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Mitochondrial translation deficiency impairs NAD -mediated lysosomal acidification. Yagi Mikako,Toshima Takahiro,Amamoto Rie,Do Yura,Hirai Haruka,Setoyama Daiki,Kang Dongchon,Uchiumi Takeshi The EMBO journal Mitochondrial translation dysfunction is associated with neurodegenerative and cardiovascular diseases. Cells eliminate defective mitochondria by the lysosomal machinery via autophagy. The relationship between mitochondrial translation and lysosomal function is unknown. In this study, mitochondrial translation-deficient hearts from p32-knockout mice were found to exhibit enlarged lysosomes containing lipofuscin, suggesting impaired lysosome and autolysosome function. These mice also displayed autophagic abnormalities, such as p62 accumulation and LC3 localization around broken mitochondria. The expression of genes encoding for nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD ) biosynthetic enzymes-Nmnat3 and Nampt-and NAD levels were decreased, suggesting that NAD is essential for maintaining lysosomal acidification. Conversely, nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN) administration or Nmnat3 overexpression rescued lysosomal acidification. Nmnat3 gene expression is suppressed by HIF1α, a transcription factor that is stabilized by mitochondrial translation dysfunction, suggesting that HIF1α-Nmnat3-mediated NAD production is important for lysosomal function. The glycolytic enzymes GAPDH and PGK1 were found associated with lysosomal vesicles, and NAD was required for ATP production around lysosomal vesicles. Thus, we conclude that NAD content affected by mitochondrial dysfunction is essential for lysosomal maintenance. 10.15252/embj.2020105268
Axonal protection by Nmnat3 overexpression with involvement of autophagy in optic nerve degeneration. Kitaoka Y,Munemasa Y,Kojima K,Hirano A,Ueno S,Takagi H Cell death & disease Axonal degeneration often leads to the death of neuronal cell bodies. Previous studies demonstrated the crucial role of nicotinamide mononucleotide adenylyltransferase (Nmnat) 1, 2, and 3 in axonal protection. In this study, Nmnat3 immunoreactivity was observed inside axons in the optic nerve. Overexpression of Nmnat3 exerts axonal protection against tumor necrosis factor-induced and intraocular pressure (IOP) elevation-induced optic nerve degeneration. Immunoblot analysis showed that both p62 and microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 (LC3)-II were upregulated in the optic nerve after IOP elevation. Nmnat3 transfection decreased p62 and increased LC3-II in the optic nerve both with and without experimental glaucoma. Electron microscopy showed the existence of autophagic vacuoles in optic nerve axons in the glaucoma, glaucoma+Nmnat3 transfection, and glaucoma+rapamycin groups, although preserved myelin and microtubule structures were noted in the glaucoma+Nmnat3 transfection and glaucoma+rapamycin groups. The axonal-protective effect of Nmnat3 was inhibited by 3-methyladenine, whereas rapamycin exerted axonal protection after IOP elevation. We found that p62 was present in the mitochondria and confirmed substantial colocalization of mitochondrial Nmnat3 and p62 in starved retinal ganglion cell (RGC)-5 cells. Nmnat3 transfection decreased p62 and increased autophagic flux in RGC-5 cells. These results suggest that the axonal-protective effect of Nmnat3 may be involved in autophagy machinery, and that modulation of Nmnat3 and autophagy may lead to potential strategies against degenerative optic nerve disease. 10.1038/cddis.2013.391
NMNATs expression inhibition mediated NAD deficiency plays a critical role in doxorubicin-induced hepatotoxicity in mice. Toxicology and applied pharmacology Doxorubicin (DOX) is one of the most widely used antineoplastic drugs with known cardiotoxicity while other organ toxicity, such as hepatotoxicity is not well defined. This study was to explore the role of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) in DOX-induced hepatotoxicity. DOX (20 mg/kg) induced acute liver injury and oxidative stress in C57BL/6 J mice at 48 h. Notably, the expression of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and NAD(P)H dehydrogenase quinone 1 (NQO1) were downregulated. NAD deficiency was confirmed due to DOX exposure. Mechanistically, the downregulation of nicotinamide mononucleotide adenylyl transferase 1 (NMNAT1), NMNAT2 and NMNAT3, while no alteration of nicotinamide phosphoribosyl transferase was proved. As a consequence of NAD deficiency, the expression of poly-ADP-ribose polymerase1 (PARP1), CD38 and Sirtuin1 (SIRT1) were reduced. Furthermore, supplementation of NAD (200 mg/kg/day) or its precursor nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN) (500 mg/kg/day) alleviated liver injury, attenuated oxidative stress, and elevated the downregulation of Nrf2 and NQO1. More importantly, compromised expression of NMNAT1-3, PARP1, CD38 and SIRT1 were improved by NAD and NMN. In conclusion, NAD deficiency due to NMNATs expression inhibition may attribute to the pathogenesis of DOX-induced hepatotoxicity, thus providing new insights for mitigating DOX side effects. 10.1016/j.taap.2023.116799