logo logo
Venetoclax Plus Gilteritinib for -Mutated Relapsed/Refractory Acute Myeloid Leukemia. Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology PURPOSE:The FMS-related tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3) inhibitor gilteritinib is standard therapy for relapsed/refractory -mutated () acute myeloid leukemia (AML) but seldom reduces burden or induces sustained efficacy. Gilteritinib combines synergistically with the BCL-2 inhibitor venetoclax in preclinical models of AML. METHODS:This phase Ib open-label, dose-escalation/dose-expansion study (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT03625505) enrolled patients with wild-type and (escalation) or (expansion) relapsed/refractory AML. Patients received 400 mg oral venetoclax once daily and 80 mg or 120 mg oral gilteritinib once daily. The primary objectives were safety, identification of the recommended phase II dose, and the modified composite complete response (mCRc) rate (complete response [CR] + CR with incomplete blood count recovery + CR with incomplete platelet recovery + morphologic leukemia-free state) using ADMIRAL phase III-defined response criteria. RESULTS:Sixty-one patients were enrolled (n = 56 ); 64% (n = 36 of 56) of patients had received prior FLT3 inhibitor therapy. The recommended phase II dose was 400 mg venetoclax once daily and 120 mg gilteritinib once daily. The most common grade 3/4 adverse events were cytopenias (n = 49; 80%). Adverse events prompted venetoclax and gilteritinib dose interruptions in 51% and 48%, respectively. The mCRc rate for patients was 75% (CR, 18%; CR with incomplete blood count recovery, 4%; CR with incomplete platelet recovery, 18%; and morphologic leukemia-free state, 36%) and was similar among patients with or without prior FLT3 inhibitor therapy (80% 67%, respectively). The median follow-up was 17.5 months. The median time to response was 0.9 months, and the median remission duration was 4.9 months (95% CI, 3.4 to 6.6). molecular response (< 10) was achieved in 60% of evaluable mCRc patients (n = 15 of 25). The median overall survival for patients was 10.0 months. CONCLUSION:The combination of venetoclax and gilteritinib was associated with high mCRc and molecular response rates regardless of prior FLT3 inhibitor exposure. Dose interruptions were needed to mitigate myelosuppression. 10.1200/JCO.22.00602
Phase I Results of Bromodomain and Extra-Terminal Inhibitor PLX51107 in Combination with Azacitidine in Patients with Relapsed/Refractory Myeloid Malignancies. Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research PURPOSE:Treatment outcomes in patients with relapsed/refractory (R/R) myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML) remains dismal. On the basis of both extensive preclinical data and emerging clinical data, treatment with bromodomain and extra-terminal domain inhibitors (BETi) is a potential approach for patients with high-risk myeloid malignancies. PATIENTS AND METHODS:We conducted a phase I trial to study the safety and efficacy of PLX51107 (BETi) and azacitidine combination therapy in patients with R/R AML and high-risk (HR) MDS and studied mechanisms of resistance to the combination therapy. RESULTS:Thirty-seven patients with HR R/R MDS (n = 4) and R/R AML (n = 33) were treated. Sixteen patients (43%) had MECOM gene rearrangement and 7 other patients had TP53 mutation. Median prior number of therapies was three (range 1-9); 97% had received prior hypomethylating agent and 84% prior venetoclax. Overall response rate was 8/37 (22%): complete remission with incomplete platelet recovery (n = 1); morphologic leukemia-free state (n = 2); hematologic improvement (n = 5). The most common nonhematologic toxicities were febrile neutropenia and pneumonia in 12 (32%) patients each; 6 patients (17%) had severe hyperbilirubinemia. RNA-sequencing analysis of mononuclear cells harvested on treatment (day 3) versus pretreatment showed significant changes in mRNA expressions in responders: downregulation of MYC, BCL2, IL7R, and CDK6 and upregulation of HEXIM1, CD93, DCXR, and CDKN1A. Immunoblot analyses confirmed reduction in protein levels of c-Myc, CDK6, BCL2, and BCL-xL, and induction of BRD4 and HEXIM1 protein levels in responders. CONCLUSIONS:In a heavily pretreated patient cohort with R/R MDS and AML, PLX51107+ azacitidine was well-tolerated and resulted in modest clinical benefit. 10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-23-1429
First-in-Human Phase I Study of Iadademstat (ORY-1001): A First-in-Class Lysine-Specific Histone Demethylase 1A Inhibitor, in Relapsed or Refractory Acute Myeloid Leukemia. Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology PURPOSE:Iadademstat is a novel, highly potent, and selective inhibitor of LSD1 (KDM1A), with preclinical in vitro and in vivo antileukemic activity. This study aimed to determine safety and tolerability of iadademstat as monotherapy in patients with relapsed/refractory acute myeloid leukemia (R/R AML). METHODS:This phase I, nonrandomized, open-label, dose-escalation (DE), and extension-cohort (EC) trial included patients with R/R AML and evaluated the safety, pharmacokinetics (PK), pharmacodynamics (PD), and preliminary antileukemic activity of this orally bioavailable first-in-class lysine-specific demethylase 1 inhibitor. RESULTS:Twenty-seven patients were treated with iadademstat on days 1 to 5 (5-220 µg/m/d) of each week in 28-day cycles in a DE phase that resulted in a recommended dose of 140 µg/m/d of iadademstat as a single agent. This dose was chosen to treat all patients (n = 14) in an EC enriched with patients with MLL/KMT2A-rearranged AML. Most adverse events (AEs) were as expected in R/R AML and included myelosuppression and nonhematologic AEs, such as infections, asthenia, mucositis, and diarrhea. PK data demonstrated a dose-dependent increase in plasma exposure, and PD data confirmed a potent time- and exposure-dependent induction of differentiation biomarkers. Reductions in blood and bone marrow blast percentages were observed, together with induction of blast cell differentiation, in particular, in patients with MLL translocations. One complete remission with incomplete count recovery was observed in the DE arm. CONCLUSION:Iadademstat exhibits a good safety profile together with signs of clinical and biologic activity as a single agent in patients with R/R AML. A phase II trial of iadademstat in combination with azacitidine is ongoing (EudraCT No.: 2018-000482-36). 10.1200/JCO.19.03250