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Text messaging approach improves weight loss in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: A randomized study. Axley Page,Kodali Sudha,Kuo Yong-Fang,Ravi Sujan,Seay Toni,Parikh Nina M,Singal Ashwani K Liver international : official journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver BACKGROUND & AIMS:Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is emerging as the most common liver disease. The only effective treatment is 7%-10% weight loss. Mobile technology is increasingly used in weight management. This study was performed to evaluate the effects of text messaging intervention on weight loss in patients with NAFLD. METHODS:Thirty well-defined NAFLD patients (mean age 52 years, 67% females, mean BMI 38) were randomized 1:1 to control group: counselling on healthy diet and exercise, or intervention group: text messages in addition to healthy life style counselling. NAFLD text messaging program sent weekly messages for 22 weeks on healthy life style education. Primary outcome was change in weight. Secondary outcomes were changes in liver enzymes and lipid profile. RESULTS:Intervention group lost an average of 6.9 lbs. (P = .03) compared to gain of 1.8 lbs. in the control group (P = .45). Intervention group also showed a decrease in ALT level (-12.5 IU/L, P = .035) and improvement in serum triglycerides (-28 mg/dL, P = .048). There were no changes in the control group on serum ALT level (-6.1 IU/L, P = .46) and on serum triglycerides (-20.3 mg/dL P = .27). Using one-way analysis of variance, change in outcomes in intervention group compared to control group was significant for weight (P = .02) and BMI (P = .02). CONCLUSIONS:Text messaging on healthy life style is associated with reduction in weight in NAFLD patients. Larger studies are suggested to examine benefits on liver histology, and assess long-term impact of this approach in patients with NAFLD. 10.1111/liv.13622
Effect of aerobic exercise and diet on liver fat in pre-diabetic patients with non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease: A randomized controlled trial. Cheng Sulin,Ge Jun,Zhao Can,Le Shenglong,Yang Yifan,Ke Dandan,Wu Na,Tan Xiao,Zhang Xiaobo,Du Xiaming,Sun Jianqin,Wang Renwei,Shi Yongyong,Borra Ronald J H,Parkkola Riitta,Wiklund Petri,Lu Dajiang Scientific reports The study aimed to assess whether aerobic exercise (AEx) training and a fibre-enriched diet can reduce hepatic fat content (HFC) and increase glycaemic control in pre-diabetic patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Six-hundred-and-three patients from seven clinics in Yangpu district, Shanghai, China were recruited. Of them 115 individuals aged 50-65-year fulfilled the inclusion criteria (NAFLD with impaired fasting glucose or impaired glucose tolerance) and were randomly assigned into exercise (AEx n = 29), diet (Diet n = 28), exercise plus diet (AED n = 29), or no-intervention (NI n = 29) groups. Progressive supervised AEx training (60-75% VO2max intensity) was given 2-3 times/week in 30-60 min/sessions, and the diet intervention was provided as lunch with 38% carbohydrate and diet fibre of 12 g/day for 8.6-month. HFC was assessed by H MRS. We found that HFC was significantly reduced in the AEx (-24.4%), diet (-23.2%), and AED (-47.9%) groups by contrast to the 20.9% increase in the NI group (p = 0.001 for all) after intervention. However, only AED group significantly decreased HbA (-4.4%, p = 0.01) compared with the NI group (-0.6%). Aerobic exercise training combined with fibre-enriched diet can reduce HFC more effectively than either exercise or increased fibre-intake alone in pre-diabetic patients with NAFLD. 10.1038/s41598-017-16159-x
A Mediterranean and low-fat dietary intervention in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease patients: Exploring participant experience and perceptions about dietary change. Journal of human nutrition and dietetics : the official journal of the British Dietetic Association BACKGROUND:A Mediterranean diet (MD) appears to be beneficial in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) patients in Mediterranean countries; however, the acceptability of a MD in non-Mediterranean populations has not been thoroughly explored. The present study aimed to explore the acceptability through understanding the barriers and enablers of the MD and low-fat diet (LFD) interventions as perceived by participating Australian adults from multicultural backgrounds with NAFLD. METHODS:Semi-structured telephone interviews were performed with 23 NAFLD trial participants at the end of a 12-week dietary intervention in a multicentre, parallel, randomised clinical trial. Data were analysed using thematic analysis. RESULTS:Participants reported that they enjoyed taking part in the MD and LFD interventions and perceived that they had positive health benefits from their participation. Compared with the LFD, the MD group placed greater emphasis on enjoyment and intention to maintain dietary changes. Novelty, convenience and the ability to swap food/meals were key enablers for the successful implementation for both of the dietary interventions. Flavour and enjoyment of food, expressed more prominently by MD intervention participants, were fundamental components of the diets with regard to reported adherence and intention to maintain dietary change. CONCLUSIONS:Participants randomised to the MD reported greater acceptability of the diet than those randomised to the LFD, predominantly related to perceived novelty and palatability of the diet. 10.1111/jhn.13069
Beneficial effects of lifestyle intervention in non-obese patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Wong Vincent Wai-Sun,Wong Grace Lai-Hung,Chan Ruth Suk-Mei,Shu Sally She-Ting,Cheung Bernice Ho-Ki,Li Liz Sin,Chim Angel Mei-Ling,Chan Carmen Ka-Man,Leung Julie Ka-Yu,Chu Winnie Chiu-Wing,Woo Jean,Chan Henry Lik-Yuen Journal of hepatology BACKGROUND & AIMS:Around 10-20% of patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) are non-obese. The benefit of weight reduction in such patients is unclear. We aim to study the efficacy of lifestyle intervention in non-obese patients with NAFLD and to identify factors that predict treatment response. METHODS:A total of 154 community NAFLD patients were randomised to a 12-month lifestyle intervention programme involving regular exercise, or to standard care. The primary outcome was remission of NAFLD at Month 12 by proton-magnetic resonance spectroscopy. After the programme, the patients were prospectively followed until Year 6. The Asian body mass index (BMI) cut-off of 25 kg/m was used to define non-obese NAFLD. RESULTS:Patients were assigned to the intervention (n = 77) and control (n = 77) groups (39 and 38 in each group had baseline BMI <25 and ≥25 kg/m, respectively). More patients in the intervention group achieved the primary outcome than the control group regardless of baseline BMI (non-obese: 67% vs. 18%, p <0.001; obese: 61% vs. 21%, p <0.001). Lifestyle intervention, lower baseline intrahepatic triglyceride, and reduction in body weight and waist circumference were independent factors associated with remission of NAFLD in non-obese patients. Half of non-obese patients achieved remission of NAFLD with 3-5% weight reduction; the same could only be achieved in obese patients with 7-10% weight reduction. By Year 6, non-obese patients in the intervention group remained more likely to maintain weight reduction and alanine aminotransferase normalisation than the control group. CONCLUSIONS:Lifestyle intervention is effective in treating NAFLD in both non-obese and obese patients. Weight reduction predicts remission of NAFLD in non-obese patients, but a modest weight reduction may be sufficient in this population. LAY SUMMARY:Some patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) are non-obese. The optimal management of such patients is unclear. In this long-term follow-up study of a clinical trial, we show that remission of NAFLD can be achieved in 67% of non-obese patients after lifestyle intervention. The majority of patients can achieve NAFLD remission with modest weight loss of 3-10%. Non-obese patients are also more likely than obese patients to maintain weight reduction and normal liver enzymes in the long run. 10.1016/j.jhep.2018.08.011
The effect of a Mediterranean diet a low-fat diet on non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in children: a randomized trial. International journal of food sciences and nutrition Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is becoming ever more common in children, due to the increasing global prevalence of obesity. The first-line treatment consists of weight loss through a combination of a healthy diet and exercise. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of a Mediterranean Diet or a low-fat diet on reducing hepatic steatosis and insulin resistance in children with NAFLD. This 12-week randomised clinical trial was conducted with children aged 9-17 years diagnosed with NAFLD and randomised into either a Mediterranean Diet or a low-fat diet group. By the end of the study, hepatic steatosis had decreased significantly in both groups ( < 0.001). Liver enzymes also improved significantly, while significant decreases were observed in insulin resistance in both groups, although this decrease was greater in the Mediterranean Diet group ( = 0.010). This study demonstrated that a decrease in hepatic steatosis and an improvement in insulin sensitivity can be achieved with both a Mediterranean Diet and a low-fat diet over 12 weeks, with no significant decrease in the energy required for growth, in children with NAFLD. 10.1080/09637486.2021.1979478
