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A Comprehensive Approach to the Diagnosis and Management of Klippel Feil Syndrome. Archives of Razi Institute Klippel-Feil Syndrome (KFS) is a rare genetic disorder characterized by the abnormal development of the cervical spine, leading to the fusion of two or more cervical vertebrae. The syndrome presents diverse symptoms, including limited neck movement, chronic pain, and neurological manifestations such as limb numbness or weakness. The severity of KFS can vary significantly, and treatment primarily focuses on symptom management and preventing complications such as scoliosis or spinal cord compression. Surgical interventions are often necessary for patients with complex forms of the syndrome. Interestingly, Chiari 1 malformation, a cranial anomaly affecting the brainstem, can coincide anatomically with KFS. In this case report, we present the case of a 9-year-old patient who sought medical attention due to persistent, unchanging neck pain. The patient's medical history was notable for developmental delays and cervical restraint observed during physical examination. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings revealed hydrocephalus and brainstem descent, indicating the presence of Chiari 1 malformation. Comprehensive MRI and CT scans were performed, and a management plan was formulated, primarily involving cranial surgery and physiotherapy. Implementation of the treatment approach resulted in significant improvement in the patient's symptoms. This case highlights the significance of considering Chiari 1 malformation as a potential comorbidity in patients diagnosed with KFS who present with persistent neck pain. Early detection and appropriate management of both conditions are crucial for achieving favorable outcomes and enhancing the quality of life for affected individuals. Understanding the complex interplay between KFS and Chiari 1 malformation is essential for providing comprehensive care and tailored treatment strategies. Further research is warranted to elucidate the underlying mechanisms linking these two conditions and to explore optimal management approaches for patients with dual pathology. By reporting this case, we contribute to the existing literature and increase awareness among healthcare professionals regarding the potential coexistence of KFS and Chiari 1 malformation. Continued efforts in identifying associated anomalies and optimizing therapeutic interventions will aid in improving patient outcomes and ensuring optimal care for individuals affected by these conditions. 10.32592/ARI.2023.78.6.1868
The Spine is the Tree of Life: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of the Radiographic Findings Related to Spinal Injuries in Athletes. Cureus This review article explores spinal injuries in athletes participating in various sporting activities. It also highlights the various mechanisms of injuries that contribute to spinal injuries in each sport. Electronic databases such as PubMed, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, Embase, MEDLINE Ovid, and Google Scholar were searched for articles from 2000 to 2022 on spine injuries in sports and radiological studies discussing the various injury patterns among athletes. Studies were scoured in accordance with the inclusion criteria, and relevant data such as the number of participants, sporting activities, spine injuries, and outcomes were retrieved. Fifteen articles that met the inclusion criteria were included in the study. Cervical spine injuries are common in athletes who participate in contact sports such as football. Similarly, athletes in collision sports such as football, rugby, and hockey are likely to suffer stingers due to traction and compression injuries. Players engaged in such as soccer, baseball, and swimming, are likely to suffer from spondylolysis. Soccer players are more prone to multiple lesions compared to athletes in sports such as baseball because the sport involves training exercises such as jogging and running without kicking any ball. In swimmers, spondylolysis is common in breaststroke and butterfly styles since they involve repeated flexion and hyperextension of the lumbar spine. CT is essential for diagnosing spondylolysis as it demonstrates the lesions more accurately. Ice hockey is associated with a significant incidence of cervical spine injuries, mostly due to players being constantly checked/pushed from behind. Spine injuries are common in elite athletes across several sports. About 10% of spinal injuries in the United States result from sports activities. In diagnosing spine injuries, imaging modalities such as MRI, CT, or plain radiographs are essential. From a radiologist's perspective, these tests help immensely in deciding which treatment is required for a particular athlete or how the injury can be optimally managed. Achieving recovery from a specific spine injury usually depends on the kind of injury and the rehabilitation process the athletes undergo before returning to play. 10.7759/cureus.58780