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Orbital fibroblasts from patients with thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy overexpress CD40: CD154 hyperinduces IL-6, IL-8, and MCP-1. Hwang Catherine J,Afifiyan Nikoo,Sand Daniel,Naik Vibha,Said Jonathan,Pollock Stephen J,Chen Beiling,Phipps Richard P,Goldberg Robert A,Smith Terry J,Douglas Raymond S Investigative ophthalmology & visual science PURPOSE:Fibroblast diversity represents an emerging concept critical to our understanding of tissue inflammation, repair, and remodeling. Orbital fibroblasts heterogeneously display Thy-1 and exhibit unique phenotypic attributes that may explain the susceptibility of the human orbit to thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy (TAO). In the present study the authors investigated the role of CD40 ligation on macrophage chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), IL-6, and IL-8 expression in fibroblasts from patients with TAO. METHODS:Human orbital fibroblasts were cultured from tissues obtained with informed consent from patients with TAO and from patients undergoing surgery for other noninflammatory conditions. The fibroblasts were then examined by flow cytometry, microscopy, and cytokine assays. RESULTS:The authors report that orbital fibroblasts from patients with TAO expressed elevated levels of CD40. Surface CD40 could be further upregulated by IFN-gamma in TAO and control fibroblasts. This upregulation was mediated through Jak2 and could be blocked by dexamethasone and AG490, a powerful and specific inhibitor of tyrosine kinase. Treatment with CD154, the ligand for CD40, upregulated the expression of IL-6, IL-8, and MCP-1 in TAO fibroblasts but failed to do so in control cultures. Thy-1(+) fibroblasts displayed higher CD40 levels than did their Thy-1(-) counterparts and were largely responsible for this cytokine production. IL-1beta also induced MCP-1, IL-6, and IL-8 more vigorously in TAO-derived fibroblasts. CONCLUSIONS:Characterization of orbital fibroblasts and their differential expression of cytokines and receptors should prove invaluable in understanding the site-specific nature of TAO and the development of specific therapies. 10.1167/iovs.08-2328
CD40 Expression in Fibrocytes Is Induced by TSH: Potential Synergistic Immune Activation. Mester Tünde,Raychaudhuri Nupur,Gillespie Erin F,Chen Hong,Smith Terry J,Douglas Raymond S PloS one CONTEXT:Fibrocytes appear to participate in inflammation and tissue remodeling in patients with thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy (TAO). These patients have increased frequencies of circulating TSH receptor (TSHR)- and CD40-positive fibrocytes, suggesting TSHR and CD40 may play roles in proinflammatory cytokine production, which ultimately leads to orbital inflammation and tissue remodeling. OBJECTIVE:To investigate the potential interactions between the TSHR and CD40 signaling pathways and their roles in IL-6 and TNF-α production. DESIGN AND OUTCOME MEASURES:CD40 expression on fibrocytes was assessed using flow cytometry; IL-6 and TNF-α protein release using Luminex technology; increased IL-6 and TNF-α mRNA abundance, using real-time PCR; TSH- and CD40 ligand (CD40L)-stimulated Akt phosphorylation in fibrocytes, by western blot analysis; TSHR-CD40 protein-protein interaction, using co-immunoprecipitation, and CD40-TSHR co-localization, using immunocytochemistry. RESULTS:TSH enhances CD40 expression at a pre-translational level in fibrocytes. Production of IL-6 and TNF-α after costimulation with TSH and CD40L was greater than that after TSH or CD40L stimulation alone. TSH and CD40L costimulation also resulted in greater Akt phosphorylation. Akt and nuclear factor (NF)-κB inhibitors significantly reduced cytokine production after TSH and CD40L costimulation. TSHR and CD40L are colocalized on the cell surface and form a complex. CONCLUSIONS:TSHR and CD40 in fibrocytes appear to be physically and functionally related. TSH stimulates CD40 production on the fibrocyte surface. Cytokine expression upon simultaneous stimulation of TSHR and CD40 is greater than levels achieved with TSH or CD40L alone. Increased expression of CD40 by TSH is a potential mechanism for this process. 10.1371/journal.pone.0162994