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The multifaceted role of fibrinogen in tissue injury and inflammation. Blood The canonical role of the hemostatic and fibrinolytic systems is to maintain vascular integrity. Perturbations in either system can prompt primary pathological end points of hemorrhage or thrombosis with vessel occlusion. However, fibrin(ogen) and proteases controlling its deposition and clearance, including (pro)thrombin and plasmin(ogen), have powerful roles in driving acute and reparative inflammatory pathways that affect the spectrum of tissue injury, remodeling, and repair. Indeed, fibrin(ogen) deposits are a near-universal feature of tissue injury, regardless of the nature of the inciting event, including injuries driven by mechanical insult, infection, or immunological derangements. Fibrin can modify multiple aspects of inflammatory cell function by engaging leukocytes through a variety of cellular receptors and mechanisms. Studies on the role of coagulation system activation and fibrin(ogen) deposition in models of inflammatory disease and tissue injury have revealed points of commonality, as well as context-dependent contributions of coagulation and fibrinolytic factors. However, there remains a critical need to define the precise temporal and spatial mechanisms by which fibrinogen-directed inflammatory events may dictate the severity of tissue injury and coordinate the remodeling and repair events essential to restore normal organ function. Current research trends suggest that future studies will give way to the identification of novel hemostatic factor-targeted therapies for a range of tissue injuries and disease. 10.1182/blood-2018-07-818211
The Ratio of Fibrinogen to Albumin as a Predictor of Contrast-Induced Nephropathy After Carotid Angiography. Ertas Faruk,Avci Eyup,Kiris Tuncay Angiology Contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) is acute kidney failure that occurs after exposure to contrast agent. There is no sensitive biomarker to predict the development of CIN. In a retrospective study, we investigated the predictive value of the fibrinogen to albumin ratio (FAR) to determine the risk of CIN in patients (N = 246) who underwent carotid angiography. Contrast-induced nephropathy was defined as a 0.5 mg/dL or 25% increase in serum creatinine levels 48 to 72 hours following exposure to a radiocontrast agent. Patients were grouped according to whether they developed CIN or not, that is, CIN(-) and CIN(+) groups, respectively. Contrast-induced nephropathy developed in 39 (15.8%) of all the patients. The fibrinogen levels, neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR), and FAR in the CIN (+) group were higher than in the CIN (-) group ( P < .001). Multivariate analysis showed that age, diabetes, NLR, platelet-lymphocyte ratio, and FAR were independent risk factors for CIN. The area under the curve (AUC) of FAR was 0.800 for the prediction of CIN, and the best cutoff value was 57.4 with sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of 74.4%, 60.8%, 26.4%, and 92.7%, respectively. The FAR may be useful as a predictor of CIN. 10.1177/0003319718809200
Cardiovascular Calcifications Are Correlated with Inflammation in Hemodialysis Patients. Medicina (Kaunas, Lithuania) : The main cause of morbidity and mortality in hemodialysis patients is cardiovascular disease, which is quite common. The main objective of our study was to investigate the relationship between oxidative stress, inflammation, and vascular and valvular calcifications in hemodialysis patients. : This observational study had 54 hemodialysis patients, with an average age of 60.46 ± 13.18 years. Cardiovascular ultrasound was used to detect and/or measure aortic and mitral valve calcifications, carotid and femoral atheroma plaques, and common carotid intima-media thickness. The aortic calcification score was determined using a lateral abdomen plain radiograph. The inflammatory, oxidative, metabolic, and dietary statuses, as well as demographic characteristics, were identified. : There were significant correlations between the levels of IL-6 and carotid plaque number ( = 0.003), fibrinogen level and aortic valve calcifications ( = 0.05), intima-media thickness ( = 0.0007), carotid plaque number ( = 0.035), femoral plaque number ( = 0.00014), and aortic calcifications score ( = 0.0079). Aortic annulus