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Ulcerative Colitis in Adults: A Review. JAMA Importance:Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic inflammatory condition of the colon, with a prevalence exceeding 400 per 100 000 in North America. Individuals with UC have a lower life expectancy and are at increased risk for colectomy and colorectal cancer. Observations:UC impairs quality of life secondary to inflammation of the colon causing chronic diarrhea and rectal bleeding. Extraintestinal manifestations, such as primary sclerosing cholangitis, occur in approximately 27% of patients with UC. People with UC require monitoring of symptoms and biomarkers of inflammation (eg, fecal calprotectin), and require colonoscopy at 8 years from diagnosis for surveillance of dysplasia. Risk stratification by disease location (eg, Montreal Classification) and disease activity (eg, Mayo Score) can guide management of UC. First-line therapy for induction and maintenance of remission of mild to moderate UC is 5-aminosalicylic acid. Moderate to severe UC may require oral corticosteroids for induction of remission as a bridge to medications that sustain remission (biologic monoclonal antibodies against tumor necrosis factor [eg, infliximab], α4β7 integrins [vedolizumab], and interleukin [IL] 12 and IL-23 [ustekinumab]) and oral small molecules that inhibit janus kinase (eg, tofacitinib) or modulate sphingosine-1-phosphate (ozanimod). Despite advances in medical therapies, the highest response to these treatments ranges from 30% to 60% in clinical trials. Within 5 years of diagnosis, approximately 20% of patients with UC are hospitalized and approximately 7% undergo colectomy. The risk of colorectal cancer after 20 years of disease duration is 4.5%, and people with UC have a 1.7-fold higher risk for colorectal cancer compared with the general population. Life expectancy in people with UC is approximately 80.5 years for females and 76.7 years for males, which is approximately 5 years shorter than people without UC. Conclusions and Relevance:UC affects approximately 400 of every 100 000 people in North America. An effective treatment for mild to moderate UC is 5-aminosalicylic acid, whereas moderate to severe UC can be treated with advanced therapies that target specific inflammation pathways, including monoclonal antibodies to tumor necrosis factor, α4β7 integrins, and IL-12 and IL-23 cytokines, as well as oral small molecule therapies targeting janus kinase or sphingosine-1-phosphate. 10.1001/jama.2023.15389
Epidemiology and Pathogenesis of Ulcerative Colitis. Du Lillian,Ha Christina Gastroenterology clinics of North America Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a complex chronic, immune-mediated inflammatory disorder of the colon. Factors associated with increased risk of UC include diet, particularly Western diet influences in newly industrialized nations, medications, and lifestyle factors that may influence the host's microbiome or immune response to antigens. Although much evidence identifying potential genetic and host-related factors is currently available, there are still many unanswered questions. As the global UC incidence and prevalence continues to increase, there are multiple opportunities for continued investigation to clarify our understanding of UC, identify potential predictors of disease severity, response to therapy, and novel therapeutic targets. 10.1016/j.gtc.2020.07.005
Ulcerative colitis. Lancet (London, England) Ulcerative colitis is a lifelong inflammatory disease affecting the rectum and colon to a variable extent. In 2023, the prevalence of ulcerative colitis was estimated to be 5 million cases around the world, and the incidence is increasing worldwide. Ulcerative colitis is thought to occur in people with a genetic predisposition following environmental exposures; gut epithelial barrier defects, the microbiota, and a dysregulated immune response are strongly implicated. Patients usually present with bloody diarrhoea, and the diagnosis is based on a combination of clinical, biological, endoscopic, and histological findings. The aim of medical management is, first, to induce a rapid clinical response and normalise biomarkers and, second, to maintain clinical remission and reach endoscopic normalisation to prevent long-term disability. Treatments for inducing remission include 5-aminosalicylic acid drugs and corticosteroids. Maintenance treatments include 5-aminosalicylic acid drugs, thiopurines, biologics (eg, anti-cytokines and anti-integrins), and small molecules (Janus kinase inhibitors and sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor modulators). Although the therapeutic options are expanding, 10-20% of patients still require proctocolectomy for medically refractory disease. The keys to breaking through this therapeutic ceiling might be the combination of therapeutics with precision and personalised medicine. 10.1016/S0140-6736(23)00966-2