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Trafficking and effect of released DNA on cGAS-STING signaling pathway and cardiovascular disease. Frontiers in immunology Evidence from clinical research and animal studies indicates that inflammation is an important factor in the occurrence and development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Emerging evidence shows that nucleic acids serve as crucial pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) or non-infectious damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs), are released and then recognized by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), which activates immunological signaling pathways for host defense. Mechanistically, the released nucleic acids activate cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS) and its downstream receptor stimulator of interferon genes (STING) to promote type I interferons (IFNs) production, which play an important regulatory function during the initiation of an innate immune response to various diseases, including CVD. This pathway represents an essential defense regulatory mechanism in an organism's innate immune system. In this review, we outline the overall profile of cGAS-STING signaling, summarize the latest findings on nucleic acid release and trafficking, and discuss their potential role in CVD. This review also sheds light on potential directions for future investigations on CVD. 10.3389/fimmu.2023.1287130
STING Signaling and Sterile Inflammation. Frontiers in immunology Innate immunity is regulated by a broad set of evolutionary conserved receptors to finely probe the local environment and maintain host integrity. Besides pathogen recognition through conserved motifs, several of these receptors also sense aberrant or misplaced self-molecules as a sign of perturbed homeostasis. Among them, self-nucleic acid sensing by the cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS)/stimulator of interferon genes (STING) pathway alerts on the presence of both exogenous and endogenous DNA in the cytoplasm. We review recent literature demonstrating that self-nucleic acid detection through the STING pathway is central to numerous processes, from cell physiology to sterile injury, auto-immunity and cancer. We address the role of STING in autoimmune diseases linked to dysfunctional DNAse or related to mutations in DNA sensing pathways. We expose the role of the cGAS/STING pathway in inflammatory diseases, neurodegenerative conditions and cancer. Connections between STING in various cell processes including autophagy and cell death are developed. Finally, we review proposed mechanisms to explain the sources of cytoplasmic DNA. 10.3389/fimmu.2021.753789
DsbA-L prevents obesity-induced inflammation and insulin resistance by suppressing the mtDNA release-activated cGAS-cGAMP-STING pathway. Bai Juli,Cervantes Christopher,Liu Juan,He Sijia,Zhou Haiyan,Zhang Bilin,Cai Huan,Yin Dongqing,Hu Derong,Li Zhi,Chen Hongzhi,Gao Xiaoli,Wang Fang,O'Connor Jason C,Xu Yong,Liu Meilian,Dong Lily Q,Liu Feng Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America Chronic inflammation in adipose tissue plays a key role in obesity-induced insulin resistance. However, the mechanisms underlying obesity-induced inflammation remain elusive. Here we show that obesity promotes mtDNA release into the cytosol, where it triggers inflammatory responses by activating the DNA-sensing cGAS-cGAMP-STING pathway. Fat-specific knockout of disulfide-bond A oxidoreductase-like protein (DsbA-L), a chaperone-like protein originally identified in the mitochondrial matrix, impaired mitochondrial function and promoted mtDNA release, leading to activation of the cGAS-cGAMP-STING pathway and inflammatory responses. Conversely, fat-specific overexpression of DsbA-L protected mice against high-fat diet-induced activation of the cGAS-cGAMP-STING pathway and inflammation. Taken together, we identify DsbA-L as a key molecule that maintains mitochondrial integrity. DsbA-L deficiency promotes inflammation and insulin resistance by activating the cGAS-cGAMP-STING pathway. Our study also reveals that, in addition to its well-characterized roles in innate immune surveillance, the cGAS-cGAMP-STING pathway plays an important role in mediating obesity-induced metabolic dysfunction. 10.1073/pnas.1708744114
Research Advances in How the cGAS-STING Pathway Controls the Cellular Inflammatory Response. Wan Dongshan,Jiang Wei,Hao Junwei Frontiers in immunology Double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) sensor cyclic-GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS) along with the downstream stimulator of interferon genes (STING) acting as essential immune-surveillance mediators have become hot topics of research. The intrinsic function of the cGAS-STING pathway facilitates type-I interferon (IFN) inflammatory signaling responses and other cellular processes such as autophagy, cell survival, senescence. cGAS-STING pathway interplays with other innate immune pathways, by which it participates in regulating infection, inflammatory disease, and cancer. The therapeutic approaches targeting this pathway show promise for future translation into clinical applications. Here, we present a review of the important previous works and recent advances regarding the cGAS-STING pathway, and provide a comprehensive understanding of the modulatory pattern of the cGAS-STING pathway under multifarious pathologic states. 10.3389/fimmu.2020.00615