calcifications ( = 0.03) and intima-media thickness ( = 0.038) were adversely linked with TNF-α. Nutrition parameters were negatively correlated with atherosclerosis markers: number of carotid plaques with albumin ( = 0.013), body mass index ( = 0.039), and triglycerides ( = 0.021); number of femoral plaques with phosphorus (0.013), aortic calcifications score with albumin ( = 0.051), intima-media thickness with LDL-cholesterol ( = 0.042). Age and the quantity of carotid plaques, femoral plaques, and aortic calcifications were linked with each other ( = 0.0022, 0.00011, and 0.036, respectively). Aortic annulus calcifications ( = 0.011), aortic valve calcifications ( = 0.023), and mitral valve calcifications ( = 0.018) were all associated with an increased risk of death. : Imaging measures of atherosclerosis are adversely connected with dietary status and positively correlated with markers of inflammation and risk of mortality. 10.3390/medicina59101801
Fibrinogen-to-Albumin Ratio Predicts Postcontrast Acute Kidney Injury in Patients with Non-ST Elevation Acute Coronary Syndrome after Implantation of Drug-Eluting Stents. Journal of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system : JRAAS Background:Postcontrast acute kidney injury (PC-AKI) is an adverse reaction to iodinated contrast agents. In this study, we investigated the use of fibrinogen-to-albumin ratio (FAR) as a novel inflammatory marker to track the development and progression of PC-AKI in patients with non-ST elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTE-ACS) after the implantation of drug-eluting stents (DESs). Methods:A total of 872 patients with NSTE-ACS were enrolled in this study. PC-AKI was identified when serum creatinine (SCr) levels increased >26.5 mol/L (0.3 mg/dL) or was 1.5 times the baseline level within 48-72 h of exposure to an iodinated contrast agent. The effects of different variables on PC-AKI were evaluated using univariate regression analysis. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to determine the independent predictors of PC-AKI. The predictive value of FAR was assessed by estimating the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. Results:In total, 114 (13.1%) patients developed PC-AKI. The patients with PC-AKI had lower albumin levels (40.5 ± 3.4 vs. 39.0 ± 3.5, < 0.001), higher fibrinogen levels (3.7 ± 0.6 vs. 4.1 ± 0.5, < 0.001), and higher FAR levels (9.2 ± 1.7 vs. 10.5 ± 1.7, < 0.001) than those with non-PC-AKI. There were no significant differences in the preoperative SCr levels between the two groups. After adjusting for confounding factors, FAR was found to be an independent predictor of PC-AKI (OR = 1.478, 95% CI = 1.298-1.684, < 0.001). ROC analysis revealed that for PC-AKI prediction, the area under the curve for FAR was 0.702. The optimum cut-off value of FAR was 10.0, with a sensitivity of 64.9% and a specificity of 69.8%. Moreover, FAR had a higher predictive value for PC-AKI than the Mehran score (0.702 vs. 0.645). Conclusion:Our study showed that elevated preoperative FAR was closely associated with the development of PC-AKI in patients with NSTE-ACS after implantation of DESs. Therefore, it may be worth monitoring FAR as a guide for using preventive measures to avoid the development of PC-AKI. 10.1155/2022/9833509
Prognostic value of the albumin-to-fibrinogen ratio (AFR) in IgA nephropathy patients. International immunopharmacology BACKGROUND:The albumin-to-fibrinogen ratio (AFR), a novel inflammatory marker, has been studied in various diseases. However, whether AFR could act as a prognostic factor for IgAN patients remains unclear. We aimed to investigate the prognostic value of AFR in IgAN. METHODS:A total of 1289 biopsy-confirmed primary IgAN patients from 2008 to 2018 in West China Hospital, Sichuan University, were studied retrospectively. