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Enterorenal crosstalks in diabetic nephropathy and novel therapeutics targeting the gut microbiota. Acta biochimica et biophysica Sinica The role of gut-kidney crosstalk in the progression of diabetic nephropathy (DN) is receiving increasing concern. On one hand, the decline in renal function increases circulating uremic toxins and affects the composition and function of gut microbiota. On the other hand, intestinal dysbiosis destroys the epithelial barrier, leading to increased exposure to endotoxins, thereby exacerbating kidney damage by inducing systemic inflammation. Dietary inventions, such as higher fiber intake, prebiotics, probiotics, postbiotics, fecal microbial transplantation (FMT), and engineering bacteria and phages, are potential microbiota-based therapies for DN. Furthermore, novel diabetic agents, such as glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists, dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors, and sodium-dependent glucose transporter-2 (SGLT-2) inhibitors, may affect the progression of DN partly through gut microbiota. In the current review, we mainly summarize the evidence concerning the gut-kidney axis in the advancement of DN and discuss therapies targeting the gut microbiota, expecting to provide new insight into the clinical treatment of DN. 10.3724/abbs.2022140
Progress in the study of intestinal microbiota involved in morphine tolerance. Heliyon Morphine is a widely used opioid for treatment of pain. The attendant problems including morphine tolerance and morphine dependence pose a major public health challenge. In recent years, there has been increasing interest in the gastrointestinal microbiota in many physiological and pathophysiological processes. The connectivity network between the gut microbiota and the brain is involved in multiple biological systems, and bidirectional communication between them is critical in gastrointestinal tract homeostasis, the central nervous system, and the microbial system. Many research have previously shown that morphine has a variety of effects on the gastrointestinal tract, but none have determined the function of intestinal microbiota in morphine tolerance. This study reviewed the mechanisms of morphine tolerance from the perspective of dysregulation of microbiota-gut-brain axis homeostasis, by summarizing the possible mechanisms originating from the gut that may affect morphine tolerance and the improvement of morphine tolerance through the gut microbiota. 10.1016/j.heliyon.2024.e27187
The bidirectional relationship between opioids and the gut microbiome: Implications for opioid tolerance and clinical interventions. International immunopharmacology Opioids are widely used in treating patients with acute and chronic pain; however, this class of drugs is also commonly abused. Opioid use disorder and associated overdoses are becoming more prevalent as the opioid crisis continues. Chronic opioid use is associated with tolerance, which decreases the efficacy of opioids over time, but also puts individuals at risk of fatal overdoses. Therefore, it is essential to identify strategies to reduce opioid tolerance in those that use these agents. The gut microbiome has been found to play a critical role in opioid tolerance, with opioids causing dysbiosis of the gut, and changes in the gut microbiome impacting opioid tolerance. These changes in turn have a detrimental effect on the gut microbiome, creating a positive feedback cycle. We review the bidirectional relationship between the gut microbiome and opioid tolerance, discuss the role of modulation of the gut microbiome as a potential therapeutic option in opioid-induced gut dysbiosis, and suggest opportunities for further research and clinical interventions. 10.1016/j.intimp.2023.111142
Gut microbiota, immunity and pain. Santoni Matteo,Miccini Francesca,Battelli Nicola Immunology letters The interplay between microbiota and nervous system has been associated with a variety of diseases, including stress, anxiety, depression and cognition. The growing body of evidences on the essential role of gut microbiota in modulating acute and chronic pain has opened a new frontier for pain management. Gut microbiota is involved in the development of visceral, inflammatory and neuropathic pain. Bacterial alterations due to chronic opioid administration have been directly related to the development of drug tolerance, which can be potentially restored by the use of probiotics and antibiotics. In this review we describe the mechanisms underlying the brain/gut axis and the relationship between gut microbiota, immunity and pain. 10.1016/j.imlet.2020.11.010
versus the Microbiome. Rogers Andrew W L,Tsolis Renée M,Bäumler Andreas J Microbiology and molecular biology reviews : MMBR A balanced gut microbiota contributes to health, but the mechanisms maintaining homeostasis remain elusive. Microbiota assembly during infancy is governed by competition between species and by environmental factors, termed habitat filters, that determine the range of successful traits within the microbial community. These habitat filters include the diet, host-derived resources, and microbiota-derived metabolites, such as short-chain fatty acids. Once the microbiota has matured, competition and habitat filtering prevent engraftment of new microbes, thereby providing protection against opportunistic infections. Competition with endogenous , habitat filtering by short-chain fatty acids, and a host-derived habitat filter, epithelial hypoxia, also contribute to colonization resistance against serovars. However, at a high challenge dose, these frank pathogens can overcome colonization resistance by using their virulence factors to trigger intestinal inflammation. In turn, inflammation increases the luminal availability of host-derived resources, such as oxygen, nitrate, tetrathionate, and lactate, thereby creating a state of abnormal habitat filtering that enables the pathogen to overcome growth inhibition by short-chain fatty acids. Thus, studying the process of ecosystem invasion by serovars clarifies that colonization resistance can become weakened by disrupting host-mediated habitat filtering. This insight is relevant for understanding how inflammation triggers dysbiosis linked to noncommunicable diseases, conditions in which endogenous expand in the fecal microbiota using some of the same growth-limiting resources required by serovars for ecosystem invasion. In essence, ecosystem invasion by serovars suggests that homeostasis and dysbiosis simply represent states where competition and habitat filtering are normal or abnormal, respectively. 10.1128/MMBR.00027-19
Expression and physiology of opioid receptors in the gastrointestinal tract. Mosińska Paula,Zielińska Marta,Fichna Jakub Current opinion in endocrinology, diabetes, and obesity PURPOSE OF REVIEW:Stimulation of opioid receptors elicits analgesic effect not only in the central nervous system, but also in the gastrointestinal tract, where a high concentration of opioid receptors can be found within the enteric nervous system as well as muscular and immune cells. Along with antinociception, opioid receptors in the stomach and intestine relay signals crucial for secretory and motor gastrointestinal function. RECENT FINDINGS:The review focuses on the utility of opioid receptor antagonists, which is generally contributing to the management of postoperative ileus and opioid bowel dysfunction in chronic pain patients nonetheless, opioid receptor antagonists can also be useful in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome and chronic idiopathic constipation. The study also discusses several antidiarrheal opioid agonists, as well as opioids and opioid mimetics encompassing the concept of ligand-biased agonism and truncated opioid receptor splice variants. SUMMARY:Good understanding of the localization and the role of opioid receptors is vital for regulation of various pathophysiological processes in the gastrointestinal tract and may simultaneously provide a tempting approach in eliminating adverse effects related to centrally acting opioids. 10.1097/MED.0000000000000219