Effect of progressive resistance training with weight loss compared with weight loss alone on the fatty liver index in older adults with type 2 diabetes: secondary analysis of a 12-month randomized controlled trial. BMJ open diabetes research & care INTRODUCTION:Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is highly prevalent (~75%) in people with type 2 diabetes (T2D). Since exercise and weight loss (WL) are recommended for the management of both NAFLD and T2D, this study examined whether progressive resistance training (PRT) plus WL could lead to greater improvements in the fatty liver index (FLI), an indicator of NAFLD, compared with WL alone in older adults with T2D. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:This study represents a secondary analysis of a 12-month, two-arm randomised controlled trial including 36 overweight and obese adults (60-80 years) with T2D randomly allocated to supervised PRT plus WL (hypocaloric diet) (n=19) or WL plus sham (stretching) (n=17) for 6 months (phase I), followed by 6-months home-based training with ad libitum diet (phase II). FLI, which is an algorithm based on waist circumference, body mass index, triglycerides and gamma-glutamyl transferase, was assessed at baseline and every 3 months. Linear mixed models were used to analyse between-group differences over time, adjusting for baseline values. RESULTS:At baseline, the mean±SD FLI was 76.6±18.5 and the likelihood of NAFLD (FLI >60) in all participants was 86%. Following phase I, both groups had similar statistically significant improvements in FLI (mean change (95% CI): PRT+WL, -12 (-20 to -4); WL, -9 (-15 to -4)), with no significant between-group difference. After the subsequent 6-month home-based phase, the improvements in FLI tended to persist in both groups (PRT+WL, -7 (-11 to -2); WL, -4 (-10 to 1)), with no between-group differences. CONCLUSIONS:In older overweight adults with T2D, PRT did not enhance the benefits of WL on FLI, a predictor of NAFLD. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER:ACTRN12622000640707. 10.1136/bmjdrc-2022-002950
Responses of the Serum Lipid Profile to Exercise and Diet Interventions in Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease. Medicine and science in sports and exercise BACKGROUND:This study aimed to assess the response patterns of circulating lipids to exercise and diet interventions in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). METHODS:The 8.6-month four-arm randomized controlled study comprised 115 NAFLD patients with prediabetes who were assigned to aerobic exercise (AEx; n = 29), low-carbohydrate diet (Diet; n = 28), AEx plus low-carbohydrate diet (AED; n = 29), and nonintervention (NI, n = 29) groups. Hepatic fat content (HFC) was quantified by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Serum lipidomic analytes were measured using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. RESULTS:After intervention, the total level of phosphatidylcholine (PC) increased significantly in the AEx group ( P = 0.043), whereas phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and triacylglycerol decreased significantly in the AED group ( P = 0.046 and P = 0.036, respectively), and phosphatidylserine decreased in the NI group ( P = 0.002). Changes of 21 lipid metabolites were significantly associated with changes of HFC, among which half belonged to PC. Most of the molecules related to insulin sensitivity belonged to sphingomyelin (40 of 79). Controlling for the change of visceral fat, the significant associations between lipid metabolites and HFC remained. In addition, baseline serum lipids could predict the response of HFC to exercise and/or diet interventions (PE15:0/18:0 for AED, area under the curve (AUC) = 0.97; PE22:6(4Z,7Z,10Z,13Z,16Z,19Z)/0:0 for AEx, AUC = 0.90; and PC14:1(9Z)/19:1(9Z) for Diet, AUC = 0.92). CONCLUSIONS:Changes of lipidome after exercise and/or diet interventions were associated with HFC reductions, which are independent of visceral fat reduction, particularly in metabolites belonging to PC. Importantly, baseline PE could predict the HFC response to exercise, and PC predicted the response to diet. These results indicate that a circulating metabolomics panel can be used to facilitate clinical implementation of lifestyle interventions for NAFLD management. 10.1249/MSS.0000000000003388
Implementation of a randomized mobile-technology lifestyle program in individuals with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Scientific reports Identifying effective, feasible, low-cost interventions that promote sustainable lifestyle changes in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a key unmet need. The aim of this study was to assess predictors of lifestyle practice patterns of NAFLD patients and evaluate the implementation of a mobile technology-based intervention. We prospectively enrolled adults with NAFLD (diagnosed by imaging or biopsy). Individuals with additional liver diseases or decompensated cirrhosis were excluded. Patient were randomized to usual care or a FitBit based program for 6-months. We obtained anthropometrics, labs, vibration controlled transient elastography (VCTE), health-related quality of life (HRQOL), physical activity, diet and motivation to change data. 70 patients were enrolled, 33% with cirrhosis. Median age was 52.1 years, 47% males, 83% white, body mass index 32.3, liver stiffness 7.6 kPa, controlled attenuation parameter 319 db/m, and 50% had diabetes. Baseline HRQOL was 5.4/7 and independently negatively correlated with level of concern about their disease and positively with physical function. Younger age was independently associated with unhealthy diets whereas diabetes was independently associated with unhealthy diets and higher VCTE kPa. 6-month follow-up data available on 31 patients showed trends in improvement in weight. In a cohort of NAFLD patients, we identified independent correlates of lifestyle behaviors and HRQOL. Implementation of interventions that improve physical function may improve HRQOL in NAFLD. Younger patients and those with diabetes appeared to have the greatest need for dietary interventions. Structured mobile technology lifestyle interventions using Fitbit and personalized coaching showed promise but require further validation with a focus on sustainability of intervention and improvement in outcomes. 10.1038/s41598-024-57722-7
Effect of functional resistance training on the structure and function of the heart and liver in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver. Scientific reports The current study is of the quasi-experimental type, with a pre-and post-test design, and subjects were randomly assigned to one of two groups: control (n = 8) and experimental (test) (n = 8). Based on the patient's self-report and using daily diet control tables, the patient's diet planning percentage of energy supply was managed and controlled for 3 days. The protocol for functional resistance training for these circular exercises, including the squat, lunge, bear crawl, rock press, jumping jack, and back fly lunge, was performed three times per week without specialized apparatus. Ejection fraction (EF) and fractional shortening (FS) were measured before and after functional resistance training, using echocardiography. Liver Stiffness and steatosis were measured using FibroScan, and the liver function was determined using biochemical assays. The average age of patients in the control group and the test group were 46.02 ± 5.4 and 48.6 ± 2.51, respectively. Pre-test and post-test of the body mass index were 32.06 ± 5.06 and 30.02 ± 3.97, and for the body fat percentage were 33.65 ± 6.09 and 25.41 ± 4.99. In non-alcoholic fatty liver patients, due to functional resistance training, EF (p-value = 0.003) and FS (p-value = 0.03) significantly increased, and C-reactive protein (Hs-CRP) (p-value = 0.001), steatosis (p-value = 0.04), and stiffness (p-value = 0.01) decreased. According to the results and without considering clinical trials, functional resistance training affects the structure and function of the heart and Liver in NAFLD patients. 10.1038/s41598-023-42687-w
Lifestyle Modification: Evaluation of the Effects of Physical Activity and Low-Glycemic-Index Mediterranean Diet on Fibrosis Score. Nutrients BACKGROUND:Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) is one the most prevalent causes of chronic liver disease worldwide. In the absence of an approved drug treatment, lifestyle modification is the first intervention strategy. This study aimed to estimate the main effect of two different physical activity (PA) programs, and a Low-Glycemic-Index Mediterranean Diet (LGIMD), or their combined effect on liver fibrosis parameters in subjects with NAFLD. METHODS:Subjects with moderate or severe NAFLD grade of severity (n = 144) were randomly assigned to six intervention arms for three months: LGIMD, PA programs, and their combination. Data were collected at baseline, 45 days, and 90 days. Transient elastography was performed to assess the outcome. RESULTS:at 90 days, a statistically significant reduction in kPa was found among subjects following LGMID (-2.85, 95% CI -5.24, -0.45) and those following an LGIMD plus PA1 (-2.37, 95% CI -4.39, -0.35) and LGIMD plus Pa2 (-2.21, 95% CI -4.10, -0.32). The contrast between time 2 and time 1 of the LGIMD plus PA2 treatment showed a statistically significant increase, and vice versa: the contrast between time 3 and time 2 of the same treatment showed a statistically significant reduction. The PA1 and PA2 arms also showed reduced kPa, although the results did not reach statistical significance. CONCLUSIONS:The intervention arms, LGIMD, LGIMD+PA1, and LGIMD+PA2, reduced the fibrosis score. 10.3390/nu15163520
