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Impact of genetic alterations on central nervous system progression of primary vitreoretinal lymphoma. Haematologica Primary vitreoretinal lymphoma (PVRL) is a rare malignant lymphoma subtype with an unfavorable prognosis due to frequent central nervous system (CNS) progression. Thus, identifying factors associated with CNS progression is essential for improving the prognosis of PVRL patients. Accordingly, we conducted a comprehensive genetic analysis using archived vitreous humor samples of 36 PVRL patients diagnosed and treated at our institution and retrospectively examined the relationship between genetic alterations and CNS progression. Whole-exome sequencing (n = 2) and amplicon sequencing using a custom panel of 107 lymphomagenesis-related genes (n = 34) were performed to assess mutations and copy number alterations. The median number of pathogenic genetic alterations per case was 12 (range: 0- 22). Pathogenic genetic alterations of CDKN2A, MYD88, CDKN2B, PRDM1, PIM1, ETV6, CD79B, and IGLL5, as well as aberrant somatic hypermutations, were frequently detected. The frequency of ETV6 loss and PRDM1 alteration (mutation and loss) was 23% and 49%, respectively. Multivariate analysis revealed ETV6 loss (hazard ratio [HR]: 3.26, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.08-9.85) and PRDM1 alteration (HR: 2.52, 95% CI: 1.03-6.16) as candidate risk factors associated with CNS progression of PVRL. Moreover, these two genetic factors defined slow-, intermediate-, and rapid-progression groups (0, 1, and 2 factors, respectively), and the median period to CNS progression differed significantly among them (52 vs. 33 vs. 20 months, respectively). Our findings suggest that genetic factors predict the CNS progression of PVRL effectively, and the genetics-based CNS progression model might lead to stratification of treatment. 10.3324/haematol.2023.284953