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Chapter 8 Military Personnel With Traumatic Brain Injuries and Insomnia Have Reductions in PTSD and Improved Perceived Health Following Sleep Restoration: A Relationship Moderated by Inflammation. Barr Taura,Livingston Whitney,Guardado Pedro,Baxter Tristin,Mysliwiec Vincent,Gill Jessica Annual review of nursing research BACKGROUND:Up to one-third of deployed military personnel sustain a traumatic brain injury (TBI). TBIs and the stress of deployment contribute to the vulnerability for chronic sleep disturbance, resulting in high rates of insomnia diagnoses as well as symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and declines in health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Inflammation is associated with insomnia; however, the impact of sleep changes on comorbid symptoms and inflammation in this population is unknown. METHODS:In this study, we examined the relationship between reported sleep changes and the provision of the standard of care, which could include one or more of the following: cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), medications, and continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP). We compared the following: (a) the group with a decrease in the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI; restorative sleep) and (b) the group with no change or increase in PSQI (no change). Independent t tests and chi-square tests were used to compare the groups on demographic and clinical characteristics, and mixed between-within subjects analysis of variance tests were used to determine the effect of group differences on changes in comorbid symptoms. Linear regression models were used to examine the role of inflammation in changes in symptoms and HRQOL. RESULTS:The sample included 70 recently deployed military personnel with TBI, seeking care for sleep disturbances. Thirty-seven participants reported restorative sleep and 33 reported no sleep changes or worse sleep. The two groups did not differ in demographic characteristics or clinical symptoms at baseline. The TBI+restored sleep group had significant reductions in PTSD and depression over the 3-month period, whereas the TBI+no change group had a slight increase in both PTSD and depression. The TBI+restored sleep group also had significant changes in HRQOL, including the following HRQOL subcomponents: physical functioning, role limitations in physical health, social functioning, emotional well-being, energy/fatigue, and general health perceptions. In a linear regression model using a forced entry method, the dependent variable of change in C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations was significantly related to changes in PTSD symptoms and HRQOL in the TBI+restored sleep group, with R2=0.43, F33,3=8.31, p<.01. CONCLUSIONS:Military personnel with TBIs who have a reduction in insomnia symptoms following a standard-of-care treatment report less severe symptoms of depression and PTSD and improved HRQOL, which relate to decreased plasma concentrations of CRP. These findings suggest that treatment for sleep disturbances in this TBI+military population is associated with improvements in health and decreases in inflammation. The contributions of inflammation-induced changes in PTSD and depression in sleep disturbances in TBI + military personnel require further study. 10.1891/0739-6686.33.249
Changes in insomnia severity with advanced PAP therapy in patients with posttraumatic stress symptoms and comorbid sleep apnea: a retrospective, nonrandomized controlled study. Krakow Barry J,McIver Natalia D,Obando Jessica J,Ulibarri Victor A Military Medical Research BACKGROUND:Sleep disorders frequently occur in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) patients. Chronic insomnia is a common feature of and criteria for the diagnosis of PTSD. Another sleep disorder, obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), also occurs frequently in PTSD, and emerging research indicates OSA fuels chronic insomnia. Scant research has investigated the impact of OSA treatment on insomnia outcomes (Insomnia Severity Index, ISI) in trauma survivors. METHODS:OSA patients with moderately severe posttraumatic stress symptoms were studied in a retrospective chart review. Ninety-six patients who failed CPAP therapy due to expiratory pressure intolerance or complex sleep apnea or both underwent manual titration with advanced PAP modes [autobilevel (ABPAP); adaptive servo-ventilation (ASV)], which were subsequently prescribed. PAP use measured by objective data downloads divided the sample into three groups: compliant regular users (C-RU): n = 68; subthreshold users (SC-RU): n = 12; and noncompliant users (NC-MU): n = 16. The average follow-up was 11.89 ± 12.22 months. Baseline and posttreatment ISI scores were analyzed to assess residual insomnia symptoms as well as cure rates. RESULTS:The C-RU group showed significant improvements in insomnia with very large effects compared to those in the NC-MU reference group (P = 0.019). Insomnia severity significantly decreased in all three groups with large effects (C-RU, P = 0.001; SC-RU, P = 0.027; NC-MU, P = 0.007). Hours of weekly PAP use and insomnia severity were inversely correlated (P = 0.001, r = - 0.321). However, residual insomnia symptoms based on established ISI cut-offs were quite common, even among the C-RU group. Post hoc analysis showed that several categories of sedating medications reported