Improvements in clinical characteristics of patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, after an intervention based on the Mediterranean lifestyle: a randomised controlled clinical trial. Katsagoni Christina N,Papatheodoridis George V,Ioannidou Panagiota,Deutsch Melanie,Alexopoulou Alexandra,Papadopoulos Nikolaos,Papageorgiou Maria-Vasiliki,Fragopoulou Elizabeth,Kontogianni Meropi D The British journal of nutrition Lifestyle interventions remain the cornerstone therapy for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). This randomised controlled single-blind clinical trial investigated the effect of Mediterranean diet (MD) or Mediterranean lifestyle, along with weight loss, in NAFLD patients. In all, sixty-three overweight/obese patients (50 (sd 11) years, BMI=31·8 (sd 4·5) kg/m2, 68 % men) with ultrasonography-proven NAFLD (and elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and/or γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) levels) were randomised to the following groups: (A) control group (CG), (B) Mediterranean diet group (MDG) or (C) Mediterranean lifestyle group (MLG). Participants of MDG and MLG attended seven 60-min group sessions for 6 months, aiming at weight loss and increasing adherence to MD. In the MLG, additional guidance for increasing physical activity and improving sleep habits were given. Patients in CG received only written information for a healthy lifestyle. At the end of 6 months, 88·8 % of participants completed the study. On the basis of intention-to-treat analysis, both MDG and MLG showed greater weight reduction and higher adherence to MD compared with the CG (all P<0·05) at the end of intervention. In addition, MLG increased vigorous exercise compared with the other two study groups (P<0·001) and mid-day rest/naps compared with CG (P=0·04). MLG showed significant improvements in ALT levels (i.e. ALT<40 U/l (P=0·03) and 50 % reduction of ALT levels (P=0·009)) and liver stiffness (P=0·004) compared with CG after adjusting for % weight loss and baseline values. MDG improved only liver stiffness compared with CG (P<0·001) after adjusting for the aforementioned variables. Small changes towards the Mediterranean lifestyle, along with weight loss, can be a treatment option for patients with NAFLD. 10.1017/S000711451800137X
Daily Consumption of Synbiotic Yogurt Decreases Liver Steatosis in Patients with Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial. The Journal of nutrition Background:Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronic liver disease in developed and developing countries. The use of synbiotics has been proposed as a probable management strategy for patients with NAFLD. Objective:We investigated the effects of synbiotic yogurt on hepatic steatosis and liver enzymes as primary outcomes and on oxidative stress markers, adipokine concentration, and gut peptide concentration as secondary outcomes in patients with NAFLD. Methods:In this 24-wk, open-label, randomized controlled clinical trial, 102 patients [50 men and 52 women; mean age: 40 y; body mass index (in kg/m2) (mean ± SD): 31.2 ± 4.9] were randomly assigned to 3 groups, including 2 intervention groups and 1 control group. The intervention groups consumed 300 g synbiotic yogurt containing 108 colony-forming units Bifidobacterium animalis/mL and 1.5 g inulin or conventional yogurt daily and were advised to follow a healthy lifestyle (i.e., diet and exercise). The control group was advised to follow a healthy lifestyle alone. We evaluated differences between groups in liver function measures by using repeated-measures ANOVA, ANCOVA, and logistic regression. Results:At the end of the study, the grades of NAFLD, as determined by ultrasonography, showed a significant decrease in the synbiotic group compared with the conventional and control groups (P < 0.001). The following significant mean ± SD decreases were seen in the synbiotic, conventional, and control groups, respectively: serum concentration of alanine aminotransferase (-14.5 ± 15.6 compared with 4.6 ± 15.4 and 3.1 ± 14.4 IU/L; P = 0.008), aspartate aminotransferase (-7.5 ± 6.1 compared with 3.0 ± 8.2 and 3.1 ± 5.7 IU/L; P < 0.001), alkaline phosphatase (-26.2 ± 16.8 compared with 3.4 ± 30.1 and 1.5 ± 31.9 IU/L; P = 0.024), and γ-glutamyltransferase (-6.0 ± 6.0 compared with 1.0 ± 6.4 and 7.6 ± 11.4 IU/L; P < 0.001). Conclusion:Synbiotic yogurt consumption improved hepatic steatosis and liver enzyme concentrations in patients with NAFLD. This trial was registered at the Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials website (www.irct.ir) as IRCT2017020932417N2. 10.1093/jn/nxy088
The Metabolic and Hepatic Impact of Two Personalized Dietary Strategies in Subjects with Obesity and Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: The Fatty Liver in Obesity (FLiO) Randomized Controlled Trial. Marin-Alejandre Bertha Araceli,Abete Itziar,Cantero Irene,Monreal J Ignacio,Elorz Mariana,Herrero José Ignacio,Benito-Boillos Alberto,Quiroga Jorge,Martinez-Echeverria Ana,Uriz-Otano Juan Isidro,Huarte-Muniesa María Pilar,Tur Josep A,Martinez J Alfredo,Zulet M Angeles Nutrients The prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is increasing worldwide. NAFLD management is mainly focused on weight loss, but the optimal characteristics of the diet demand further investigation. This study aims to evaluate the effects of two personalized energy-restricted diets on the liver status in overweight or obese subjects with NAFLD after a 6 months follow-up. Ninety-eight individuals from the Fatty Liver in Obesity (FLiO) study were randomized into two groups and followed different energy-restricted diets. Subjects were evaluated at baseline and after 6 months. Diet, anthropometry, body composition, and biochemical parameters were evaluated. Liver assessment included ultrasonography, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, elastography, and determination of transaminases. Both dietary groups significantly improved their metabolic and hepatic markers after the intervention, with no significant differences between them. Multivariate regression models evidenced a relationship between weight loss, adherence to the Mediterranean Diet (MedDiet), and a decrease in liver fat content, predicting up to 40.9% of its variability after 6 months. Moreover, the antioxidant capacity of the diet was inversely associated with liver fat content. Participants in the group with a higher adherence to the MedDiet showed a greater reduction in body weight, total fat mass, and hepatic fat. These results support the benefit of energy-restricted diets, high adherence to the MedDiet, and high antioxidant capacity of the diet for the management of NAFLD in individuals with overweight or obesity. 10.3390/nu11102543
Long-term lifestyle interventions in middle-aged and elderly men with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: a randomized controlled trial. Dong Fangyuan,Zhang Yan,Huang Yiqin,Wang Yiqian,Zhang Gansheng,Hu Xiaona,Wang Jiaofeng,Chen Jie,Bao Zhijun Scientific reports Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), a metabolic disorder related to insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome, has become a public health concern. Currently, the principal therapeutic modalities targeting NAFLD are lifestyle interventions. However, the efficacy of long-term lifestyle interventions in managing NAFLD remains largely unexplored. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of long-term lifestyle interventions in middle-aged and elderly men with NAFLD. All 280 eligible patients were randomized to the control or test group. Patients in the test group received counseling on diet and exercise from 2 physicians every 3 months via a phone call. Patients in the control group received only counseling in annual checkups without regular intervention. After the 2-year periodic intervention, body weight, abdominal circumference, ALT, TCH, LDL-C and HDL-C decreased in the test group. Specifically, the fatty liver index (FLI) and NAFLD-fibrosis score (NAFLD-FS) reduced markedly in the test group. However, in the control group, there was only a significant decrease in LDL-C, HDL-C and NAFLD-FS (P < 0.001). The liver steatosis grade of the test group decreased significantly, while it increased in the control group. In NAFLD, long-term lifestyle interventions exert an anti-obesity effect and attenuate liver dysfunction and steatosis. 10.1038/srep36783
Effect of daily calcitriol supplementation with and without calcium on disease regression in non-alcoholic fatty liver patients following an energy-restricted diet: Randomized, controlled, double-blind trial. Lorvand Amiri Hamid,Agah Shahram,Tolouei Azar Javad,Hosseini Sharieh,Shidfar Farzad,Mousavi Seyedeh Neda Clinical nutrition (Edinburgh, Scotland) BACKGROUND & AIMS:Despite evidence for beneficial effects of vitamin D, to our knowledge, no study has compared the effects of calcium supplementation with vitamin D on non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) regression during a hypo-energetic program. We compared the effect of the vitamin D supplementation with and without calcium on anthropometric measures and biochemical parameters in NAFLD patients during a weight-loss program. METHODS:A 12-week, randomized, controlled, double-blind trial was conducted in 120 NAFLD patients randomly assigned to receive 25 μg calcitriol (n = 37), 500 mg calcium carbonate + 25 μg calcitriol (n = 37), or placebo (n = 36) every day with their lunch meals while following a weight-loss program. RESULTS:Weight, BMI and fat mass reduction were significant in each group after 12 wk of intervention (p < 0.001), but differences among the groups was not significant after 12 wk of the study, adjusted to the baseline measurements. Significant reduction in fasting plasma glucose (FPG), insulin, insulin resistance (by HOMA-IR) and TG concentrations and an increase in HDL.C was seen over the 12 wk of study in each group (p < 0.001). Adjusting to the baseline measurements, there was significant difference in FPG (p < 0.001), HOMA-IR (p < 0.001), serum insulin (p = 0.01), TG (p = 0.01) and HDL.C (p < 0.001) among the groups after 12 wk of the study. The calcium plus calcitriol group showed a significant decrease in ALT and FPG and increase in HDL.C level compared with the calcitriol group, adjusted to the baseline measures (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS:Our results suggest that calcium plus calcitriol supplementation for 12 weeks may be potentially effective for biochemical parameters in NAFLD patients. Further additional larger controlled trials are needed to confirm these findings. REGISTRATION:Registered under ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier no. IRCT201408312709N29. 10.1016/j.clnu.2016.09.020