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was generated to assess and compare the ability of indicators to predict survival. Based on the cut-off value of AFR, IgAN patients were classified into the low AFR group and the high AFR group. The demographic and clinical-histopathological data were collected. Renal endpoints included eGFR decreased ≥50 % of the baseline level, ESRD, renal transplantation and/or death. Patients were followed up until a composite endpoint. Kaplan-Meier survival curves and Cox proportional hazards models were used to determine independent predictors. RESULTS:The area under the curve (AUC) of AFR was 0.677, with an optimal cut-off value of 12.44. IgAN patients were classified into two groups (low AFR group: AFR < 12.44, n = 541; high AFR group: AFR ≥ 12.44, n = 748) with a median follow-up of 55.3 (36.4-78.6) months. A higher composition of hypertension, worse renal function, higher proteinuria, and more severe pathological lesions were significantly shown in the low AFR group. Further multivariable Cox regression analyses showed that a low AFR was an independent risk factor for renal survival (HR 1.90, 95 % CI 1.29-2.81, p = 0.001). Kaplan-Meier curves showed that the cumulative incidences of both ESRD and composite end point were significantly higher in patients with AFR < 12.44 (both p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS:Our study demonstrated that a low AFR (<12.44) is an independent prognostic factor of poor renal prognosis in Chinese IgAN patients. 10.1016/j.intimp.2022.109324
The Albumin-to-Fibrinogen Ratio Independently Predicts Acute Kidney Injury in Infants With Ventricular Septal Defect Undergoing Cardiac Surgery With Cardiopulmonary Bypass. Cao Fan,Chen Xinxin,Huang Guodong,Liu Wenhua,Zhou Na,Yuan Huili,Zou Minghui Frontiers in pediatrics Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common and serious complication faced by children following ventricular septal defect (VSD) surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). The objective of this study was to explore potential predictors inherent to AKI. VSD infants who were scheduled for elective cardiac surgery with CPB from 2017 to 2020 were enrolled in this study. Based on the Pediatric Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss, End-Stage Renal Disease (pRIFLE) criteria, patients were divided into AKI and non-AKI groups. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were carried out in order to evaluate potential risk factors for AKI. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were generated to evaluate the predictive probabilities of risk factors for AKI. Of all the 338 enrolled VSD infants, 49 manifested AKI with an incidence of 14.5% (49/338). The ROC curve indicated that albumin-to-fibrinogen ratio (AFR) during CPB was a significant predictor of AKI [area under the curve (AUC), 0.711; < 0.001]. Based on the univariate and multivariate logistic analyses, AFR during CPB [odds ratio (OR), 1.89; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.22-2.76, = 0.011] was the only independent risk factor for AKI. This study demonstrated that a low AFR (<9.35) during CPB was an independent risk factor for AKI in VSD infants following cardiac surgery with CPB. 10.3389/fped.2021.682839
Prognostic value of fibrinogen to albumin ratios among critically ill patients with acute kidney injury. Internal and emergency medicine Fibrinogen to albumin ratios (FAR) have shown to be a promising prognostic factor for improving the predictive accuracy in various diseases. This study explores FAR's prognostic significance in critically ill patients with acute kidney injury (AKI). All clinical data were extracted from the Multiparameter Intelligent Monitoring in Intensive Care Database III version 1.4. All patients were divided into four groups based on FAR quartiles. The primary endpoint was in-hospital mortality. A generalized additive model was applied to explore a nonlinear association between FAR and in-hospital mortality. The Cox proportional hazards models were used to determine the association between FAR and in-hospital mortality. A total of 5001 eligible subjects were enrolled. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that higher FAR was an independent predictor of in-hospital mortality after adjusting for potential confounders (HR, 95% CI 1.23, 1.03-1.48, P = 0.025). A nonlinear relationship between FAR and in-hospital mortality was observed. FAR may serve as a potential prognostic biomarker in critically patients with AKI and higher FAR was associated with increased risk of in-hospital mortality among these patients. 10.1007/s11739-021-02898-3