at baseline (hypnotics, anti-epileptic, opiates) as well as actual use of any sedating medication (prescription or nonprescription) were associated with smaller insomnia improvements than those in patients not using any sedating agents. CONCLUSIONS:In a retrospective, nonrandomized analysis of a select sample of sleep clinic patients with OSA and PTSD symptoms, advanced PAP therapy was associated with significant improvement in insomnia severity for both compliant and partial users. However, residual insomnia symptoms persisted, indicating that PAP therapy provides only limited treatment. RCTs are warranted to assess the effect of ABPAP and ASV modes of therapy on adherence and sleep outcomes, and their potential impact on posttraumatic stress symptoms. Treatment arms that combine PAP with CBT-I would be expected to yield the greatest potency. 10.1186/s40779-019-0204-y
Sleep disorders in migrants and refugees: a systematic review with implications for personalized medical approach. The EPMA journal BACKGROUND:Sleep disorders are very common in migrants and refugees, often as a comorbid disorder to different somatic or psychiatric diagnoses and psychological disturbances such as metabolic syndrome, post-traumatic stress disorder, depression, and anxiety disorders. OBJECTIVES:To review published prevalence rates as well as possible predictors for sleep disturbances in these vulnerable groups, including pre-migration stress, acculturation, and trauma before, during, and after migration, integration, and lifestyle in the host country with implications for predictive, preventive, and personalized medical approach (3PM). DATA SOURCES:Electronic databases PubMed, PsycInfo, and Web of Knowledge were searched using (combined) search terms "migrant," "asylum seeker," "refugee," "sleep disturbances," "sleep disorder," "insomnia," and "sleep wake disorder." STUDY ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA:Peer-reviewed studies from 2000 to 2018 reporting data on prevalence and/or predictors of any measure of sleep disturbance were included. PARTICIPANTS:Studies on international migrants and refugees, as well as internally displaced populations, were included. METHODS:We conducted a systematic review on the topic of sleep disorders in migrant and refugee populations. Only published articles and reviews in peer-reviewed journals were included. RESULTS:We analyzed five studies on sleep disorders in migrants, five studies on adult refugees, and three on refugee children and adolescents. Prevalence of sleep disorders in migrants and refugees ranges between 39 and 99%. In migrant workers, stress related to integration and adaptation to the host society is connected to higher risks of snoring, metabolic diseases, and insomnia. Sleep disturbances in refugees are predicted by past war experience. Sleep difficulties in adult and child refugees are strongly correlated to trauma. Torture of parents and grandparents can predict sleep disorders in refugee children, while being accompanied by parents to the host country has a protective effect on children's sleep. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS:Considering the differences in risk factors, vulnerability, and traumatic life events for different migrant populations, origins of sleep difficulties vary, depending on the migrant populations. Effects on sleep disturbances and sleep quality may be a result of integration in the host country, including changes of lifestyle, such as diet and working hours with implication for OSAS (obstructive sleep apnea) and insomnia. Compared with migrant populations, sleep disturbances in refugee populations are more correlated with mental health symptoms and disorders, especially PTSD (post-traumatic stress disorder), than with psychosocial problems. In juvenile refugee populations, psychological problems and disturbed sleep are associated with traumatic experiences during their journey to the host country. Findings highlight the need for expert recommendations for development of 3P approach stratified in the following: (1) prediction, including structured exploration of predisposing and precipitating factors that may trigger acute insomnia, screening of the according sleep disorders by validated translated questionnaires and sleep diaries, and a face-to-face or virtual setting and screening of OSAS; (2) target prevention by sleep health education for female and male refugees and migrant workers, including shift workers; and (3) personalized medical approach, including translated cognitive behavioral treatment for insomnia (CBT-I) and imagery rehearsal therapy for refugees and telehealth programs for improved CPAP adherence in migrants, with the goal to enable better sleep health quality and improved health economy. 10.1007/s13167-020-00205-2
