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Effect of water-based walking exercise on rehabilitation of patients following ACL reconstruction: a prospective, randomised, single-blind clinical trial. Physiotherapy OBJECTIVES:To compare water-based treadmill walking training with land-based treadmill walking training following anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. DESIGN:Prospective, randomised, single-blind clinical trial. SETTING:Single-centre study. PARTICIPANTS:Sixty patients undergoing rehabilitation following ACL reconstruction were assigned at random into two groups. INTERVENTIONS:Patients in the water-based training group (WBG) underwent treadmill training in water, and patients in the land-based training group (LBG) underwent treadmill training on land. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:Muscle strength was evaluated using the ratio of peak torque to body weight (PT/BW) before and after 3 weeks of training. RESULTS:After 3 weeks of training, both groups had significantly higher PT/BW ratios, passive position sense (PAPS) and Lysholm scores compared with pre-treatment levels. In the affected leg, the PT/BW ratio for the knee extensor muscles, PAPS and Lysholm scores showed significantly greater improvement in the WBG than in the LBG. No significant differences in the PT/BW ratio, single leg balance index and stability limit index of the knee flexor muscles at different angular velocities were seen between the two groups. CONCLUSION:The results suggest that water-based walking exercise could lead to greater improvements in extensor muscle strength, proprioception and knee performance compared with land-based training following ACL reconstruction. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER:ChiCTR1900025930. 10.1016/j.physio.2021.11.003
Aquatic therapy following arthroscopic rotator cuff repair enables faster improvement of Constant score than land-based therapy or self-rehabilitation therapy. Journal of experimental orthopaedics PURPOSE:To compare the clinical and functional outcomes of arthroscopic rotator cuff repair over a period of 2 years using three postoperative rehabilitation modalities: aquatic therapy, land-based therapy, and self-rehabilitation therapy. The null hypothesis was that aquatic therapy would provide no difference in Constant score compared to land-based therapy and self-rehabilitation therapy. METHODS:A prospective study was performed on subjects scheduled for arthroscopic rotator cuff repair between 2012 and 2017 that complied with the following criteria: (i) small to medium sized symptomatic supraspinatus and/or infraspinatus tendon tears, (ii) low to moderate tendon retraction according to Patte, and (iii) fatty infiltration stage ≤2. Patients were allocated to perform either aquatic therapy, land-based therapy, or self-rehabilitation therapy for 2-4 months. Independent observers blinded to the study design collected Constant score, SSV, and patient satisfaction at 2 months, 3 months, 6 months, 1 year and 2 years. STUDY DESIGN:Level III, cohort study RESULTS: At 2 months follow-up, patients performing aquatic therapy had significantly higher Constant scores (p < 0.001) and SSV (p < 0.001) compared to those performing land-based therapy or self-rehabilitation therapy. At 3 months follow-up, patients performing aquatic therapy had significantly higher Constant scores (p < 0.001), and SSV (p < 0.001), both of which exceeded the respective minimal clinically important differences (MCIDs) of 10.4 and 12. Patients performing aquatic therapy continued to have significantly higher Constant scores and SSV at 6 months, 1 year, and 2 years. CONCLUSION:Aquatic therapy has a very limited positive effect on clinical outcomes at 3 months after surgery, but yields no relevant improvements on function or satisfaction at 1 to 2 years follow-up. 10.1186/s40634-022-00554-z
Lower-Limb Muscle Activity During Aquatic Treadmill Running in Individuals With Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction. Journal of sport rehabilitation INTRODUCTION:While anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears are commonly managed with ACL reconstruction (ACL-R), 35% of ACL-R individuals fail to return to the preinjury elite sport level. Persistent neuromuscular deficits in the hamstrings and quadriceps have been observed. It has been proposed that aquatic therapy can be used to optimize neuromuscular control after ACL-R. OBJECTIVES:(1) To compare muscle activity in ACL-R individuals during aquatic treadmill (ATM) running at different water depths and (2) to compare muscle activity during ATM running between ACL-R and healthy individuals. METHODS:A total of 38 participants, including 18 ACL-R individuals (mean postoperative time [SD] = 25.8 [25.0] mo) and 20 healthy individuals were recruited. Muscle activity of biceps femoris (BF), rectus femoris (RF), tibialis anterior, and medial gastrocnemius during land treadmill and ATM running at mid-shin, mid-thigh, and waist levels were recorded using surface electromyography (sEMG).  The sEMG signals of the selected muscles were normalized and expressed in % Maximal Voluntary Contraction (%MVC). Muscle activity of the ACL-R, ACL-contralateral, and healthy control limbs at different water depths was compared. RESULTS:Among the 3 groups, the ACL-R group demonstrated the most prominent percentage increase of 101.97% (P = .001) at mid-shin level, 139.66% (P = .001) at mid-thigh level, and 141.97% (P < .001) at waist level, respectively, in %MVC when compared to land. In the ACL-R group, muscle activity of BF in the stance phase (BFSt) was significantly higher than the control group on land at all water depths. Muscle activity of RF in the swing phase (RFSw) in the ACL-R group significantly increased in all water depths immersion when compared to land, respectively. CONCLUSION:This study showed an increasing trend in muscle activity of BFSt and RFSw in ACL-R individuals during ATM running at increased water depths. ATM running could be implemented as neuromuscular training in rehabilitation after ACL-R. 10.1123/jsr.2021-0431