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Sleep Apnea and Stroke. Lyons Owen D,Ryan Clodagh M The Canadian journal of cardiology Stroke is the second leading cause of death worldwide and often has devastating consequences for affected individuals in terms of chronic disability. Traditional risk factors such as age, male sex, ethnicity, hypertension, and atrial fibrillation explain 60%-80% of the risk of stroke. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is highly prevalent in individuals who have had a stroke and its emerging role as a potential modifiable risk factor for stroke has been recognized in the most recent American Heart Association stroke guidelines, which recommend consideration of screening for and treatment of OSA in this regard. In this article we provide an overview of the current evidence-based knowledge related to stroke and sleep apnea. The main focus of this article is key pathophysiological mechanisms by which OSA might increase the risk for stroke. The effect of OSA on stroke outcomes and the efficacy of treatment of OSA on these outcomes is also discussed. 10.1016/j.cjca.2015.03.014
Sleep Apnea and Stroke: A Narrative Review. Chest TOPIC IMPORTANCE:Stroke is the second-leading cause of death worldwide. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is an independent risk factor for stroke and is associated with multiple vascular risk factors. Post-stroke OSA is prevalent and closely linked with various stroke subtypes including cardioembolic stroke and cerebral small vessel disease. Observational studies have demonstrated that untreated post-stroke OSA is associated with an increased risk of recurrent stroke, mortality, poorer functional recovery and longer hospitalizations. REVIEW FINDINGS:Post-stroke OSA tends to be underdiagnosed and under-treated, possibly because stroke patients with OSA present atypically compared to the general population with OSA. Objective testing, such as the use of ambulatory sleep testing or in-laboratory polysomnography, is recommended for diagnosing OSA. The gold standard for treating OSA is continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have shown that treatment of post-stroke OSA using CPAP improves non-vascular outcomes such as cognition and neurological recovery. However, RCTs that have evaluated the effect of CPAP on recurrent stroke risk and mortality have been largely negative. SUMMARY:There is a need for high quality RCTs in post-stroke OSA that may provide evidence to support the utility of CPAP (and/or other treatment modalities) in reducing recurrent vascular events and mortality. This may be achieved by examining treatment strategies that have yet to be trialed in post-stroke OSA, tailoring interventions according to post-stroke OSA endotypes and phenotypes, selecting high risk populations, and using metrics that reflect the physiological abnormalities that underlie the harmful effects of OSA on cardiovascular outcomes. 10.1016/j.chest.2024.04.028
Sleep apnea and stroke. McDermott Mollie,Brown Devin L Current opinion in neurology PURPOSE OF REVIEW:Stroke and sleep apnea are highly prevalent conditions with a physiologically plausible bidirectional relationship. This review addresses prestroke sleep apnea, wake-up stroke and sleep apnea, and poststroke sleep apnea, with an attempt to highlight research published in the last 18 months. RECENT FINDINGS:Sleep apnea is highly prevalent poststroke. Poststroke sleep apnea is associated with worse poststroke functional and cognitive outcomes and a higher risk of recurrent stroke. Physiologic tests are needed to diagnose sleep apnea in poststroke patients as sleep apnea questionnaires do not perform well in this population. The role of CPAP in poststroke management is not yet well established. SUMMARY:Sleep apnea is a well established independent risk factor for stroke that confers an approximately two-fold increased risk of incident stroke. Sleep apnea is highly prevalent poststroke and is associated with worse outcomes after stroke. Sleep apnea is an attractive target for research addressing secondary stroke prevention and recovery. 10.1097/WCO.0000000000000781
Sleep Disorders in Stroke: An Update on Management. Cai Hongxia,Wang Xiao-Ping,Yang Guo-Yuan Aging and disease Stroke is a leading cause of disability and mortality all over the world. Due to an aging population, the incidence of stroke is rising significantly, which has led to devastating consequences for patients. In addition to traditional risk factors such as age, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes and atrial fibrillation, sleep disorders, as independent modifiable risk factors for stroke, have been highlighted increasingly. In this review, we provide an overview of common types of current sleep disturbances in cerebrovascular diseases, including insomnia, hypersomnia, breathing-related sleep disorders, and parasomnias. Moreover, evidence-based clinical therapeutic strategies and pitfalls of specific sleep disorders after stroke are discussed. We also review the neurobiological mechanisms of these treatments as well as their effects on stroke. Since depression after stroke is so prevalent and closely related to sleep disorders, treatments of post-stroke depression are also briefly mentioned in this review article. 10.14336/AD.2020.0707
