxicity in rats and the underlying pharmacological and molecular mechanisms. DOX (12.5 mg/kg, single dose) was injected intraperitoneally into the rats for induction of acute cardiotoxicity. BSB was given orally to rats (25 mg/kg, p.o. twice daily) for a duration of five days. DOX administration induced cardiac dysfunction as evidenced by altered body weight, hemodynamics, and release of cardio-specific diagnostic markers. The occurrence of oxidative stress was evidenced by a significant decline in antioxidant defense along with a rise in lipid peroxidation and hyperlipidemia. Additionally, DOX also increased the levels and expression of proinflammatory cytokines and inflammatory mediators, as well as activated NF-κB/MAPK signaling in the heart, following alterations in the Nrf2/Keap-1/HO-1 and Akt/mTOR/GSK-3β signaling. DOX also perturbed NLRP3 inflammasome activation-mediated pyroptosis in the myocardium of rats. Furthermore, histopathological studies revealed cellular alterations in the myocardium. On the contrary, treatment with BSB has been observed to preserve the myocardium and restore all the cellular, molecular, and structural perturbations in the heart tissues of DOX-induced cardiotoxicity in rats. Results of the present study clearly demonstrate the protective role of BSB against DOX-induced cardiotoxicity, which is attributed to its potent antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antihyperlipidemic effects resulting from favorable modulation of numerous cellular signaling regulatory pathways, viz., Nrf2/Keap-1/HO-1, Akt/mTOR/GSK-3β, NF-κB/p38/MAPK, and NLRP3 inflammasomes, in countering the cascades of oxidative stress and inflammation. The observations suggest that BSB can be a promising agent or an adjuvant to limit the cardiac injury caused by DOX. Further studies including the role in tumor-bearing animals as well as regulatory toxicology are suggested. 10.3390/ijms241814013
Dexmedetomidine reduces the inflammation and apoptosis of doxorubicin-induced myocardial cells. He Ying,Yang Zhaoying,Li Jinliang,Li Enyou Experimental and molecular pathology As the number of elderly patients increases, some patients with heart problems may also need surgery. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether dexmedetomidine (DEX), a common used anesthetic, was beneficial to the patients with heart problems. Myocardial cells induced by doxorubicin (DOX) was to simulate the myocardium injury in vitro. H9c2 cells were treated with DOX, DEX/DOX, Compound C and Compound C/DEX/DOX, respectively. The expression of p-AMPK, AMPK, p-GSK3β, GSK3β, Bcl2, Bax, Cleaved caspase3, Caspase3, TXNIP, NLRP3, ASC, Cleaved caspase-1 and Caspase-1 were analyzed by Western blot. CCK-8 assay and flow cytometry analysis were used to detect the cell viability and cell apoptosis. The levels of TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-18 were detected by ELISA assay and the levels of NO, ROS, LDH, SOD, MDA and taurine were detected by corresponding assay kits. As a result, DEX promoted the cell viability and inhibited the inflammation, oxidative stress and apoptosis. In addition, DEX suppressed the expression of taurine, TXNIP, NLRP3, ASC and cleaved caspase-1 and activated the expression of p-AMPK and p-GSK3β. However, those above changes could be reversed by Compound C. In conclusion, this study indicated that DEX could reduce the inflammation and apoptosis of DOX-induced myocardial cells through activating the AMPK-GSK3β signaling pathway. Because of the above effects of DEX, it may be beneficial for surgical patients with heart problems. 10.1016/j.yexmp.2020.104371