Refractory insomnia and sleep-disordered breathing: a pilot study. Krakow Barry,Melendrez Dominic,Lee Samuel A,Warner Teddy D,Clark Jimmy O,Sklar David Sleep & breathing = Schlaf & Atmung OBJECTIVE:To assess an uncontrolled, open-label trial of sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) treatment on two different samples of chronic insomnia patients. METHOD:In Study 1 (Retrospective), data from one diagnostic and one continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) titration polysomnogram were compiled from 19 chronic insomnia patients with SDB. Objective polysomnogram indicators of sleep and arousal activity and self-reported sleep quality were measured. In Study 2 (Prospective), clinical outcomes were assessed after sequential cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and SDB therapy (CPAP, oral appliances, or bilateral turbinectomy) were provided to 17 chronic insomnia patients with SDB. Repeat measures included the Insomnia Severity Index, Functional Outcomes of Sleep Questionnaire, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and self-reported insomnia indices and CPAP use. RESULTS:In Study 1, seven objective measures of sleep and arousal demonstrated or approached significant improvement during one night of CPAP titration. Sixteen of 19 patients reported improvement in sleep quality. In Study 2, Insomnia Severity Index, Functional Outcomes of Sleep Questionnaire, and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index improved markedly with CBT followed by SDB treatment and achieved an average outcome equivalent to curative status. Improvements were large for each treatment phase; however, of 17 patients, only 8 attained a nonclinical level of insomnia after CBT compared with 15 patients after SDB therapy was added. Self-reported insomnia indices also improved markedly, and self-reported SDB therapy compliance was high. CONCLUSIONS:In one small sample of chronic insomnia patients with SDB, objective measures of insomnia, arousal, and sleep improved during one night of CPAP titration. In a second small sample, validated measures of insomnia, sleep quality, and sleep impairment demonstrated clinical cures or near-cures after combined CBT and SDB therapies. These pilot results suggest a potential value in researching the pathophysiological relationships between SDB and chronic insomnia, which may be particularly relevant to patients with refractory insomnia. 10.1007/s11325-004-0015-5
Development and usability testing of a self-management intervention to support individuals with obstructive sleep apnea in accommodating to CPAP treatment. Dickerson Suzanne S,Obeidat Rana,Dean Grace,Aquilina Alan,Brock Eric Ten,Smith Patricia,Jungquist Carla Heart & lung : the journal of critical care OBJECTIVE:Development and usability testing of a self-management intervention to promote CPAP adherence. BACKGROUND:While CPAP is an effective treatment for OSA, patient adherence is sub-optimal. Qualitative interviews and evidence based approaches were used in development. METHODS:The initial steps in the Campbell (2000) Framework for complex intervention guided development of the intervention in book format. After sleep expert review and modification, CPAP users reviewed the format and content of the intervention and were interviewed by telephone using a "talk-out-loud technique" to determine usability. The interviews transcripts were analyzed thematically. RESULTS:Ten participants with varying ages, race, education, and CPAP usage, found the intervention contained useful information to understand their diagnosis, to problem-solve, and monitor their progress. Suggestions included minor format changes and the wish that they had access to the intervention when first diagnosed. CONCLUSION:This intervention provides a multimodal approach including education, self-management tools, cognitive restructuring, provider communication guides, and peer stories of success that may be helpful in initiating active problem solving to improve self-efficacy to adhere to CPAP. Future research plans include clinical testing in a RCT with new CPAP users. 10.1016/j.hrtlng.2013.07.011
Increased adherence to CPAP with a group cognitive behavioral treatment intervention: a randomized trial. Richards Dianne,Bartlett Delwyn J,Wong Keith,Malouff John,Grunstein Ronald R Sleep STUDY OBJECTIVE:To improve adherence to continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment in participants with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) using a cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) intervention. DESIGN:A randomized controlled trial. SETTING:A major teaching hospital in Sydney (2005). PARTICIPANTS:One hundred individuals (96 men), ranging in age from 32 to 81 years, diagnosed with OSA. INTERVENTION:Two 1-hour CBT interventions (including a video of real CPAP users) plus treatment as usual (mask fitting and information) or treatment as usual only. MEASUREMENTS AND RESULTS:Hours of CPAP usage was assessed at 7 nights and 28 nights. Adherence was defined as usage at least 4 hours per night. Questionnaires measuring self-efficacy, social support, and expectancy (mediators of adherence) were given after intervention or after usual treatment. A higher adherence to CPAP therapy was found in the CBT group (2.9 hours difference) relative to treatment as usual (P < 0.001) at 28 days. Only 4 participants in the CBT group did not initiate treatments after their titration study, compared with 15 in the treatment as usual group (P < 0.02). The CBT group had significantly higher scores for self-efficacy (P < 0.001) and social support P < 0.008) but not for expectancy. CONCLUSIONS:The CBT intervention resulted in both increased adherence and "uptake" of CPAP and therefore would be expected to reduce the social, economic, and health-related consequences of untreated OSA. 10.1093/sleep/30.5.635
