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Chemistry of Human Breast Milk-A Comprehensive Review of the Composition and Role of Milk Metabolites in Child Development. Garwolińska Dorota,Namieśnik Jacek,Kot-Wasik Agata,Hewelt-Belka Weronika Journal of agricultural and food chemistry Early nutrition has an enormous influence on a child's physiological function, immune system maturation, and cognitive development. Human breast milk (HBM) is recognized as the gold standard for human infant nutrition. According to a WHO report, breastfeeding is considered as an unequaled way of providing ideal food to the infant, which is required for his healthy growth and development. HBM contains various macronutrients (carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, and vitamins) as well as numerous bioactive compounds and interactive elements (growth factors, hormones, cytokines, chemokines, and antimicrobial compounds. The aim of this review is to summarize and discuss the current knowledge about metabolites, which are the least understood components of HBM, and their potential role in infant development. We focus on small metabolites (<1500 Da) and characterize the chemical structure and biological function of polar metabolites such as human milk oligosaccharides, nonprotein molecules containing nitrogen (creatine, amino acids, nucleotides, polyamines), and nonpolar lipids. We believe that this manuscript will provide a comprehensive insight into a HBM metabolite composition, chemical structure, and their role in a child's early life nutrition. 10.1021/acs.jafc.8b04031
Mother-to-Child Signaling through Breast Milk Biomolecules. Röszer Tamás Biomolecules Breastfeeding-or lactation-is a unique and defining reproductive trait of mammals that nourishes offspring by supplying nutrient-rich breast milk [...]. 10.3390/biom11121743
Bioactive Factors in Human Breast Milk Attenuate Intestinal Inflammation during Early Life. Nutrients Human breast milk is well known as the ideal source of nutrition during early life, ensuring optimal growth during infancy and early childhood. Breast milk is also the source of many unique and dynamic bioactive components that play a key role in the development of the immune system. These bioactive components include essential microbes, human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs), immunoglobulins, lactoferrin and dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids. These factors all interact with intestinal commensal bacteria and/or immune cells, playing a critical role in establishment of the intestinal microbiome and ultimately influencing intestinal inflammation and gut health during early life. Exposure to breast milk has been associated with a decreased incidence and severity of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), a devastating disease characterized by overwhelming intestinal inflammation and high morbidity among preterm infants. For this reason, breast milk is considered a protective factor against NEC and aberrant intestinal inflammation common in preterm infants. In this review, we will describe the key microbial, immunological, and metabolic components of breast milk that have been shown to play a role in the mechanisms of intestinal inflammation and/or NEC prevention. 10.3390/nu12020581
Human Breast Milk Composition and Function in Human Health: From Nutritional Components to Microbiome and MicroRNAs. Yi Dae Yong,Kim Su Yeong Nutrients Human breast milk (HBM) is not only an indispensable source of nutrients for early human growth and development, supplying components that support infant growth and development, but also contains various essential immunologic components with anti-infectious activities and critical roles in the formation of immunity. It is also known that HBM contains its own unique microbiome, including beneficial, commensal, and potentially probiotic bacteria, that can contribute to infant gut colonization. In addition, HBM-derived extracellular vesicles, exosomes, and microRNA are attracting increasing interest for their potential to transfer to the infant and their role in infant development. In this article, we examine some of the various constituents in HBM and review the evidence supporting their associated health effects and their potential applications in human health. 10.3390/nu13093094
Breast milk: more than just nutrition! Nuzzi Giulia,Trambusti Irene,DI Cicco Maria E,Peroni Diego G Minerva pediatrics From an evolutionary and nutritional standpoint, exclusive human milk feeding for the first 6 months of life, with continued breastfeeding for 1 to 2 years of life, is recognized as the gold standard nourishment for the infant: it is a species-specific food, with a composition designed by nature to better respond to the biological and psychological needs of the newborn/infant. Human milk contains many hundreds of bioactive molecules that protect newborn against infection and inflammation and contribute to immune maturation, organ development, and healthy microbial colonization. Compared with formula feeding, breastfeeding has been associated with decreased morbidity and mortality in infants and to lower incidence of gastrointestinal infections and inflammatory, respiratory and allergic disease. Here, we briefly review the nutritional and functional composition of human milk and provide an overview of its varied bioactive factors. 10.23736/S2724-5276.21.06223-X