Effect of lifestyle intervention on non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in Chinese obese children. Wang Chun-Lin,Liang Li,Fu Jun-Fen,Zou Chao-Chun,Hong Fang,Xue Jin-Zheng,Lu Jin-Rui,Wu Xiang-Min World journal of gastroenterology AIM:To investigate the effect of lifestyle intervention on non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in Chinese obese children. METHODS:Seventy-six obese children aged from 10 to 17 years with NAFLD were enrolled for a one-month intervention and divided randomly into three groups. Group1, consisting of 38 obese children, was an untreated control group without any intervention. Group 2, consisting of 19 obese children in summer camp, was strictly controlled only by life style intervention. Group 3, consisting of 19 obese children, received oral vitamin E therapy at a dose of 100 mg/d. The height, weight, fasting blood glucose (FBG), fasting serum insulin (FINS), plasma alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TCHO) and homeostasis model assent-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) were measured at baseline and after one month. All patients were underwent to an ultrasonographic study of the liver performed by one operator who was blinded to the groups. RESULTS:The monitor indices of BMI, ALT, AST, TG, TCHO and HOMA-IR were successfully improved except in group 1. BMI and ALT in group 2 were reduced more significantly than in group 3 (2.44 +/- 0.82 vs 1.45 +/- 0.80, P = 0.001; 88.58 +/- 39.99 vs 63.69 +/- 27.05, P = 0.040, respectively). CONCLUSION:Both a short-term lifestyle intervention and vitamin E therapy have an effect on NAFLD in obese children. Compared with vitamin E, lifestyle intervention is more effective. Therefore, lifestyle intervention should represent the first step in the management of children with NAFLD. 10.3748/wjg.14.1598
Community-based lifestyle modification programme for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: a randomized controlled trial. Wong Vincent Wai-Sun,Chan Ruth Suk-Mei,Wong Grace Lai-Hung,Cheung Bernice Ho-Ki,Chu Winnie Chiu-Wing,Yeung David Ka-Wai,Chim Angel Mei-Ling,Lai Jennifer Wing-Yan,Li Liz Sin,Sea Mandy Man-Mei,Chan Francis Ka-Leung,Sung Joseph Jao-Yiu,Woo Jean,Chan Henry Lik-Yuen Journal of hepatology BACKGROUND & AIMS:Healthy lifestyle is the most important management of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). This study aimed at assessing the efficacy of a community-based lifestyle modification programme in the remission of NAFLD. METHODS:This was a parallel group, superiority, randomized controlled trial. 154 adults with NAFLD identified during population screening were randomized to participate in a dietitian-led lifestyle modification programme at 2 community centres or receive usual care for 12 months. The primary outcome was remission of NAFLD at month 12 as evidenced by intrahepatic triglyceride content (IHTG) of less than 5% by proton-magnetic resonance spectroscopy. RESULTS:74 patients in the intervention group and 71 patients in the control group completed all study assessments. In an intention-to-treat analysis of all 154 patients, 64% of the patients in the intervention group and 20% in the control group achieved remission of NAFLD (difference between groups 44%; 95% CI 30-58%; p<0.001). The mean (SD) changes in IHTG from baseline to month 12 were -6.7% (6.1%) in the intervention group and -2.1% (6.4%) in the control group (p<0.001). Body weight decreased by 5.6 (4.4) kg and 0.6 (2.5) kg in the two groups, respectively (p<0.001). While 97% of patients with weight loss of more than 10% had remission of NAFLD, 41% of those with weight loss of 3.0-4.9% could also achieve the primary outcome. CONCLUSIONS:The community-based lifestyle modification programme is effective in reducing and normalizing liver fat in NAFLD patients. 10.1016/j.jhep.2013.04.013
Bifidobacterium longum with fructo-oligosaccharides in patients with non alcoholic steatohepatitis. Malaguarnera Michele,Vacante Marco,Antic Tijana,Giordano Maria,Chisari Giuseppe,Acquaviva Rosaria,Mastrojeni Silvana,Malaguarnera Giulia,Mistretta Antonio,Li Volti Giovanni,Galvano Fabio Digestive diseases and sciences BACKGROUND:Increased exposure to intestinal bacterial products may contribute to the pathogenesis of non alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Bifidobacteria are predominant bacterial species in the human gut microbiota and have been considered to exert a beneficial effect on human health by maintaining the equilibrium of the resident microbiota. AIMS:To evaluate the effects of Bifidobacterium longum with fructo-oligosaccharides (Fos) in the treatment of NASH. METHODS:A total of 66 patients were randomly and equally divided into two groups receiving Bifidobacterium longum with Fos and lifestyle modification (i.e., diet and exercise) versus lifestyle modification alone. The following variables were assessed at -4 (beginning of the dietary lead-in period), 0 (randomization), 6, 12, 18, and 24 weeks: aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), bilirubin, albumin, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, triglycerides, fasting plasma glucose, insulin, C-peptide, C-reactive protein (CRP), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and serum endotoxins. Liver biopsies were performed at entry and repeated after 24 weeks of treatment. RESULTS:At the end of study period, we observed that the Bifidobacterium longum with Fos and lifestyle modification group versus the lifestyle modification alone group showed significant differences in the AST -69.6 versus -45.9 IU/mL (P < 0.05), LDL cholesterol -0.84 versus -0.18 mmol/L (P < 0.001), CRP -2.9 versus -0.7 mg/L (P < 0.05), TNF-α -0.45 versus -0.12 ng/mL (P < 0.001), HOMA-IR -1.1 versus -0.6 (P < 0.001), serum endotoxin -45.2 versus -30.6 pg/mL (P < 0.001), steatosis (P < 0.05), and the NASH activity index (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS:Bifidobacterium longum with Fos and lifestyle modification, when compared to lifestyle modification alone, significantly reduces TNF-α, CRP, serum AST levels, HOMA-IR, serum endotoxin, steatosis, and the NASH activity index. 10.1007/s10620-011-1887-4
Effect of vitamin E on aminotransferase levels and insulin resistance in children with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Nobili V,Manco M,Devito R,Ciampalini P,Piemonte F,Marcellini M Alimentary pharmacology & therapeutics BACKGROUND:Few data are available on the effect of antioxidants in paediatric non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). AIM:To compare the effect of a nutritional programme alone or combined with alpha-tocopherol and ascorbic acid on alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels, and insulin resistance (IR) in biopsy-proven NAFLD children. METHODS:IN a 12-month double-blind placebo study, 90 patients were prescribed a balanced calorie diet (25-30 cal/kg/d), physical exercise, and placebo (group A) or alpha-tocopherol 600 IU/day plus ascorbic acid 500 mg/day (group B). IR was estimated by the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR). RESULTS:At month 12, ALT (32.67 +/- 8.09 vs. 32.18 +/- 11.39 IU/L; P = NS), HOMA-IR (1.52 +/- 0.66 vs. 1.84 +/- 0.95 IU/L; P = NS), and weight loss (32% vs. 35% of excessive body weight; P = NS) did not differ between the two arms. Among subjects who lost >or=20% of their excessive weight, ALT and body weight percentage changes were significantly related (r(o) = 0.260; P = 0.03). In subjects, who lost more than 1.0 kg, HOMA-IR significantly decreased (2.20 +/- 0.21 to 1.57 +/- 0.13 in group A (P <or= 0.01; -8%); 2.91 +/- 0.24 to 1.88 +/- 0.16 in group B (-32%; P <or= 0.0001)). ALT decreased by 36% (59.13 +/- 4.11 vs. 30.27 +/- 1.46 IU/L; P <or= 0.001), and 42% (68.19 +/- 5.68 vs. 31.92 +/- 1.92 IU/L; P <or= 0.0001). In a multivariate analysis, fasting insulin changes in group A (P = 0.012; F = 7.150). CONCLUSIONS:Diet and physical exercise in NAFLD children seem to lead to a significant improvement of liver function and glucose metabolism beyond any antioxidant therapy. 10.1111/j.1365-2036.2006.03161.x
Clinical trial: a nutritional supplement Viusid, in combination with diet and exercise, in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Vilar Gomez E,Rodriguez De Miranda A,Gra Oramas B,Arus Soler E,Llanio Navarro R,Calzadilla Bertot L,Yasells Garcia A,Del Rosario Abreu Vazquez M Alimentary pharmacology & therapeutics BACKGROUND:Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a significant health problem for which there is no universally accepted pharmacological treatment. The combination of weight loss and antioxidant drugs to ameliorate insulin resistance and improve steatosis, inflammation and fibrosis provides the rational for therapeutic trials. AIM:To evaluate the efficacy and safety of a nutritional supplement Viusid in association with diet and exercise for NAFLD. METHODS:A randomized, controlled and parallel-group trial was conducted at a tertiary care academic centre (National Institute of Gastroenterology, Havana, Cuba). We randomly assigned 60 patients with liver biopsy-proven NAFLD to 6 months of treatment with a hypocaloric diet plus aerobic exercise daily and three Viusid sachets daily or a hypocaloric diet and exercise. Endpoints were improvement in the NAFLD activity score (NAS), fibrosis and normalization of serum aminotransferase levels. RESULTS:A significant improvement in steatosis, necroinflammation and fibrosis was seen in each group of treatment (P < 0.01 for each feature). The Viusid group, as compared with the control group, significantly reduced the mean of NAS [from 4.18 to 0.54 points in the Viusid group vs. 4.45 to 2.2 points in the control group (P < 0.001)]. On between-group comparison, Viusid was found to be associated with a significantly greater improvement in steatosis (P < 0.001), ballooning (P = 0.002) and lobular inflammation (P = 0.025), but not in fibrosis (P = 0.07). Viusid was well tolerated. CONCLUSIONS:Our results indicate that treatment with diet and exercise leads to a notable improvement in the histological features of NAFLD; however, the administration of Viusid intensifies the improvements of histological findings, especially of steatosis and inflammation. 10.1111/j.1365-2036.2009.04122.x