Albumin-to-fibrinogen ratio is an independent predictor of corticosteroid response and prognosis in patients with IgA nephropathy. European journal of medical research BACKGROUND:The objective of this study was to investigate whether the albumin-to-fibrinogen ratio (AFR) can predict corticosteroid response and prognosis prediction among IgA nephropathy (IgAN) patients. METHODS:Eligible participants with diagnosed IgAN who were scheduled to receive corticosteroid therapy for persistent proteinuria were recruited. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was performed to evaluate the predictive value of AFR or estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) for corticosteroid response in IgAN patients. Risk factors for corticosteroid response and prognosis were validated using univariate and multivariate Cox proportional analyses. RESULTS:AFR and eGFR were both effective predictors of corticosteroid response in IgAN patients, with area under the curve (AUC) values of 0.686 and 0.643, respectively (P < 0.001 and P = 0.002). Baseline AFR level at biopsy was an independent risk factor for remission after corticosteroid therapy (HR: 2.38, 95% CI 1.32-4.07, P = 0.015), 50% decline in eGFR (HR: 0.78, 95% CI 0.69-0.89, P = 0.025), kidney failure (HR: 2.46, 95%CI 1.16-3.71, P = 0.016), and a composite event (HR: 2.13, 95%CI 1.28-3.34, P = 0.009) in IgAN patients. CONCLUSIONS:AFR level at biopsy was a potential predictor of corticosteroid response and prognosis among IgAN patients. 10.1186/s40001-023-01106-6
Fibrinogen to Albumin Ratio as an Independent Risk Factor for Type 2 Diabetic Kidney Disease. Diabetes, metabolic syndrome and obesity : targets and therapy PURPOSE:Diabetic kidney disease (DKD) is an inflammatory disease. This study aimed to investigate the association of fibrinogen to albumin ratio (FAR) with DKD. PATIENTS AND METHODS:A total of 1022 type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients with DKD and 1203 T2DM patients without DKD were enrolled in this study. Laboratory values including blood cell count, hemoglobin A1c, biochemical parameters, and fibrinogen and albumin creatinine ratio were recorded. Patients were classified according to tertile of admission FAR. Clinical parameters were compared between groups. Logistic regression, linear regression, ROC analysis and spline regression were carried out. RESULTS:FAR in the DKD group was significantly higher than that in the non-DKD group. FAR had the highest odds ratio as an independent risk factor for the development of DKD and the highest area under ROC curve for predicting DKD compared with albumin (ALB) or fibrinogen (FIB) alone. Simple linear regression analyses revealed a significant and linear correlation of FAR with neutrophil and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio. FAR was an independent risk factor for development of DKD. Spline regression showed that there was a significant linear association between DKD incidence and continuous FAR value when it exceeded 67.3mg/g. CONCLUSION:FAR is a stronger independent predictor of DKD than FIB and ALB. FAR is an independent risk factor for DKD development when it exceeded 67.3mg/g. FAR might be one of novel diagnostic biomarkers to predict and prevent DKD progression. However, a prospective study to validate the prognostic model is still needed. 10.2147/DMSO.S337986
Association between fibrinogen/albumin ratio and severity of coronary artery calcification in patients with chronic kidney disease: a retrospective study. PeerJ Aim:Previous studies have shown that the fibrinogen to albumin ratio (FAR) is closely related to the severity and prognosis of coronary atherosclerosis. In this study, we sought to evaluate the association between FAR and the degree of coronary artery calcification (CAC) in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Methods:In this retrospective study, 218 patients with CKD were stratified into low, medium and high FAR groups according to the tertiles of the FAR values. The CAC scores, clinical information and laboratory test results of the three FAR groups were compared. To explore the relationship between FAR and CAC we conducted binary logistic regression and correlation analyses. Results:In the low FAR group, the CAC scores were significantly lower than those in the medium and high FAR groups (  <  0.001). There was a significant correlation between the FAR and CAC scores ( = 0.510,   <  0.001). The FAR was an independent predictor of CAC (OR = 1.106, 95% CI [1.004-1.218],  = 0.042). Conclusion:In patients with CKD, the FAR can be considered as an effective predictor of CAC. 10.7717/peerj.13550