Narrative review of sleep and stroke. Pérez-Carbonell Laura,Bashir Saima Journal of thoracic disease Sleep disorders, such as sleep-disordered breathing (SDB), insomnia or restless legs syndrome (RLS), are common in the general population and after stroke. In some cases, sleep disturbances are pre-existing, but can also appear as a direct consequence of brain damage or due to stroke-related complications. Furthermore, some sleep conditions may act as a risk factor of stroke. This review explores the available evidence of the two-way relationship between sleep and stroke. Cardiovascular physiological changes during sleep are described, as well as the evidence on the relationship between stroke and sleep duration, SDB, RLS, insomnia, excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS), and circadian rhythm alterations. Potential changes on sleep architecture, and the links that may exist between sleep and functional outcomes after stroke are also discussed. Importantly, sleep-related disturbances may be associated with worse stroke recovery outcomes and increased cerebrovascular morbidity. It is therefore relevant that the bidirectional association between stroke and sleep is taken into consideration by clinicians taking care of these patients. Future research may focus on this mutual relationship for a better understanding of the impact of stroke on sleep, the importance of sleep in stroke incidence and recovery, and have further evidence on treatment strategies that may improve functional outcome after stroke. 10.21037/jtd-cus-2020-002
Sleep apnoea and ischaemic stroke: current knowledge and future directions. Baillieul Sébastien,Dekkers Martijn,Brill Anne-Kathrin,Schmidt Markus H,Detante Olivier,Pépin Jean-Louis,Tamisier Renaud,Bassetti Claudio L A The Lancet. Neurology Sleep apnoea, one of the most common chronic diseases, is a risk factor for ischaemic stroke, stroke recurrence, and poor functional recovery after stroke. More than half of stroke survivors present with sleep apnoea during the acute phase after stroke, with obstructive sleep apnoea being the most common subtype. Following a stroke, sleep apnoea frequency and severity might decrease over time, but moderate to severe sleep apnoea is nevertheless present in up to a third of patients in the chronic phase after an ischaemic stroke. Over the past few decades evidence suggests that treatment for sleep apnoea is feasible during the acute phase of stroke and might favourably affect recovery and long-term outcomes. Nevertheless, sleep apnoea still remains underdiagnosed and untreated in many cases, due to challenges in the detection and prediction of post-stroke sleep apnoea, uncertainty as to the optimal timing for its diagnosis, and a scarcity of clear treatment guidelines (ie, uncertainty on when to treat and the optimal treatment strategy). Moreover, the pathophysiology of sleep apnoea associated with stroke, the proportion of stroke survivors with obstructive and central sleep apnoea, and the temporal evolution of sleep apnoea subtypes following stroke remain to be clarified. To address these shortcomings, the management of sleep apnoea associated with stroke should be integrated into a multidisciplinary diagnostic, treatment, and follow-up strategy. 10.1016/S1474-4422(21)00321-5
Sleep disorders and the risk of stroke. Expert review of neurotherapeutics INTRODUCTION:Stroke is a major cause of disability and death in the United States and across the world, and the incidence and prevalence of stroke are expected to rise significantly due to an aging population. Obstructive sleep apnea, an established independent risk factor for stroke, is a highly prevalent disease that is estimated to double the risk of stroke. It remains uncertain whether non-apnea sleep disorders increase the risk of stroke. Areas covered: This paper reviews the literature describing the association between incident stroke and sleep apnea, rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder, restless legs syndrome, periodic limb movements of sleep, insomnia, and shift work. Expert commentary: Trials of continuous positive airway pressure for stroke prevention in sleep apnea patients have been largely disappointing, but additional trials that target populations not yet optimally studied are needed. Self-reported short and long sleep duration may be associated with incident stroke. However, abnormal sleep duration may be a marker of chronic disease, which may itself be associated with incident stroke. The relationship between non-apnea sleep disorders and incident stroke deserves further attention. Identification of specific non-apnea sleep disorders or sleep problems that convey an increased risk for stroke may provide novel targets for stroke prevention. 10.1080/14737175.2018.1489239