Calycosin Alleviates Doxorubicin-Induced Cardiotoxicity and Pyroptosis by Inhibiting NLRP3 Inflammasome Activation. Zhang Lei,Fan Cundong,Jiao Hua-Chen,Zhang Qian,Jiang Yue-Hua,Cui Jie,Liu Yang,Jiang Yong-Hao,Zhang Juan,Yang Meng-Qi,Li Yan,Xue Yi-Tao Oxidative medicine and cellular longevity Calycosin (CAL) is the main active component present in and reportedly possesses diverse pharmacological properties. However, the cardioprotective effect and underlying mechanism of CAL against doxorubicin- (DOX-) induced cardiotoxicity need to be comprehensively examined. Herein, we aimed to investigate whether the cardioprotective effects of CAL are related to its antipyroptotic effect. A cardiatoxicity model was established by stimulating H9c2 cells and C57BL/6J mice using DOX. , CAL increased H9c2 cell viability and decreased DOX-induced pyroptosis via NLRP3, caspase-1, and gasdermin D signaling pathways in a dose-dependent manner. , CAL-DOX cotreatment effectively suppressed DOX-induced cytotoxicity as well as inflammatory and cardiomyocyte pyroptosis via the same molecular mechanism. Next, we used nigericin (Nig) and NLRP3 forced overexpression to determine whether CAL imparts antipyroptotic effects by inhibiting the NLRP3 inflammasome Furthermore, CAL suppressed DOX-induced mitochondrial oxidative stress injury in H9c2 cells by decreasing the generation of reactive oxygen species and increasing mitochondrial membrane potential and adenosine triphosphate. Likewise, CAL attenuated the DOX-induced increase in malondialdehyde content and decreased superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities in H9c2 cells. , CAL afforded a protective effect against DOX-induced cardiac injury by improving myocardial function, inhibiting brain natriuretic peptide, and improving the changes of the histological morphology of DOX-treated mice. Collectively, our findings confirmed that CAL alleviates DOX-induced cardiotoxicity and pyroptosis by inhibiting NLRP3 inflammasome activation o and 10.1155/2022/1733834
Promising cardioprotective effect of baicalin in doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity through targeting toll-like receptor 4/nuclear factor-κB and Wnt/β-catenin pathways. Nutrition (Burbank, Los Angeles County, Calif.) Doxorubicin (Dox) is an indispensable chemotherapeutic agent associated with damaging cardiotoxicity. Baicalin (BA) is a flavonoid, extracted from the medicinal plant Scutellariae baicalensis Georgi. BA is well known for its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. Our study investigated the potential effect of BA in attenuating Dox-induced cardiotoxicity. To this end, male Swiss albino mice were given BA (100 mg/kg/d, orally) for 4 wk and were challenged with Dox (six intraperitoneal doses, each 2.5 mg/kg, every other day with a final cumulative dose of 15 mg/kg). Serum activities of cardiac biomarkers (cardiac troponin-I, creatine kinase-membrane bound, lactate dehydrogenase, and aspartate aminotransferase) were assessed along with the histopathological examination of the heart tissues. Gene expression of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) was analyzed by quantitative reverse transcription real-time polymerase chain reaction. Analysis of the protein levels of β-catenin and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) was done immunohistochemically. Cardiac Dickkopf-1 (DKK1) and interleukin-1beta (IL-1β) were quantified by enzyme-linked immuno-sorbent assay. Cardiac levels of reduced glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were detected spectrophotometrically. Pretreatment with BA significantly prevented Dox-induced elevation of serum activities of cardiac biomarkers and alterations to the heart. Moreover, BA suppressed the gene overexpression of cardiac TLR4 and subsequently prevented Dox-induced elevation of both cardiac NF-κB and IL-1β. BA also significantly reduced the cardiac levels of DKK1 and elevated the level of β-catenin. Dox-induced elevation of MDA and reduction of GSH were reversed by BA. BA exhibited a novel cardioprotective effect against Dox-induced cardiotoxicity. The cardioprotective effect was indicated through the inhibition of the inflammatory TLR4/NF-κB pathway and the activation of the protective Wnt/β-catenin pathway by the suppression of DKK1. 10.1016/j.nut.2022.111732