Weight reduction improves markers of hepatic function and insulin resistance in type-2 diabetic patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver. Al-Jiffri O,Al-Sharif F M,Abd El-Kader S M,Ashmawy E M African health sciences OBJECTIVE:The incidence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is increasing dramatically affecting up to 30% of the population worldwide. At present, treatment options are limited and pharmacological management of NAFLD has had disappointing results. Some of the best available evidence to improve NAFLD concerns lifestyle modification. OBJECTIVE:To detect the degree of weight reduction needed to improve the markers of hepatic function and insulin resistance in type-2 diabetics with NAFLD. METHODS:One hundred type-2 diabetic male patients with NAFLD were included into this study and divided into two equal groups. Group (A) received aerobic exercise training in addition to diet regimen. Group (B) received no treatment intervention. RESULTS:There was a 26.99%, 40.8%, 33.81%, 32.73%, 37.8% and 15 % reduction in mean values of Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP), Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT), Aspartate Aminotransferase (AST), Gamma - Glutamyltransferase (GGT) and Homeostasis Model Assessment-Insulin Resistance-index (HOMA-IR) and BMI respectively in group (A) at the end of the study. While there were significant differences between mean levels of the investigated parameters in group (A) and group (B) after treatment. CONCLUSION:About 15 % reduction in BMI is effective to improve the liver condition and insulin resistance in type-2 diabetics with NAFLD. 10.4314/ahs.v13i3.21
Lifestyle intervention and antioxidant therapy in children with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: a randomized, controlled trial. Nobili Valerio,Manco Melania,Devito Rita,Di Ciommo Vincenzo,Comparcola Donatella,Sartorelli Maria Rita,Piemonte Fiorella,Marcellini Matilde,Angulo Paul Hepatology (Baltimore, Md.) UNLABELLED:No proven treatment exists for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in children and adolescents. We sought to determine the efficacy of lifestyle intervention with or without antioxidant therapy in pediatric NAFLD. A total of 53 patients (age 5.7-18.8 years, 37 boys) were included. Lifestyle intervention consisting of a diet tailored to the patient's calorie needs, and increased physical activity was prescribed in all. Patients were concomitantly randomized to alpha-tocopherol 600 IU/day plus ascorbic acid 500 mg/day (n = 25) or placebo (n = 28), and treated for 24 months. The study was an extension of a previous study aimed at evaluating the effect of 12-month lifestyle intervention and antioxidant therapy on serum levels of aminotransferases. The primary end point of the present study was change in liver histology on repeated biopsy at 24 months. Secondary end points were changes in body weight, liver enzymes, and insulin sensitivity indices on 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test. The amount of weight lost at 24 months was similar in the placebo and antioxidant groups (-4.75 [range, -16-4.0] versus -5.5 [range, -12.2-0.4] kg, respectively, P = 0.9). A significant improvement occurred in the grade of steatosis, lobular inflammation, and hepatocyte ballooning, and in the NAFLD activity score in both groups. Levels of aminotransferases, triglycerides, cholesterol, fasting glucose, and insulin, and insulin sensitivity indices improved significantly as well. The improvement in all these parameters was not significantly different between the two groups. CONCLUSION:Lifestyle intervention with diet and increased physical activity induces weight loss and is associated with a significant improvement in liver histology and laboratory abnormalities in pediatric NAFLD. Alpha-tocopherol plus ascorbic acid does not seem to increase the efficacy of lifestyle intervention alone. 10.1002/hep.22336
Effect of aerobic exercise and low carbohydrate diet on pre-diabetic non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in postmenopausal women and middle aged men--the role of gut microbiota composition: study protocol for the AELC randomized controlled trial. Liu Wu Yi,Lu Da Jiang,Du Xia Ming,Sun Jian Qin,Ge Jun,Wang Ren Wei,Wang Ru,Zou Jun,Xu Chang,Ren Jie,Wen Xin Fei,Liu Yang,Cheng Shu Mei,Tan Xiao,Pekkala Satu,Munukka Eveliina,Wiklund Petri,Chen Yan Qiu,Gu Qing,Xia Zheng Chang,Liu Jun Jun,Liu Wen Bin,Chen Xue Bo,Zhang Yi Min,Li Rui,Borra Ronald J H,Yao Jia Xin,Chen Pei Jie,Cheng Sulin BMC public health BACKGROUND:Pre-diabetes and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) are associated with an unhealthy lifestyle and pose extremely high costs to the healthcare system. In this study, we aim to explore whether individualized aerobic exercise (AEx) and low carbohydrate diet (LCh) intervention affect hepatic fat content (HFC) in pre-diabetes via modification of gut microbiota composition and other post-interventional effects. METHODS/DESIGN:A 6-month randomized intervention with 6-month follow-up is conducted from January 2013 to December 2015. The target sample size for intervention is 200 postmenopausal women and middle-aged men aged 50-65 year-old with pre-diabetes and NAFLD. The qualified subjects are randomized into 4 groups with 50 subjects in each group: 1 = AEx, 2 = LCh, 3 = AEx + LCh, and 4 = control. In addition, two age-matched reference groups (5 = pre-diabetes without NAFLD (n = 50) and 6 = Healthy without pre-diabetes or NAFLD (n = 50)) are included. The exercise program consists of progressive and variable aerobic exercise (intensity of 60 to 75% of initial fitness level, 3-5 times/week and 30-60 min/time). The diet program includes dietary consultation plus supplementation with a special lunch meal (40% of total energy intake/day) which aims to reduce the amount of carbohydrate consumption (30%). The control and reference groups are advised to maintain their habitual habits during the intervention. The primary outcome measures are HFC, serum metabolomics and gut microbiota composition. The secondary outcome measures include body composition and cytokines. In addition, socio-psychological aspects, social support, physical activity and diet will be performed by means of questionnaire and interview. DISCUSSION:Specific individualized exercise and diet intervention in this study offers a more efficient approach for liver fat reduction and diabetes prevention via modification of gut microbiota composition. Besides, the study explores the importance of incorporating fitness assessment and exercise in the management of patients with pre-diabetes and fatty liver disorders. If our program is shown to be effective, it will open new strategies to combat these chronic diseases. TRIAL REGISTRATION:Current Controlled Trials: ISRCTN42622771. 10.1186/1471-2458-14-48
Delivery of a telehealth supported home exercise program with dietary advice to increase plant-based protein intake in people with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: a 12-week randomised controlled feasibility trial. The British journal of nutrition This study evaluated the feasibility and safety of a telehealth delivered exercise plus plant-based protein diet in adults with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). This was a 12-week, randomised controlled feasibility trial including twenty-eight adults aged > 45 years with NAFLD randomised to a home muscle strengthening program (3 d/week) with increased protein intake (target ∼1·2-1·5 g/kg/d) from predominately plant-based sources and behavioural change support (3-4 text messages/week) (Pro-Ex 14) or usual care (UC, 14). Feasibility was assessed via retention (≤ 10 % attrition), adherence (exercise ≥ 66 %; recommended daily protein serves ≥ 80 %) and safety (adverse events). Secondary outcomes included macronutrient intake (3 × 24-h records), weight, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and 30 s sit-to-stand (STS) performance. Study retention was 89 %. Mean exercise adherence (Pro-Ex) was 52 % with one adverse event from 241 sessions. In Pro-Ex, mean daily plant protein serves increased (0·9 to 1·4/d) and animal protein decreased (1·5 to 1·2/d) after 12-weeks, but overall adherence (serves/day) was 32[RD1] % (plant) and 42 % (animal). Relative to UC, Pro-Ex experienced a mean 2·7 (95 % CI: 0·9, 4·4) increase in 30 s STS number, 46-minute (95 % CI: -153, 245) increase in MVPA, 1·7 kg (95 % CI: -3·5, 0·2) decrease in weight, 35·2 g (95 % CI: 11·0, 59·3) increase in protein. In adults with NAFLD a telehealth home exercise and dietary intervention was safe and improved habitual plant and animal protein intake, but overall adherence was modest suggesting more intensive healthcare support may be required. 10.1017/S0007114524000242