Emerging role of the cGAS-STING signaling pathway in autoimmune diseases: Biologic function, mechanisms and clinical prospection. Autoimmunity reviews The cyclic GMP-AMP synthase-stimulator of interferon genes (cGAS-STING) signaling pathway, as vital component of innate immune system, acts a vital role in distinguishing invasive pathogens and cytosolic DNA. Cytosolic DNA sensor cGAS first binds to cytosolic DNA and catalyzes synthesis of cyclic guanosine monophosphate-adenosine monophosphate (cGAMP), which is known as the second messenger. Next, cGAMP activates the adaptor protein STING, triggering a molecular chain reaction to stimulate cytokines including interferons (IFNs). Recently, many researches have revealed that the regulatory role of cGAS-STING signaling pathway in autoimmune diseases (AIDs) such as Rheumatoid arthritis (RA), Aicardi Goutières syndrome (AGS) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Moreover, accumulated evidence have showed inhibition of the cGAS-STING signaling pathway could remarkably suppress the joint swelling and inflammatory cell infiltration in RA mice. Therefore, in this review, we describe the molecular properties, biologic function and mechanisms of the cGAS-STING signaling pathway in AIDs. In addition, potential clinical applications especially selective small molecule inhibitors targeting the cGAS-STING signaling pathway are also discussed. 10.1016/j.autrev.2022.103155
DNA sensing by the cGAS-STING pathway in health and disease. Motwani Mona,Pesiridis Scott,Fitzgerald Katherine A Nature reviews. Genetics The detection of pathogens through nucleic acid sensors is a defining principle of innate immunity. RNA-sensing and DNA-sensing receptors sample subcellular compartments for foreign nucleic acids and, upon recognition, trigger immune signalling pathways for host defence. Over the past decade, our understanding of how the recognition of nucleic acids is coupled to immune gene expression has advanced considerably, particularly for the DNA-sensing receptor cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS) and its downstream signalling effector stimulator of interferon genes (STING), as well as the molecular components and regulation of this pathway. Moreover, the ability of self-DNA to engage cGAS has emerged as an important mechanism fuelling the development of inflammation and implicating the cGAS-STING pathway in human inflammatory diseases and cancer. This detailed mechanistic and biological understanding is paving the way for the development and clinical application of pharmacological agonists and antagonists in the treatment of chronic inflammation and cancer. 10.1038/s41576-019-0151-1
cGAS-STING signaling. Current biology : CB Cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS) and stimulator of interferon genes (STING, also known as TMEM173) constitute the major signaling pathway in vertebrates that senses non-self DNA and elicits potent immune responses. At the core of this pathway, cGAS senses double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) and synthesizes cyclic GMP-AMP (cGAMP). cGAMP serves as a second messenger that relays its signal to downstream innate immune responses through STING. One of the major consequences triggered by the cGAS-STING pathway is the production of antiviral cytokines of the type I interferon family, which in turn induce expression of hundreds of interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs) with diverse antiviral functions. Recent studies have also revealed functional homologs across phylogenetic kingdoms with innate defense functions, suggesting an ancient evolutionary origin of cGAS-STING signaling. Aberrant activation of the cGAS-STING pathway by host DNA can lead to sterile inflammation associated with tissue damage, degeneration as well as premature aging. In this primer, we will introduce the basic principles of cGAS-STING signaling in the vertebrate system and highlight recent discoveries regarding its connection to other fundamental cellular processes in the context of human diseases. 10.1016/j.cub.2022.05.027
Regulation of cGAS and STING signaling during inflammation and infection. The Journal of biological chemistry Stimulator of interferon genes (STING) is a sensor of cyclic dinucleotides including cyclic GMP-AMP, which is produced by cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS) in response to cytosolic DNA. The cGAS-STING signaling pathway regulates both innate and adaptive immune responses, as well as fundamental cellular functions such as autophagy, senescence, and apoptosis. Mutations leading to constitutive activation of STING cause devastating human diseases. Thus, the cGAS-STING pathway is of great interest because of its role in diverse cellular processes and because of the potential therapeutic implications of targeting cGAS and STING. Here, we review molecular and cellular mechanisms of STING signaling, and we propose a framework for understanding the immunological and other cellular functions of STING in the context of disease. 10.1016/j.jbc.2023.104866
The cGAS-STING pathway as a therapeutic target in inflammatory diseases. Nature reviews. Immunology The cGAS-STING signalling pathway has emerged as a key mediator of inflammation in the settings of infection, cellular stress and tissue damage. Underlying this broad involvement of the cGAS-STING pathway is its capacity to sense and regulate the cellular response towards microbial and host-derived DNAs, which serve as ubiquitous danger-associated molecules. Insights into the structural and molecular biology of the cGAS-STING pathway have enabled the development of selective small-molecule inhibitors with the potential to target the cGAS-STING axis in a number of inflammatory diseases in humans. Here, we outline the principal elements of the cGAS-STING signalling cascade and discuss the general mechanisms underlying the association of cGAS-STING activity with various autoinflammatory, autoimmune and degenerative diseases. Finally, we outline the chemical nature of recently developed cGAS and STING antagonists and summarize their potential clinical applications. 10.1038/s41577-021-00524-z