Cognitive and behavioral therapy for insomnia increases the use of continuous positive airway pressure therapy in obstructive sleep apnea participants with comorbid insomnia: a randomized clinical trial. Sweetman Alexander,Lack Leon,Catcheside Peter G,Antic Nick A,Smith Simon,Chai-Coetzer Ching Li,Douglas James,O'grady Amanda,Dunn Nicola,Robinson Jan,Paul Denzil,Williamson Paul,McEvoy R Doug Sleep STUDY OBJECTIVES:Insomnia and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) commonly co-occur which makes OSA difficult to treat with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP). We conducted a randomized controlled trial in participants with OSA and co-occurring insomnia to test the hypothesis that initial treatment with cognitive and behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-i), versus treatment as usual (TAU) would improve insomnia symptoms and increase subsequent acceptance and use of CPAP. METHODS:One hundred and forty-five participants with OSA (apnea-hypopnea index ≥ 15) and comorbid insomnia were randomized to either four sessions of CBT-i, or TAU, before commencing CPAP therapy until 6 months post-randomization. Primary between-group outcomes included objective average CPAP adherence and changes in objective sleep efficiency by 6 months. Secondary between-group outcomes included rates of immediate CPAP acceptance/rejection, and changes in; sleep parameters, insomnia severity, and daytime impairments by 6 months. RESULTS:Compared to TAU, participants in the CBT-i group had 61 min greater average nightly adherence to CPAP (95% confidence interval [CI] = 9 to 113; p = 0.023, d = 0.38) and higher initial CPAP treatment acceptance (99% vs. 89%; p = 0.034). The CBT-i group showed greater improvement of global insomnia severity, and dysfunctional sleep-related cognitions by 6 months (both: p < 0.001), and greater improvement in sleep impairment measures immediately following CBT-i. There were no between-group differences in sleep outcomes, or daytime impairments by 6 months. CONCLUSIONS:In OSA participants with comorbid insomnia, CBT-i prior to initiating CPAP treatment improves CPAP use and insomnia symptoms compared to commencing CPAP without CBT-i. OSA patients should be evaluated for co-occurring insomnia and considered for CBT-i before commencing CPAP therapy. CLINICAL TRIAL:Treating comorbid insomnia with obstructive sleep apnea (COMSIA) study: A new treatment strategy for patients with combined insomnia and sleep apnea, https://www.anzctr.org.au/Trial/Registration/TrialReview.aspx?id=365184 Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry: ACTRN12613001178730. Universal Trial Number: U1111-1149-4230. 10.1093/sleep/zsz178
Co-Morbid Insomnia and Sleep Apnea (COMISA): Prevalence, Consequences, Methodological Considerations, and Recent Randomized Controlled Trials. Brain sciences Co-morbid insomnia and sleep apnea (COMISA) is a highly prevalent and debilitating disorder, which results in additive impairments to patients' sleep, daytime functioning, and quality of life, and complex diagnostic and treatment decisions for clinicians. Although the presence of COMISA was first recognized by Christian Guilleminault and colleagues in 1973, it received very little research attention for almost three decades, until the publication of two articles in 1999 and 2001 which collectively reported a 30%-50% co-morbid prevalence rate, and re-ignited research interest in the field. Since 1999, there has been an exponential increase in research documenting the high prevalence, common characteristics, treatment complexities, and bi-directional relationships of COMISA. Recent trials indicate that co-morbid insomnia symptoms may be treated with cognitive and behavioral therapy for insomnia, to increase acceptance and use of continuous positive airway pressure therapy. Hence, the treatment of COMISA appears to require nuanced diagnostic considerations, and multi-faceted treatment approaches provided by multi-disciplinary teams of psychologists and physicians. In this narrative review, we present a brief overview of the history of COMISA research, describe the importance of measuring and managing insomnia symptoms in the presence of sleep apnea, discuss important methodological and diagnostic considerations for COMISA, and review several recent randomized controlled trials investigating the combination of CBTi and CPAP therapy. We aim to provide clinicians with pragmatic suggestions and tools to identify, and manage this prevalent COMISA disorder in clinical settings, and discuss future avenues of research to progress the field. 10.3390/brainsci9120371
Adherence to CPAP Treatment: Can Mindfulness Play a Role? Life (Basel, Switzerland) Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is considered a chronic disease that requires long-term multidisciplinary management for effective treatment. Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP) is still considered the gold standard of therapy. However, CPAP effectiveness is limited due to poor patients' adherence, as almost 50% of patients discontinue treatment after a year. Several interventions have been used in order to increase CPAP adherence. Mindfulness-based therapies have been applied in other sleep disorders such as insomnia but little evidence exists for their application on OSA patients. This review aims to focus on the current data on whether mindfulness interventions may be used in order to increase CPAP adherence and improve the sleep quality of OSA patients. Even though controlled trials of mindfulness and CPAP compliance remain to be performed, this review supports the hypothesis that mindfulness may be used as an adjunct method in order to increase CPAP adherence in OSA patients. 10.3390/life13020296