Efficacy of a 2-Month Very Low-Calorie Ketogenic Diet (VLCKD) Compared to a Standard Low-Calorie Diet in Reducing Visceral and Liver Fat Accumulation in Patients With Obesity. Cunha Guilherme Moura,Guzman German,Correa De Mello Livia Lugarinho,Trein Barbara,Spina Luciana,Bussade Isabela,Marques Prata Juliana,Sajoux Ignacio,Countinho Walmir Frontiers in endocrinology Currently the treatment of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is based on weight loss through lifestyle changes, such as exercise combined with calorie-restricted dieting. To assess the effects of a commercially available weight loss program based on a very low-calorie ketogenic diet (VLCKD) on visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and liver fat content compared to a standard low-calorie (LC) diet. As a secondary aim, we evaluated the effect on liver stiffness measurements. Open, randomized controlled, prospective pilot study. Patients were randomized and treated either with an LC or a VLCKD and received orientation and encouragement to physical activity equally for both groups. VAT, liver fat fraction, and liver stiffness were measured at baseline and after 2 months of treatment using magnetic resonance imaging. Paired -tests were used for comparison of continuous variables between visits and unpaired test between groups. Categorical variables were compared using the χ-test. Pearson correlation was used to assess the association between VAT, anthropometric measures, and hepatic fat fraction. A significance level of the results was established at < 0.05. Thirty-nine patients (20 with VLCKD and 19 with LC) were evaluated at baseline and 2 months of intervention. Relative weight loss at 2 months was -9.59 ± 2.87% in the VLCKD group and -1.87 ± 2.4% in the LC group ( < 0.001). Mean reductions in VAT were -32.0 cm for VLCKD group and -12.58 cm for LC group ( < 0.05). Reductions in liver fat fraction were significantly more pronounced in the VLCKD group than in the LC group (4.77 vs. 0.79%; < 0.005). Patients undergoing a VLCKD achieved superior weight loss, with significant VAT and liver fat fraction reductions when compared to the standard LC diet. The weight loss and rapid mobilization of liver fat demonstrated with VLCKD could serve as an effective alternative for the treatment of NAFLD. ClinicalTrials.gov, identifier: NCT04322110. 10.3389/fendo.2020.00607
Effect of alternate day fasting combined with aerobic exercise on non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: A randomized controlled trial. Cell metabolism Innovative non-pharmacological lifestyle strategies to treat non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) are critically needed. This study compared the effects of alternate day fasting (ADF) combined with exercise to fasting alone, or exercise alone, on intrahepatic triglyceride (IHTG) content. Adults with obesity and NAFLD (n = 80, 81% female, age: 23-65 years) were randomized to 1 of 4 groups for 3 months: combination of ADF (600 kcal/2,500 kJ "fast day" alternated with an ad libitum intake "feast day") and moderate-intensity aerobic exercise (5 session per week, 60 min/session); ADF alone; exercise alone; or a no-intervention control group. By month 3, IHTG content was significantly reduced in the combination group (-5.48%; 95% CI, -7.77% to -3.18%), compared with the exercise group (-1.30%; 95% CI, -3.80% to 1.20%; p = 0.02) and the control group (-0.17%; 95% CI, -2.17% to 1.83%; p < 0.01) but was not significantly different versus the ADF group (-2.25%; 95% CI, -4.46% to -0.04%; p = 0.05). Body weight, fat mass, waist circumference, and alanine transaminase (ALT) levels significantly decreased, while insulin sensitivity significantly increased in the combination group compared with the control group. Lean mass, aspartate transaminase (AST), HbA1c, blood pressure, plasma lipids, liver fibrosis score, and hepatokines (fetuin-A, FGF-21, and selenoprotein P) did not differ between groups. Combining intermittent fasting with exercise is effective for reducing hepatic steatosis in patients with NAFLD but may offer no additional benefit versus fasting alone. 10.1016/j.cmet.2022.12.001
Lifestyle Intervention for Patients with Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: A Randomized Clinical Trial Based on the Theory of Planned Behavior. BioMed research international Introduction:Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronic liver disease, accounting for about 25% and 33% of the world's adult population and Iranians, respectively. There is currently no effective therapeutic agent available for the treatment of NAFLD. However, lifestyle modifications aimed at weight loss have been introduced as a cornerstone of NAFLD management. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of educational intervention on lifestyle and anthropometric indices in patients with NAFLD. Methods:The randomized controlled clinical trial was performed on 87 overweight or obese patients with NAFLD, including intervention ( = 42) and control ( = 45) groups. The intervention received 8 training sessions based on theory of planned behavior (TPB), while the control groups received nutritional and physical activity recommendations from their internal specialist and nutritionist. Analyses were carried out based on data collected from TPB constructs and anthropometric indices (weight, body mass index (BMI), waist size, and waist-hip ratio (WHR)) at three stages (before intervention and two and 12 weeks after the intervention), as well as data obtained from liver enzymes (alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST)), and ultrasound-based grading of NAFLD at two stages (before and 12 weeks after the intervention). Results:After the intervention, a significant difference was found between the intervention and control groups, resulting in the increased mean scores of TPB constructs, decreased liver enzymes, and decreased degree of NAFLD ultrasound. In addition, the intervention group experienced more activity and healthy diet as compared with the control group. Anthropometric indices showed only a significant decrease in BMI in the intervention group ( < 0.05). Conclusions:TPB-based training, as compared with traditional training, is a more effective and cost-effective strategy for altering nutritional behavior and physical activity of patients with NAFLD. 10.1155/2022/3465980
Impact of a Mediterranean diet on hepatic and metabolic outcomes in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: The MEDINA randomised controlled trial. Liver international : official journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver BACKGROUND:Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is predominantly managed by lifestyle intervention, in the absence of effective pharmacotherapies. Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) is the recommended diet, albeit with limited evidence. AIMS:To compare an ad libitum MedDiet to low-fat diet (LFD) in patients with NAFLD for reducing intrahepatic lipids (IHL) by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( H-MRS). Secondary outcomes include insulin resistance by homeostatic model of assessment (HOMA-IR), visceral fat by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA), liver stiffness measurement (LSM) and other metabolic outcomes. METHODS:In this parallel multicentre RCT, subjects were randomised (1:1) to MedDiet or LFD for 12 weeks. RESULTS:Forty-two participants (25 females [60%], mean age 52.3 ± 12.6 years) were included, 23 randomised to LFD and 19 to MedDiet.; 39 completed the study. Following 12 weeks, there were no between-group differences. IHL improved significantly within the LFD group (-17% [log scale]; p = .02) but not within the MedDiet group (-8%, p = .069). HOMA-IR reduced in the LFD group (6.5 ± 5.6 to 5.5 ± 5.5, p < .01) but not in the MedDiet group (4.4 ± 3.2 to 3.9 ± 2.3, p = .07). No differences were found for LSM (MedDiet 7.8 ± 4.0 to 7.6 ± 5.2, p = .429; LFD 11.8 ± 14.3 to 10.8 ± 10.2 p = .99). Visceral fat reduced significantly in both groups; LFD (-76% [log scale], p = <.0005), MedDiet (-61%, p = <.0005). CONCLUSIONS:There were no between-group differences for hepatic and metabolic outcomes when comparing MedDiet to LFD. LFD improved IHL and insulin resistance. Significant improvements in visceral fat were seen within both groups. This study highlights provision of dietary interventions in free-living adults with NAFLD is challenging. 10.1111/liv.15264
Effects of alternate-day fasting on body weight and dyslipidaemia in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: a randomised controlled trial. Cai Hua,Qin Yue-Lan,Shi Ze-Ya,Chen Jin-Hui,Zeng Min-Jie,Zhou Wei,Chen Ru-Qun,Chen Zhi-Yuan BMC gastroenterology BACKGROUND:Alternate-day fasting (ADF) is a novel diet therapy that may achieve reduction in body weight and improvement of dyslipidaemia, but the impact of this diet on patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) remains unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of ADF on the body weight and lipid profile of individuals with NAFLD. METHODS:NAFLD patients (n = 271) were randomised to the ADF group, time-restricted feeding (TRF) group, or the control group and subjected to the respective diet for 12 weeks. Anthropometric measurements (body weight, fat mass/fat-free mass) were performed, and plasma lipids were analysed enzymatically. RESULTS:Within 4 weeks, the body weight decreased significantly (P < 0.001) in the ADF group by 4.56 ± 0.41 kg (6.1 ± 0.5%) and the TRF group by 3.62 ± 0.65 kg (4.83 ± 0.9%) compared to the control group, and it decreased even more after 12 weeks in both groups (ADF: - 4.04 ± 0.54 kg, 5.4 ± 0.7%; TRF: - 3.25 ± 0.67 kg, 4.3 ± 0.9%). Fat mass was significantly reduced by ADF (- 3.49 ± 0.37 kg; 11 ± 1.2%) and TRF (- 2.91 ± 0.41 kg; 9.6 ± 1.3%), with ADF leading to a further reduction in fat mass after 12 weeks (- 3.48 ± 0.38 kg; 11 ± 1.2%). Total cholesterol was significantly decreased at both time points in the ADF group (- 0.91 ± 0.07 mmol/L; 18.5 ± 1.5%) compared to the control and TRF groups. Both ADF (- 0.64 ± 0.06 mmol/L; 25 ± 1.9%) and TRF (0.58 ± 0.07 mmol/L; 20 ± 1.7%) achieved a significant reduction in serum triglycerides (P < 0.001) after 12 weeks. Changes in fat free mass, HDL, LDL, fasting insulin, glucose, liver stiffness, and systolic or diastolic blood pressure did not differ between the groups. CONCLUSIONS:ADF appears to be an effective diet therapy for individuals with NAFLD that can achieve weight loss and improvement of dyslipidaemia within a relatively short period of time (4 to 12 weeks). Potential preventive effects of ADF on cardiovascular disease need to be confirmed by future investigations. TRIAL REGISTRATION:ChiCTR1900024411, this trial was retrospectively registered on July 10, 2019. 10.1186/s12876-019-1132-8