Baicalin regulates TLR4/IκBα/NFκB signaling pathway to alleviate inflammation in Doxorubicin related cardiotoxicity. Biochemical and biophysical research communications Cancers and the toxic and side effects of their treatment have always been a major problem for human beings. Doxorubicin (DOX) is one of the classical anthracycline antineoplastic drugs, but it can cause different degrees of heart damage and even serious heart failure. The incidence of myocardial toxicity increased significantly when the cumulative dose of the drug was more than 550 mg/m, and the relevant mechanism was related to the inflammatory reaction, reactive oxygen species and the apoptosis of cardiomyocytes in the myocardium. Relevant studies have shown that baicalein (Ba) can inhibit NFκB-related inflammatory signaling pathway protects cardiac function, but whether it can inhibit DOX induced cardiotoxicity has not been reported. Therefore, in animal studies, we explored the effects of doxorubicin and baicalein on cardiac function, TLR4/IκBα/NFκB signaling pathway and related inflammatory indicators in rats. In cell experiments, by silencing or overexpressing TLR4, we explored whether baicalein could achieve anti-inflammatory effect through regulating TLR4/IκBα/NFκB signaling pathway and ultimately inhibit doxorubicin induced cardiotoxicity. 10.1016/j.bbrc.2022.10.061
MD-1 Deficiency Accelerates Myocardial Inflammation and Apoptosis in Doxorubicin-Induced Cardiotoxicity by Activating the TLR4/MAPKs/Nuclear Factor kappa B (NF-κB) Signaling Pathway. Zhang Ying-Jun,Huang He,Liu Yu,Kong Bin,Wang Guangji Medical science monitor : international medical journal of experimental and clinical research BACKGROUND Myocardial apoptosis and inflammation play important roles in doxorubicin (DOX)-caused cardiotoxicity. Our prior studies have characterized the effects of myeloid differentiation protein 1(MD-1) in pathological cardiac remodeling and myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury, but its participations and potential molecular mechanisms in DOX-caused cardiotoxicity remain unknown. MATERIAL AND METHODS In the present study, MD-1 knockout mice were generated, and a single intraperitoneal injection of DOX (15 mg/kg) was performed to elicit DOX-induced cardiotoxicity. Cardiac function, histological change, mitochondrial structure, myocardial death, apoptosis, inflammation, and molecular alterations were measured systemically. RESULTS The results showed that the protein and mRNA levels of MD-1 were dramatically downregulated in DOX-treated cardiomyocytes. DOX insult markedly accelerated cardiac dysfunction and injury, followed by enhancements of apoptosis and inflammation, all of which were further aggravated in MD-1 knockout mice. Mechanistically, the TLR4/MAPKs/NF-kappaB pathways, which were over-activated in MD-1-deficient mice, were significantly increased in DOX-damaged cardiomyocytes. Moreover, the abolishment of TLR4 or NF-kappaB via a specific inhibitor exerted protective effects against the adverse effects of MD-1 loss on DOX-caused cardiotoxicity. CONCLUSIONS Collectively, these findings suggest that MD-1 is a novel target for the treatment of DOX-induced cardiotoxicity. 10.12659/MSM.919861
Metformin ameliorates doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity targeting HMGB1/TLR4/NLRP3 signaling pathway in mice. Life sciences AIMS:Oxidative stress and inflammation have been linked to doxorubicin (DOX)-induced cardiotoxicity, while the exact molecular processes are currently under investigation. The goal of this study is to investigate Metformin's preventive role in cardiotoxicity induced by DOX. MATERIALS AND METHODS:Male albino mice were divided randomly into 4 groups. Metformin (Met) 200 mg/kg orally (p.o.) was given either alone or when combined with a single DOX (15 mg/kg; i.p.). A control group of 5 mice was also provided. Met was initiated 7 days before DOX, lasting for 14 days. Besides, docking studies of Met towards HMGB1, NF-kB, and caspase 3 were performed. KEY FINDINGS:Heart weight, cardiac troponin T (cTnT), creatine kinase Myocardial Band (CK-MB) levels, malondialdehyde (MDA), and nitric oxide (NO) contents all