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Visceral Fat Area, Not Subcutaneous Fat Area, is Associated with Cardiac Hemodynamics in Type 2 Diabetes. Qiu Yue,Deng Xia,Sha Yujing,Wu Xunan,Zhang Panpan,Chen Ke,Zhao Zhicong,Wei Weiping,Yang Ling,Yuan Guoyue,Zhao Li,Wang Dong Diabetes, metabolic syndrome and obesity : targets and therapy Background:This study was conducted in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) to assess the association between visceral fat area (VFA) and cardiac hemodynamics. Methods:A total of 568 patients with type 2 diabetes (mean age 54±12 years; 40.8% of women) were enrolled. Visceral fat area (VFA, m) and subcutaneous fat area (SFA, m) were evaluated by a bioelectrical impedance analyzer. Cardiac hemodynamics were measured by echocardiography, and other clinical and laboratory variables were also assessed and recorded. Patients were divided into those with VFA ≤ 100 (n=369) and those with VFA > 100 (n=199). Results:VFA, SFA, LVMI (left ventricular mass index), left atrial diameter, left ventricular diastolic diameter (LvDd), interventricular septal thickness (IVST), left ventricular systolic diameter (LvSd), and posterior wall thickness (PWT) levels in high-V groups were significantly higher than those in low-V groups. Correlation analysis showed that VFA was positively correlated with LVMI (=0.120, =0.004), LVM (=0.249, <0.0001), left atrial diameter (=0.375, <0.0001), aortic root diameter (=0.243, <0.0001), left ventricular systolic diameter (LvSd) (=0.211, <0.0001) and negatively correlated with LVEF (=-0.107, =0.011). In multivariate linear regression analysis, VFA was the strongest independent determinant of LVMI (=0.04, =0.016), LVEF (=-0.01, =0.023), and left atrial diameter (=0.035, <0.0001), Internal diameter of the aortic root (=0.014, <0.0001) and LvSd (=0.017, <0.0001). In addition, the VFA also better predicted cardiovascular disease risk with AUC of 0.609 (95% CI:0.563-0.656), compared with SFA, waist-hip ratio (WHR), in a statistically significant manner. Conclusion:We found a significant correlation between VFA (but not SFA) and cardiac hemodynamic parameters. The VFA has advantages as a predictor of visceral obesity and is significantly associated with the development of cardiovascular risk factors (CVD) in T2DM patients. 10.2147/DMSO.S284420
Gut microbiota mediates positive effects of liraglutide on dyslipidemia in mice fed a high-fat diet. Frontiers in nutrition Except for improving glycemic control, liraglutide, one of the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists, has exerted promising therapeutic effects for dyslipidemia. It has been proved that gut microbiota plays a dramatic role in regulating lipid metabolism. This study aims to explore whether liraglutide could improve dyslipidemia by modulating the gut microbiota in mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD). The C57BL/6 mice were fed a HFD to establish an animal model of dyslipidemia, and then administered with liraglutide or normal saline (NS) for 12 weeks. Indices of glucolipid metabolism were evaluated. Gut microbiota of the mice was analyzed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Compared with HFD group, liraglutide significantly alleviated weight, total cholesterol (TC) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL) levels, meanwhile elevating high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) levels (all < 0.05). The gut microbiota analysis revealed that liraglutide greatly reduced the relative abundance of and augmented that of , with a concomitant drop in the / ratio. Meanwhile, liraglutide dramatically changed the overall composition, promoted the growth of beneficial microbes (, , , , etc.), and inhibited the growth of harmful microbes (, , , etc.). Especially, the relative abundance of increased the most after liraglutide treatment. Correlation analysis suggested that TC and LDL were positively correlated with some harmful bacteria, and negatively associated with beneficial bacteria. This study confirmed that liraglutide had a certain therapeutic effect on dyslipidemia in HFD-fed mice and could regulate the composition of the gut microbiota associated with lipid metabolism, especially . Thus, affecting gut microbiota might be a potential mechanism of liraglutide in attenuating dyslipidemia. 10.3389/fnut.2022.1048693