The effects of intermittent fasting diet in comparison with low-calorie diet on lipid profile, glycemic status, and liver fibrosis in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver (NAFLD): a study protocol for a randomized controlled clinical trial. BMC nutrition INTRODUCTION:Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a common liver disease characterized by an increase in fat in liver cells. The outbreak of NAFLD is estimated to be 32.4% worldwide, with higher rates in Asia and Iran. Nutritional factors such as excessive calorie intake, high fructose intake, copper deficiency, and increased iron intake play an important role in NAFLD. Since there is no specific treatment for NAFLD, intermittent fasting (IF) diet has been suggested as an alternative treatment for obesity and related complications. Previous studies showed the potential positive effects of IF on metabolic health and the reduction of oxidative stress in NAFLD. This randomized controlled trial (RCT) will be aimed to examine the effect of the IF diet in comparison with a low-calorie diet (LCD) on lipid profile, glycemic status, and liver fibrosis in patients with NAFLD. METHODS AND ANALYSIS:This is a parallel randomized clinical trial conducted on 52 overweight and obese patients with NAFLD. Participants will be randomly assigned to receive either 16:8 IF (fasting from 8 P.M. to 12 P.M. the next day) or a low-calorie (55% carbohydrate- 30% fat, 15% protein) diet for 12 weeks. Anthropometric measurements, liver assessments, and metabolic evaluations will be assessed before and after the intervention. Primary outcomes include liver steatosis and fibrosis, while secondary outcomes include liver function enzymes, insulin resistance, lipid profile, and anthropometric measurements. DISCUSSION:Since obesity and insulin resistance are the most important risk factors of NAFLD, and there is no treatment for it, it seems that lifestyle changes such as low caloric diet like IF and exercise can improve lipid metabolism and liver enzymes. TRIAL REGISTRATION:Iranian registry of clinical trials (IRCT20170202032367N5). 10.1186/s40795-023-00794-x
Treatment of NAFLD with intermittent calorie restriction or low-carb high-fat diet - a randomised controlled trial. Holmer Magnus,Lindqvist Catarina,Petersson Sven,Moshtaghi-Svensson John,Tillander Veronika,Brismar Torkel B,Hagström Hannes,Stål Per JHEP reports : innovation in hepatology Background & Aims:The first-line treatment for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is weight reduction. Several diets have been proposed, with various effects specifically on liver steatosis. This trial compared the effects of intermittent calorie restriction (the 5:2 diet) and a low-carb high-fat diet (LCHF) on reduction of hepatic steatosis. Methods:We conducted an open-label randomised controlled trial that included 74 patients with NAFLD randomised in a 1:1:1 ratio to 12 weeks' treatment with either a LCHF or 5:2 diet, or general lifestyle advice from a hepatologist (standard of care; SoC). The primary outcome was reduction of hepatic steatosis as measured by magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Secondary outcomes included transient elastography, insulin resistance, blood lipids, and anthropometrics. Results:The LCHF and 5:2 diets were both superior to SoC treatment in reducing steatosis (absolute reduction: LCHF: -7.2% [95% CI = -9.3 to -5.1], 5:2: -6.1% [95% CI = -8.1 to -4.2], SoC: -3.6% [95% CI = -5.8 to -1.5]) and body weight (LCHF: -7.3 kg [95% CI = -9.6 to -5.0]; 5:2: -7.4 kg [95% CI = -8.7 to -6.0]; SoC: -2.5 kg [95% CI =-3.5 to -1.5]. There was no difference between 5:2 and LCHF ( = 0.41 for steatosis and 0.78 for weight). Liver stiffness improved in the 5:2 and SoC but not in the LCHF group. The 5:2 diet was associated with reduced LDL levels and was tolerated to a higher degree than LCHF. Conclusions:The LCHF and 5:2 diets were more effective in reducing steatosis and body weight in patients with NAFLD than SoC, suggesting dietary advice can be tailored to meet individual preferences. Lay summary:For a person with obesity who suffers from fatty liver, weight loss through diet can be an effective treatment to improve the condition of the liver. Many popular diets that are recommended for weight reduction, such as high-fat diets and diets based on intermittent fasting, have not had their effects on the liver directly evaluated. This study shows that both a low-carb high-fat and the 5:2 diet are effective in treating fatty liver caused by obesity. Clinical Trials Registration:This study is registered at Clinicaltrials.gov (NCT03118310). 10.1016/j.jhepr.2021.100256
Telemedicine as a tool for dietary intervention in NAFLD-HIV patients during the COVID-19 lockdown: A randomized controlled trial. Clinical nutrition ESPEN BACKGROUND & AIMS:Given reports of changes in dietary habits during covid-19 lockdown, our aim was to assess weight changes, over a 3-month Covid-19 national lockdown in a cohort of NAFLD-HIV patients on a dietary intervention trial. METHODS:After NAFLD screening in an outpatient Infectious Diseases Clinic, NAFLD patients were randomly allocated to general dietary recommendations (SC group) or to a structured dietary intervention based on the Mediterranean diet (intervention group). During lockdown, follow-up consultations in the intervention group were done by video and/or phone. After 3 months of lockdown, all patients (intervention and SC group) consented to a telephone interview which aimed to characterize eating habits and lifestyle changes and evaluate stress and depression. Biochemical data when available, was compared between the peri-period of confinement. RESULTS:One hundred and twelve patients were screened. From the 55 NAFDL identified, 27 were allocated to dietary intervention and 28 to SC and were followed before lockdown for a mean period of 5.0 ± 1.5 months in which SC group gained a median of 0.65 kg vs. a median loss of 1.5 kg in the intervention group (p < 0.001). During lockdown, 93.3% of patients in the SC group referred that "diet got worse" vs. 6.7% in the intervention group p < 0.01), and 35.3% vs. 15.7% (p = 0.014) reported increase in appetite, respectively. Both groups gained weight, SC group vs. 0.7 ± 1.7 kg in the intervention group, p < 0.001). Higher weight gain was associated with changes in the dietary pattern (3.8 ± 2.1 kg vs. 2.0 ± 1.3 kg in "no change in dietary pattern"; p = 0.002). Glucose blood levels increased after lockdown in the SC group, with a mean increase of 15 mg/dl (p = 0.023). The remaining metabolic parameters remained unchanged. CONCLUSION:The maintenance of dietary intervention, using telemedicine, can mitigate the adverse change in dietary habits and physical activity pattern, preventing a substantial increase in body weight. 10.1016/j.clnesp.2021.03.031
Multidisciplinary lifestyle intervention is associated with improvements in liver damage and in surrogate scores of NAFLD and liver fibrosis in morbidly obese patients. European journal of nutrition PURPOSE:Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the hepatic manifestation of the metabolic syndrome. Particularly morbidly obese patients are at risk of developing progressive liver disease. Nutritional and lifestyle intervention is recommended as the standard of care in NAFLD. However, there is a striking lack of evidence to support the efficacy of lifestyle intervention to treat NAFLD in morbidly obese patients. Here, we aimed to assess the impact of lifestyle intervention on NAFLD in the morbidly obese in a real-world setting. METHODS:136 obese patients were included in an industry-independent, multiprofessional lifestyle intervention program with a lead-in phase of 12 weeks of formula diet and a total of 48 weeks intensive counselling. Body weight and markers of the metabolic syndrome were analyzed. Presence of NAFLD was screened for by use of non-invasive markers of fatty liver, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis and liver fibrosis. RESULTS:Weight loss goals (i.e. > 5% or > 10% of initial body weight, respectively, depending on baseline BMI) were achieved in 89.7% of subjects in the intention-to-treat analysis and 93.9% in the per-protocol analysis. This was associated with a pronounced improvement in serum ALT values. The percentage of subjects who fulfilled non-invasive criteria for fatty liver dropped from 95.2 to 54.8%. Risk of NASH improved and the number of patients at risk of liver fibrosis declined by 54.1%. CONCLUSION:Lifestyle intervention was associated with a marked improvement of serum ALT and an improvement of surrogate scores indicative of NAFLD and, importantly, advanced fibrosis, in a real-world cohort of morbidly obese patients. 10.1007/s00394-022-02846-7