increased significantly when comparing the DOX group to the control normal group. Conversely, there was a substantial decline in superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH). DOX group depicts a high expression of TLR4, HMGB1, and caspase 3. Immunohistochemical staining revealed an increase in NLRP3 inflammasome and NF-κB expressions alongside histopathological modifications. Additionally, Met dramatically decreased cardiac weight, CK-MB, and cTnT while maintaining the tissues' histological integrity. Inflammatory biomarkers, including HMGB1, TLR4, NF-κB, inflammasome, and caspase 3 were reduced after Met therapy. Furthermore, molecular docking studies suggested the antagonistic activity of Met towards HMGB1, NF-κB, and caspase 3 target receptors. SIGNIFICANCE:According to recent evidence, Met is a desirable strategy for improving cardiac toxicity produced by DOX by inhibiting the HMGB1/NF-κB inflammatory pathway, thus preserving heart function. 10.1016/j.lfs.2023.121390
The SGLT-2 inhibitor empagliflozin improves myocardial strain, reduces cardiac fibrosis and pro-inflammatory cytokines in non-diabetic mice treated with doxorubicin. Cardiovascular diabetology BACKGROUND:Empagliflozin (EMPA), a selective inhibitor of the sodium glucose co-transporter 2, reduced the risk of hospitalization for heart failure and cardiovascular death in type 2 diabetic patients in the EMPA-REG OUTCOME trial. Recent trials evidenced several cardio-renal benefits of EMPA in non-diabetic patients through the involvement of biochemical pathways that are still to be deeply analysed. We aimed to evaluate the effects of EMPA on myocardial strain of non-diabetic mice treated with doxorubicin (DOXO) through the analysis of NLRP3 inflammasome and MyD88-related pathways resulting in anti-apoptotic and anti-fibrotic effects. METHODS:Preliminary cellular studies were performed on mouse cardiomyocytes (HL-1 cell line) exposed to doxorubicin alone or combined to EMPA. The following analysis were performed: determination of cell viability (through a modified MTT assay), study of intracellular ROS production, lipid peroxidation (quantifying intracellular malondialdehyde and 4-hydroxynonenal), intracellular Ca homeostasis. Moreover, pro-inflammatory studies were also performed: expression of NLRP3 inflammasome, MyD88 myddosome and p65/NF-κB associated to secretion of cytokines involved in cardiotoxicity (Interleukins 1β, 8, 6). C57Bl/6 mice were untreated (Sham, n = 6) or treated for 10 days with doxorubicin (DOXO, n = 6), EMPA (EMPA, n = 6) or doxorubicin combined to EMPA (DOXO-EMPA, n = 6). DOXO was injected intraperitoneally. Ferroptosis and xanthine oxidase were studied before and after treatments. Cardiac function studies, including EF, FS and radial/longitudinal strain were analysed through transthoracic echocardiography (Vevo 2100). Cardiac fibrosis and apoptosis were histologically studied through Picrosirius red and TUNEL assay, respectively and quantified through pro-collagen-1α1, MMP-9 and Caspase-3 expression. Tissue NLRP3, MyD88 and cytokines were also quantified before and after treatments through ELISA methods. RESULTS:Cardiomyocytes exposed to doxorubicin increased the intracellular Ca content and expression of several pro-inflammatory markers associated to cell death; co-incubation with EMPA reduced significantly the magnitude of the effects. In preclinical study, EMPA increased EF and FS compared to DOXO groups (p < 0.05), prevented the reduction of radial and longitudinal strain after 10 days of treatment with doxorubicin (RS) 30.3% in EMPA-DOXO vs 15.7% in DOXO mice; LS - 17% in EMPA-DOXO vs - 11.7% in DOXO mice (p < 0.001 for both). Significant reductions in ferroptosis, xanthine oxidase expression, cardiac fibrosis and apoptosis in EMPA associated to DOXO were also seen. A reduced expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, NLRP3, MyD88 and NF-kB in heart, liver and kidneys was also seen in DOXO-EMPA group compared to DOXO (p < 0.001). CONCLUSION:EMPA reduced ferroptosis, fibrosis, apoptosis and inflammation in doxorubicin-treated mice through the involvement of NLRP3 and MyD88-related pathways, resulting in significant improvements in cardiac functions. These findings provides the proof of concept for translational studies designed to reduce adverse cardiovascular outcomes in non-diabetic cancer patients treated with doxorubicin. 10.1186/s12933-021-01346-y
