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ATF3/SPI1/SLC31A1 Signaling Promotes Cuproptosis Induced by Advanced Glycosylation End Products in Diabetic Myocardial Injury. International journal of molecular sciences Cuproptosis resulting from copper (Cu) overload has not yet been investigated in diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM). Advanced glycosylation end products (AGEs) induced by persistent hyperglycemia play an essential role in cardiotoxicity. To clarify whether cuproptosis was involved in AGEs-induced cardiotoxicity, we analyzed the toxicity of AGEs and copper in AC16 cardiomyocytes and in STZ-induced or db/db-diabetic mouse models. The results showed that copper ionophore elesclomol induced cuproptosis in cardiomyocytes. It was only rescued by copper chelator tetrathiomolybdate rather than by other cell death inhibitors. Intriguingly, AGEs triggered cardiomyocyte death and aggravated it when incubated with CuCl or elesclomol-CuCl2. Moreover, AGEs increased intracellular copper accumulation and exhibited features of cuproptosis, including loss of Fe-S cluster proteins (FDX1, LIAS, NDUFS8 and ACO2) and decreased lipoylation of DLAT and DLST. These effects were accompanied by decreased mitochondrial oxidative respiration, including downregulated mitochondrial respiratory chain complex, decreased ATP production and suppressed mitochondrial complex I and III activity. Additionally, AGEs promoted the upregulation of copper importer SLC31A1. We predicted that ATF3 and/or SPI1 might be transcriptional factors of SLC31A1 by online databases and validated that by ATF3/SPI1 overexpression. In diabetic mice, copper and AGEs increases in the blood and heart were observed and accompanied by cardiac dysfunction. The protein and mRNA profile changes in diabetic hearts were consistent with cuproptosis. Our findings showed, for the first time, that excessive AGEs and copper in diabetes upregulated ATF3/SPI1/SLC31A1 signaling, thereby disturbing copper homeostasis and promoting cuproptosis. Collectively, the novel mechanism might be an alternative potential therapeutic target for DCM. 10.3390/ijms24021667
Advanced glycosylation end products inhibit the proliferation of bone-marrow stromal cells through activating MAPK pathway. European journal of medical research BACKGROUND:The purpose of present study was to explore the mechanism of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B(PKB/Akt) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways after intervention of advanced glycosylation end products (AGEs) on rat bone-marrow stromal cells (BMSCs). METHODS:Prepare and identify AGEs. BMSCs were isolated from 16 SD rats and cultured with different concentration of AGEs. Cell viability was detected by cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8). BMSCs were cultured with AGEs (0.25 mg/ml) for 30 min, 12 h, 24 h, 72 h and 120 h. In addition, BMSCs were cultured with AGEs, AGEs + JNK inhibitor and AGEs + P38 inhibitor for 24 h and 48 h, respectively. Western blotting and RT-PCR were used to determine the protein and mRNA expression levels, respectively. RESULTS:Cell viability of BMSCs was significantly correlated with concentration and effect time of AGEs (P < 0.05), and the most appropriate concentration was 0.25 mg/ml. AGEs stimulation significantly increased the protein expression levels of NF-κB p65, JNK, p38 (P < 0.05), decreased IκB (P < 0.05), but had no effect on the protein expression of Akt in BMSCs (P > 0.05). At the mRNA level, JNK and p38 inhibitors significantly reduced the levels of NF-κB p65, p38 and JNK, increased IκB (P > 0.05), but had no effect on Akt in BMSCs (P > 0.05). At the protein level, JNK and p38 inhibitors notably decreased the expression of NF-κB p65, p38, p-JNK, P-IκB and JNK (P < 0.001), and increased IκB (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION:Advanced glycosylation end products can inhibit the proliferation of bone-marrow stromal cells through activating MAPK pathway. 10.1186/s40001-021-00559-x