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SLC3A2 promotes tumor-associated macrophage polarization through metabolic reprogramming in lung cancer. Cancer science Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) are one of the most abundant immunosuppressive cells in the tumor microenvironment and possess crucial functions in facilitating tumor progression. Emerging evidence indicates that altered metabolic properties in cancer cells support the tumorigenic functions of TAMs. However, the mechanisms and mediators the underly the cross-talk between cancer cells and TAMs remain largely unknown. In the present study, we revealed that high solute carrier family 3 member 2 (SLC3A2) expression in lung cancer patients was associated with TAMs and poor prognosis. Knockdown of SLC3A2 in lung adenocarcinoma cells impaired M2 polarization of macrophages in a coculture system. Using metabolome analysis, we identified that SLC3A2 knockdown altered the metabolism of lung cancer cells and changed multiple metabolites, including arachidonic acid, in the tumor microenvironment. More importantly, we showed that arachidonic acid was responsible for SLC3A2-mediated macrophage polarization in the tumor microenvironment to differentiate into M2 type both in vitro and in vivo. Our data illustrate previously undescribed mechanisms responsible for TAM polarization and suggest that SLC3A2 acts as a metabolic switch on lung adenocarcinoma cells to induce macrophage phenotypic reprogramming through arachidonic acid. 10.1111/cas.15760
Cancer-derived exosomal TRIM59 regulates macrophage NLRP3 inflammasome activation to promote lung cancer progression. Liang Manman,Chen Xingwu,Wang Lijing,Qin Lilong,Wang Hanli,Sun Zhengui,Zhao Wenying,Geng Biao Journal of experimental & clinical cancer research : CR BACKGROUND:Exosomes are emerging as important mediators of the cross-talk between tumor cells and the microenvironment. The communication between tumor-derived exosomes and macrophages has a critical role in facilitating tumor progression. However, the mechanisms by which exosomes modulate tumor development in lung cancer are not fully understood. METHODS:Short hairpin RNA mediated knockdown or exogenous expression of TRIM59 combined with in vitro and in vivo assays were performed to prove the functional significance of TRIM59. Western blotting, real-time PCR, co-immunoprecipitation, immunofluorescence (IF) staining assays, proximity ligation assay (PLA), ubiquitination assays, lactate secretion and lipid droplets content measurement, and rescue experiments were used to evaluate the mechanism. Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) cells were injected via subcutaneously or tail vein into C57BL/6 wild-type (WT) and transgenic mice to assess the role of TRIM59 in vivo. RESULTS:We demonstrated that tripartite motif-containing 59 (TRIM59) was expressed in lung cancer cells-derived exosomes, and can be transferred to macrophages through the exosomes. Activated macrophages by TRIM59 promote lung cancer progression in vitro and in vivo. Mechanistic investigations revealed that TRIM59 physically interacts with abhydrolase domain containing 5 (ABHD5) and directly induced the ubiquitination of ABHD5 and led to its proteasome-dependent degradation. ABHD5, an lipolytic co-activator, deficiency induced metabolic reprogramming and enabled NLRP3 inflammasome activation in macrophages. Further studies showed that the exacerbation of NLRP3 inflammasome activation by ABHD5 deficiency, provides a positive feedback loop to promote cancer progression by preferentially secrete the proinflammatory cytokine IL-1β. CONCLUSIONS:Collectively, these data indicate that tumor-derived exosomal TRIM59 converts macrophages to tumor-promoting functions of macrophages via regulating ABHD5 proteasomal degradation, to activate NLRP3 inflammasome signaling pathway to promote lung cancer progression by IL-1β secretion. Our findings also indicate that tumor-derived exosomal TRIM59 has an important role in intercellular communication for fostering an inflammatory microenvironment and promoting lung metastasis. 10.1186/s13046-020-01688-7