Amentoflavone mitigates doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity by suppressing cardiomyocyte pyroptosis and inflammation through inhibition of the STING/NLRP3 signalling pathway. Phytomedicine : international journal of phytotherapy and phytopharmacology BACKGROUND:Doxorubicin (DOX) is a potent anticancer chemotherapeutic agent whose clinical application is substantially constrained by its cardiotoxicity. The pathophysiology of DOX-induced cardiotoxicity manifests as cardiomyocyte pyroptosis and inflammation. Amentoflavone (AMF) is a naturally occurring biflavone possessing anti-pyroptotic and anti-inflammatory properties. However, the mechanism through which AMF alleviates DOX-induced cardiotoxicity remains undetermined. PURPOSE:This study aimed at investigating the role of AMF in alleviating DOX-induced cardiotoxicity. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS:To assess the in vivo effect of AMF, DOX was intraperitoneally administered into a mouse model to induce cardiotoxicity. To elucidate the underlying mechanisms, the activities of STING/NLRP3 were quantified using the NLRP3 agonist nigericin and the STING agonist amidobenzimidazole (ABZI). Primary cardiomyocytes isolated from neonatal Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with saline (vehicle) or DOX with or without AMF and/or ABZI. The echocardiogram, haemodynamics, cardiac injury markers, heart/body weight ratio, and pathological alterations were monitored; the STING/NLRP3 pathway-associated proteins were detected by western blot and cardiomyocyte pyroptosis was analysed by immunofluorescence staining of cleaved N-terminal GSDMD and scanning electron microscopy. Furthermore, we evaluated the potential of AMF in compromising the anticancer effects of DOX in human breast cancer cell lines. RESULTS:AMF substantially alleviated cardiac dysfunction and reduced heart/body weight ratio and myocardial damage in mice models of DOX-induced cardiotoxicity. AMF effectively suppressed DOX-mediated upregulation of IL-1β, IL-18, TNF-α, and pyroptosis-related proteins, including NLRP3, cleaved caspase-1, and cleaved N-terminal GSDMD. The levels of apoptosis-related proteins, namely Bax, cleaved caspase-3, and BCL-2 were not affected. In addition, AMF inhibited STING phosphorylation in DOX-affected hearts. Intriguingly, the administration of nigericin or ABZI dampened the cardioprotective effects of AMF. The in vitro anti-pyroptotic effect of AMF was demonstrated in attenuating the DOX-induced reduction in cardiomyocyte cell viability, upregulation of cleaved N-terminal GSDMD, and pyroptotic morphology alteration at the microstructural level. AMF exhibited a synergistic effect with DOX to reduce the viability of human breast cancer cells. CONCLUSION:AMF alleviates DOX-induced cardiotoxicity by suppressing cardiomyocyte pyroptosis and inflammation via inhibition of the STING/NLRP3 signalling pathway, thereby validating its efficacy as a cardioprotective agent. 10.1016/j.phymed.2023.154922
MCC950 attenuates doxorubicin-induced myocardial injury in vivo and in vitro by inhibiting NLRP3-mediated pyroptosis. Biomedicine & pharmacotherapy = Biomedecine & pharmacotherapie MCC950, an NLRP3 inflammasome inhibitor, displays multiple pharmacological properties. However, the protective potential and underlying mechanism of MCC950 against doxorubicin (DOX)-induced myocardial injury has not been well investigated yet. Herein, DOX-induced myocardial injury in mice and in H9c2 myocardial cells was investigated, and the protective effects and underlying mechanism of MCC950 were fully explored. The results showed that MCC950 co-treatment significantly