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Continuous Glucose Monitoring Profiles in Pregnancies With and Without Gestational Diabetes Mellitus. Diabetes care OBJECTIVE:To determine whether continuous glucose monitoring (CGM)-derived glycemic patterns can characterize pregnancies with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) as diagnosed by standard oral glucose tolerance test at 24-28 weeks' gestation compared with those without GDM. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:The analysis includes 768 individuals enrolled from two sites prior to 17 weeks' gestation between June 2020 and December 2021 in a prospective observational study. Participants wore blinded Dexcom G6 CGMs throughout gestation. Main outcome of interest was a diagnosis of GDM by oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Glycemic levels in participants with GDM versus without GDM were characterized using CGM-measured glycemic metrics. RESULTS:Participants with GDM (n = 58 [8%]) had higher mean glucose (109 ± 13 vs. 100 ± 8 mg/dL [6.0 ± 0.7 vs. 5.6 ± 0.4 mmol/L], P < 0.001), greater glucose SD (23 ± 4 vs. 19 ± 3 mg/dL [1.3 ± 0.2 vs. 1.1 ± 0.2 mmol/L], P < 0.001), less time in range 63-120 mg/dL (3.5-6.7 mmol/L) (70% ± 17% vs. 84% ± 8%, P < 0.001), greater percent time >120 mg/dL (>6.7 mmol/L) (median 23% vs. 12%, P < 0.001), and greater percent time >140 mg/dL (>7.8 mmol/L) (median 7.4% vs. 2.7%, P < 0.001) than those without GDM throughout gestation prior to OGTT. Median percent time >120 mg/dL (>6.7 mmol/L) and time >140 mg/dL (>7.8 mmol/L) were higher as early as 13-14 weeks of gestation (32% vs. 14%, P < 0.001, and 5.2% vs. 2.0%, P < 0.001, respectively) and persisted during the entire study period prior to OGTT. CONCLUSIONS:Prior to OGTT at 24-34 weeks' gestation, pregnant individuals who develop GDM have higher CGM-measured glucose levels and more hyperglycemia compared with those who do not develop GDM. 10.2337/dc23-2149
Continuous glucose monitoring-derived glycemic metrics and adverse pregnancy outcomes among women with gestational diabetes: a prospective cohort study. The Lancet regional health. Western Pacific Background:Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) has shown potential in improving maternal and neonatal outcomes in individuals with type 1/2 diabetes, but data in gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is limited. We aimed to explore the relationship between CGM-derived metrics during pregnancy and pregnancy outcomes among women with GDM. Methods:We recruited 1302 pregnant women with GDM at a mean gestational age of 26.0 weeks and followed them until delivery. Participants underwent a 14-day CGM measurement upon recruitment. The primary outcome was any adverse pregnancy outcome, defined as having at least one of the outcomes: preterm birth, large-for-gestational-age (LGA) birth, fetal distress, premature rupture of membranes, and neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) admission. The individual outcomes included in the primary outcome were considered as secondary outcomes. We conducted multivariable logistic regression to evaluate the association of CGM-derived metrics with these outcomes. Findings:Per 1-SD difference in time above range (TAR), glucose area under the curve (AUC), nighttime mean blood glucose (MBG), daytime MBG, and daily MBG was associated with higher risk of any adverse pregnancy outcome, with odds ratio: 1.22 (95% CI 1.08-1.36), 1.22 (95% CI 1.09-1.37), 1.18 (95% CI 1.05-1.32), 1.21 (95% CI 1.07-1.35), and 1.22 (95% CI 1.09-1.37), respectively. Time in range, TAR, AUC, nighttime MBG, daytime MBG, daily MBG, and mean amplitude of glucose excursions were positively associated, while time blow range was inversely associated with the risk of LGA. Additionally, higher value for TAR was associated with higher risk of NICU admission. We further summarized the potential thresholds of TAR (2.5%) and daily MBG (4.8 mmol/L) to distinguish individuals with and without any adverse pregnancy outcome. Interpretation:The CGM-derived metrics may help identify individuals at higher risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes. These CGM biomarkers could serve as potential new intervention targets to maintain a healthy pregnancy status among women with GDM. Funding:National Key R&D Program of China, National Natural Science Foundation of China, and Westlake Laboratory of Life Sciences and Biomedicine. 10.1016/j.lanwpc.2023.100823