Effect of a Six-Month Lifestyle Intervention on the Physical Activity and Fitness Status of Adults with NAFLD and Metabolic Syndrome. Nutrients (1) Background: Physical inactivity has been linked to NAFLD, and exercise has been reported as useful to reduce intrahepatic fat content in NAFLD. (2) Objectives: To assess the physical activity (PA) and fitness status after a six-month lifestyle intervention (diet and PA) in adults with NAFLD and metabolic syndrome (MetS). (3) Design: Prospective cohort analysis of data obtained between baseline and six-year parallel-group randomized trial (n = 155, aged 40-60 years old, with MetS and NAFLD). Participants were randomized into three nutritional and PA intervention groups: Conventional diet (CD); MedDiet-high meal frequency (MD-HMF); MedDiet-physical activity (MD-PA). (4) Methods: PA and fitness status were assessed using a validated Minnesota questionnaire, ALPHA-FIT test battery, accelerometers, and functional fitness score. Information related to age, gender, education level, marital status, socioeconomic status, smoking habit, and alcohol consumption were also obtained. (5) Results: The CD group had higher improvement in standing handgrip than the MD-HMF group. The MD-PA group did more modified push-up repetitions than the CD group. The MD-PA and CD groups showed higher sitting handgrip than the MD-HMF group. The MD-HMF group showed the highest decrease in aerobic capacity. The MD-PA group showed lower light intensity PA/day than the CD and MD-HMF groups. The MD-PA group showed higher moderate intensity PA than the CD and MD-HMF groups. The CD group reported more METs per day than the MD-HMF group. (6) Conclusions: Lifestyle six-month intervention with diet and regular PA improved functional fitness in middle-aged patients with NAFLD and MetS. Aerobic capacity improved in patients who followed a Mediterranean diet and regular training sessions at six months. 10.3390/nu14091813
Differential Effects of Dietary versus Exercise Intervention on Intrahepatic MAIT Cells and Histological Features of NAFLD. Nutrients BACKGROUND:Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells promote inflammation in obesity and are implicated in the progression of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). However, as the intrahepatic MAIT cell response to lifestyle intervention in NAFLD has not been investigated, this work aimed to examine circulating and intrahepatic MAIT cell populations in patients with NAFLD, after either 12 weeks of dietary intervention (DI) or aerobic exercise intervention (EI). METHODS:Multicolour flow cytometry was used to immunophenotype circulating and intrahepatic MAIT cells and measure MAIT cell expression (median fluorescence intensity, MFI) of the activation marker CD69 and apoptotic marker CD95. Liver histology, clinical parameters, and MAIT cell populations were assessed at baseline (T0) and following completion (T1) of DI or EI. RESULTS:Forty-five patients completed the study. DI participants showed decreased median (interquartile range) expression of the activation marker CD69 on circulating MAIT cells (T0: 104 (134) versus T1 27 (114) MFI; = 0.0353) and improvements in histological steatosis grade post-intervention. EI participants showed increased expression of the apoptotic marker CD95, both in circulating (T0: 1549 (888) versus T1: 2563 (1371) MFI; = 0.0043) and intrahepatic MAIT cells (T0: 2724 (862) versus T1: 3117 (1622) MFI; = 0.0269). Moreover, the percentage of intrahepatic MAIT cells significantly decreased after EI (T0: 11.1 (14.4) versus T1: 5.3 (9.3)%; = 0.0029), in conjunction with significant improvements in fibrosis stage and hepatocyte ballooning. CONCLUSIONS:These data demonstrate independent benefits from dietary and exercise intervention and suggest a role for intrahepatic MAIT cells in the observed histological improvements in NAFLD. 10.3390/nu14112198
Impact of Adherence to the Mediterranean Diet on Antioxidant Status and Metabolic Parameters in NAFLD Patients: A 24-Month Lifestyle Intervention Study. Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland) BACKGROUND:The Mediterranean Diet (MedDiet) is recognized as a healthy dietary pattern. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is characterized by the excessive accumulation of fat in the liver. OBJECTIVES:To assess the antioxidant status in erythrocytes, plasma, and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of NAFLD patients following a 24-month lifestyle intervention based on the MedDiet. Adult patients ( = 40; aged 40-60 years) diagnosed with NAFLD by magnetic resonance imaging were divided into two groups based on their adherence to the MedDiet. Consumption was assessed using a validated 143-item semiquantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire. Anthropometrics, biochemistry parameters, intrahepatic fat contents (IFC), antioxidants, and inflammatory biomarkers were measured in plasma and erythrocytes before and after the intervention. RESULTS:After the intervention, body mass index (BMI) and plasma levels of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-chol), triglycerides, malondialdehyde (MDA), and cytokeratin-18 (CK18) decreased, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-chol) increased. Participants with high adherence to MedDiet showed lower IFC, hepatic enzyme (AST, ALT, and GGT), glycemia, oxidase LDL (oxLDL) plasma levels, and erythrocyte MDA levels. Higher antioxidant activity (erythrocyte catalase-CAT, superoxide dismutase-SOD, glutathione peroxidase-GPx, glutathione reductase-GRd, and total glutathione-GSH as well as PBMCs-CAT gene expression) was observed in these patients, along with a reduction of PBMCs reactive oxygen species production and Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) expression. Inverse associations were observed between adherence to the MedDiet and BMI, glycemia, AST, IFC, and CK18 plasma levels and oxLDL, CAT, SOD, and GRd activities in erythrocytes. A significant linear regression was observed between adherence to the MedDiet and antioxidant score. CONCLUSIONS:Adherence to the MedDiet is associated with improved plasma and PBMC antioxidant and inflammatory biomarker profiles and high antioxidant defences in erythrocytes. 10.3390/antiox13040480
Lifestyle intervention in children with obesity and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial in Ningbo city (the SCIENT study). Trials BACKGROUND:The increasing prevalence of childhood obesity has become an urgent public health problem, evidence showed that intervention for childhood obesity bring enormous health benefits. However, an effective individualized intervention strategy remains to be developed, and the accompanying remission of related complications, such as nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), needs to be assessed. This study aimed to develop an m-Health-assisted lifestyle intervention program targeting overweight/obese children and assess its effectiveness on indicators of adiposity and NAFLD. METHODS:This is a cluster-randomized controlled trial that conducted in children with overweight/obesity in Ningbo city, Zhejiang Province, China. Students in Grade 3 (8-10 years old) were recruited from six primary schools, with three be randomized to intervention group and three to usual practice group. The intervention program will last for one academic year and consists of health education, dietary guidance, and physical activity reinforcement. This program is characterized by encouraging four stakeholders, including School, Clinic, famIly, and studENT (SCIENT), to participate in controlling childhood obesity, assisted by m-Health technology. Assessments will be conducted at baseline and 3 months, 9 months, 24 months, and 36 months after baseline. The primary outcome will be the differences between the two groups in students' body mass index and fatty liver index at the end of the intervention (9 months after baseline). During the implementation process, quality control methods will be adopted. DISCUSSION:The program will test the effectiveness of the m-Health-assisted lifestyle intervention on children with obesity and NAFLD. The results of this study will provide evidence for establishing effective lifestyle intervention strategy aimed at childhood obesity and NAFLD and may help develop guidelines for the treatment of obesity and NAFLD in Chinese children. TRIAL REGISTRATION:Clinicaltrials.gov NCT05482191. Registered on July 2022. 10.1186/s13063-024-08046-4
Fatty Acids and Eicosanoids Change during High-Fiber Diet in NAFLD Patients-Randomized Control Trials (RCT). Nutrients BACKGROUND:Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a wide spectrum condition characterized by excessive liver fat accumulation in people who do not abuse alcohol. There is no effective medical treatment for NAFLD; therefore, most important recommendations to reduce liver steatosis are diet and lifestyle, including proper physical activity. The aim of our study was to analyze the fatty acids and eicosanoids changes in the serum of patients who consumed high-fiber rolls for 8 weeks. MATERIALS AND METHODS:The group of 28 Caucasian participants was randomly divided into two groups, those who received 24 g of fiber/day-from 2 buns of 12 g each (n = 14), and those who received 12 g of fiber/day-from 2 buns of 6 g (n = 14). At the beginning and on the last visit of the 8-week intervention, all patients underwent NAFLD evaluation, biochemical parameter measurements, and fatty acids and eicosanoids evaluation. RESULTS:Patients who received 12 g of fiber had significantly reduced liver steatosis and body mass index. In the group who received 24 g of fiber/day, we observed a trend to liver steatosis reduction ( = 0.07) and significant decrease in aspartate aminotransferase ( = 0.03) and total cholesterol ( = 0.03). All changes in fatty acid and eicosanoids profile were similar. Fatty acids analysis revealed that extra fiber intake was associated with a significant increase in monounsaturated fatty acids and decrease in saturated fatty acids. Moreover, both groups showed increased concentration of gamma linoleic acid and docosahexaenoic acid. We also observed reduction in prostaglandin E. CONCLUSIONS:Our study revealed that a high amount of fiber in the diet is associated with a reduction in fatty liver, although this effect was more pronounced in patients in the lower fiber group. However, regardless of the amount of fiber consumed, we observed significant changes in the profile of FAs, which may reflect the positive changes in the lipids liver metabolism. Regardless of the amount of fiber consumed, patients decreased the amount of PGE, which may indicate the lack of disease progression associated with the development of inflammation. 10.3390/nu14204310