improved myocardial function, inhibited inflammatory and myocardial fibrosis, and attenuated cardiomyocyte pyroptosis in DOX-treated mice. Mechanismly, MCC950 had the potential to inhibit DOX-induced the cleavage of NLRP3, ASC, Caspase-1, IL-18, IL-1β and GSDMD in vivo. Moreover, MCC950 co-treatment in vivo suppressed DOX-induced cytotoxicity as well as inflammatory and cardiomyocyte pyroptosis through the same molecular mechanism. Taken together, our findings validated that MCC950, an NLRP3 inflammasome inhibitor, has the potential to attenuate doxorubicin-induced myocardial injury in vivo and in vitro by inhibiting NLRP3-mediated pyroptosis. 10.1016/j.biopha.2021.112133
Isoorientin attenuates doxorubicin-induced cardiac injury via the activation of MAPK, Akt, and Caspase-dependent signaling pathways. Phytomedicine : international journal of phytotherapy and phytopharmacology BACKGROUND:Chemotherapy drugs especially anthracyclines are widely used in the treatment of hematological malignancies and solid tumors. However, their clinical application is limited by dose-dependent and irreversible heart injury, which increases the risk of congestive heart failure and heart-related mortality. PURPOSE:This study aims to investigate the effect and mechanism of the natural flavonoid isoorientin (ISO) combined with doxorubicin (DOX) on the proliferation of tumor cells and improve the survival rate of DOX-injured cardiomyocytes. STUDY DESIGN/METHODS:Cardiomyocyte H9c2 and a variety of tumor cells were used to evaluate the protective effect of ISO on DOX-induced myocardial injury and enhance the anticancer effects of DOX. DOX chemotherapy-injured mice were used to evaluate the cardioprotective effect of ISO. RESULTS:The antiproliferation of DOX on Hela, HepG2, HT-29, and A549 cells could be increased synergistically when cotreated with ISO in vitro. ISO could also improve the survival rate of DOX-injured cardiomyocytes by reducing reactive oxygen species, maintaining mitochondrial function, and inhibiting apoptosis. In mice receiving DOX, a protective effect on myocardial tissue, which was reflected by improved survival state of mice receiving chemotherapy, was observed. The ECG, myocardial zymogram data, HE staining, and TEM observation of myocardial tissue sections showed that ISO had a dose-dependent protective effect on the mouse hearts injured by DOX. Network pharmacology and cardiomyocyte proteomics were used to seek for related target proteins to reveal the protective mechanism of ISO on mouse models, and some potential targets (including caspase-3, EGFR, MAPK1, ESR1, CDC42, STAT1, JAK2, LCK, and CDK2) were generated. Western blotting was further used to verify that ISO upregulated Nrf2 and TGF-β3 by downregulating the phosphorylation levels of JNK and p38 proteins on the MAPK pathway and the Akt and Stat3 expression levels. The downregulation of cleaved caspase-3 and upregulation of Bcl-xl by ISO further confirmed its inhibition on caspase-dependent cardiomyocyte apoptosis. CONCLUSION:ISO could be a potential synergistic anticancer agent with a favorable property of reducing the cardiotoxicity for DOX, and the effect mechanism could refer to the inhibition of ISO on MAPK and caspase-dependent apoptosis pathways. 10.1016/j.phymed.2022.154105
Decursinol Angelate Inhibits LPS-Induced Macrophage Polarization through Modulation of the NFκB and MAPK Signaling Pathways. Islam Salman Ul,Lee Jung Ho,Shehzad Adeeb,Ahn Eun-Mi,Lee You Mie,Lee Young Sup Molecules (Basel, Switzerland) Inflammation is considered the root cause of various inflammatory diseases, including cancers. Decursinol angelate (DA), a pyranocoumarin compound obtained from the roots of , has been reported to exhibit potent anti-inflammatory effects. In this study, the anti-inflammatory effects of DA on the MAP kinase and NFκB signaling pathways and the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines were investigated in phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)-activated human promyelocytic leukemia (HL-60) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated macrophage (Raw 264.7) cell lines. PMA induced the activation of the MAP kinase-NFκB pathway and the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in differentiated monocytes. Treatment with DA inhibited the activation of MAP kinases and the translocation of NFκB, and decreased the expression and exogenous secretion of IL-1β and IL-6. Furthermore, LPS-stimulated Raw 264.7 cells were found to have increased expression of M1 macrophage-associated markers, such as NADPH oxidase (NOX) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and the M2 macrophage-associated marker CD11b. LPS also activated pro-inflammatory cytokines and Erk-NFκB. Treatment with DA suppressed LPS-induced macrophage polarization and the inflammatory response by blocking Raf-ERK and the translocation of NFκB in Raw 264.7 cells. Treatment with DA also inhibited the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-1β and IL-6, NOX, and iNOS in Raw 264.7 cells. These results suggest that DA has the potential to inhibit macrophage polarization and inflammation by blocking the activation of pro-inflammatory signals. These anti-inflammatory effects of DA may contribute to its potential use as a therapeutic strategy against various inflammation-induced cancers. 10.3390/molecules23081880
Curcumin inhibits LPS-induced neuroinflammation by promoting microglial M2 polarization via TREM2/ TLR4/ NF-κB pathways in BV2 cells. Zhang Jiawei,Zheng Yaling,Luo Yan,Du Yu,Zhang Xiaojie,Fu Jianliang Molecular immunology Microglia mediate multiple facets of neuroinflammation, which plays a double-edged role in various brain diseases via distinct microglial phenotypes (deleterious M1 and neuroprotective M2). Therefore, the inhibition of overactivated inflammatory M1 microglia by switching to the protective M2 phenotype appears to be a potential therapeutic strategy in neuroinflammatory disorders. Curcumin has been shown to exhibit anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective activities. The present study investigated the potential effects of curcumin on microglial M1/M2 polarization and elucidated the possible molecular mechanisms of action in vitro. In this study, the BV2 microglial cell line was pretreated with different curcumin concentrations in the presence or absence of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to assess the anti-inflammatory efficacy of curcumin based on the morphological and inflammatory changes. The cytotoxicity of curcumin for BV2 cells was evaluated using the CCK-8 assay. Further, the effect of curcumin concentrations on LPS-induced BV2 cells was studied. The morphological changes were observed using an optical microscope and immunofluorescent staining. Nitric oxide (NO) expression was determined using the Griess reagent. The expression of cytokines and inflammatory mediators was also measured by ELISA, qRT-PCR, flow cytometry, and immunofluorescence. Western blot analysis was used to determine the levels of triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 (TREM2), toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) p65, p-NF-κB p65, IκB, and p-IκB expression. Results showed that curcumin concentrations less than 10 μM did not induce any detectable cytotoxicity but decreased BV2 cell viability up to 20 μM. Curcumin inhibited LPS-induced microglial activation. Curcumin treatment switched the M1 pro-inflammatory phenotype to the M2 anti-inflammatory phenotype by decreasing the expression of M1 markers (i.e., iNOS, IL-1β, IL-6, and CD16/32) and elevating the expression of M2 markers (i.e., arginase 1, IL-4, IL-10, and CD206). Interestingly, curcumin attenuated the activation of TLR4/NF-κB pathways and the downregulation of TREM2 expression in LPS-activated BV2 cells. Collectively, these results suggest that curcumin significantly alleviates LPS-induced inflammation by regulating microglial (M1/M2) polarization by reducing the imbalance of TREM2 and TLR4 and balancing the downstream NF-κB activation. 10.1016/j.molimm.2019.09.020