logo logo
Ability of endophytic fungi associated with Withania somnifera L. to control Fusarium Crown and Root Rot and to promote growth in tomato. Nefzi Ahlem,Abdallah Rania Aydi Ben,Jabnoun-Khiareddine Hayfa,Ammar Nawaim,Daami-Remadi Mejda Brazilian journal of microbiology : [publication of the Brazilian Society for Microbiology] Fusarium crown and root rot (FCRR), caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici (FORL), is a soilborne tomato disease of increased importance worldwide. In this study, Withania somnifera was used as a potential source of biological control and growth-promoting agents. Seven fungal isolates naturally associated with W. somnifera were able to colonize tomato seedlings. They were applied as conidial suspensions or a cell-free culture filtrate. All isolates enhanced treated tomato growth parameters by 21.5-90.3% over FORL-free control and by 27.6-93.5% over pathogen-inoculated control. All tested isolates significantly decreased by 28.5-86.4% disease severity over FORL-inoculated control. The highest disease suppression, by 86.4-92.8% over control and by 81.3-88.8% over hymexazol-treated control, was achieved by the I6 isolate. FORL radial growth was suppressed by 58.5-82.3% versus control when dual cultured with tested isolates and by 61.8-83.2% using their cell-free culture filtrates. The most active agent was identified as Fusarium sp. I6 (MG835371), which displayed chitinolytic, proteolytic, and amylase activities. This has been the first report on the potential use of fungi naturally associated with W. somnifera for FCRR suppression and for tomato growth promotion. Further investigations are required in regard to mechanisms of action involved in disease suppression and plant growth promotion. 10.1007/s42770-019-00062-w
Suppression of Pepper Root Rot and Wilt Diseases Caused by and . Life (Basel, Switzerland) Pepper is vulnerable to soil-borne fungal pathogens such as and . The potential of beneficial rhizosphere microorganisms to control and f.sp. was evaluated in pepper plants. and were isolated from rhizospheric soil samples of healthy pepper plants. In vitro, both isolates caused clear reductions in the radial growth of root rot and wilt pathogens. Scanning electron microscopy displayed lysis and abnormal shape of the pathogens in dual cultures with and . The incidence and severity of root rot and wilt diseases were significantly reduced in pepper plants treated with the growth-promoting fungi (PGPF isolates; GF19-1, GF18-3, and sp. GS8-3), , or in comparison to the control. Moreover, the induction treatments led to increased pepper growth compared with their control. The defense related gene () expression was shown to be significantly higher in the treated plants than in the control plants. In conclusion, the antagonistic isolates ( and ) and PGPF isolates have a clear impact on the prevention of root rot and wilt diseases in pepper plants incited by and f.sp. The expression of the gene added to the evidence that PGPF isolates generate systemic resistance to pathogen infections. 10.3390/life12040587
Phytophthora cinnamomi causing root rot on Rhododendron lapponicum and control it using potential biocontrol agents. Journal of basic microbiology Rhododendron lapponicum (R. lapponicum) is a dwarf Rhododendron species, which is severely infected with root rot and wilt in Yunnan province, China. However, the causal agent causing these symptoms was unknown. An isolate, Pci-1 was identified as Phytophthora cinnamomi, based on its morphology and the sequences of β-tubulin, internal transcribed spacer, and Ypt1 genes and verified according to the Koch's postulate. We found that this pathogen could infect 14 species of plants, including Althaea rosea, Viburnum cylindricum, and Brassica napus. Strain Pci-1 could cause R. lapponicum to wither and die; and it grows best in an oat medium with pH 7.0 - 8.0 and an optimum temperature of 27°C. We suggest that the rhizosphere of R. lapponicum treated with biocontrol strains Paenibacillus polymyxoides P2-5 and Trichoderma asperellum Tv-1 showed a significant inhibitory effect on pathogen Pci-1. The inhibitory effect of 70% dimethomorph + cymoxanil was significantly higher with EC and EC values of 0.1894 and 0.3618 a.i. µg/ml, respectively. Greenhouse experiments revealed that the pathogen load is decreased in the presence of potential antagonists. This study provides fundamentals on risk assessment and theoretical support for the management of P. cinnamomi pathogen and contributes significantly to the planting of forest and horticultural crops in a disease-free environment. 10.1002/jobm.202200034
Detection and Quantification of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum Race 1 in Plants and Soil by Real-time PCR. The plant pathology journal Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum (Fon) is the most serious soil-borne disease in the world and has become the main limiting factor of watermelon production. Reliable and quick detection and quantification of Fon are essential in the early stages of infection for control of watermelon Fusarium wilt. Traditional detection and identification tests are laborious and cannot efficiently quantify Fon isolates. In this work, a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay has been described to accurately identify and quantify Fon in watermelon plants and soil. The FONRT-18 specific primer set which was designed based on identified specific sequence amplified a specific 172 bp band from Fon and no amplification from the other formae speciales of Fusarium oxysporum tested. The detection limits with primers were 1.26 pg/µl genomic DNA of Fon, 0.2 pg/ng total plant DNA in inoculated plant, and 50 conidia/g soil. The PCR assay could also evaluate the relationships between the disease index and Fon DNA quantity in watermelon plants and soil. The assay was further used to estimate the Fon content in soil after disinfection with CaCN2. The real-time PCR method is rapid, accurate and reliable for monitoring and quantification analysis of Fon in watermelon plants and soil. It can be applied to the study of disease diagnosis, plant-pathogen interactions, and effective management. 10.5423/PPJ.OA.03.2022.0039
Identification of antagonistic fungi and their antifungal activities against aconite root rot pathogens. Plant signaling & behavior Root rot is one of the main diseases affecting Aconitum carmichaelii Debx. during cultivation, seriously limiting yields of this herb. Currently, there is no effective control measure for aconite root rot. The antifungal activities of antagonistic strains against aconite root rot pathogens (Fusarium proliferatum, Fusarium solani, and Fusarium oxysporum) were investigated in this study. Three antagonistic strains, JKT7, JKT28 and JKT39, were screened and identified as Trichoderma asperellum, Trichoderma hamatum and Trichoderma virens, respectively. Dual culture tests showed that the inhibition rates of the three Trichoderma strains on the pathogens were all approximately 70%. The volatile metabolites had inhibitory effects on the mycelial growth of pathogens, while the nonvolatile metabolites in the culture filtrates did not show significant inhibitory effects. The volatile components analyzed by GC‒MS were mainly ketones, esters, and alcohols. These results indicate that these strains of Trichoderma and their secondary metabolites have antimicrobial activities against the pathogens of aconite root rot. This study could provide a scientific basis for the biocontrol of aconite root rot. 10.1080/15592324.2023.2211852
Genome sequences of 38 Fusarium oxysporum strains. BMC research notes OBJECTIVE:Wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis (Fom) is one of the most widespread and destructive melon diseases worldwide. Whole-genome sequencing data of a diverse set of Fom strains, as well as several non-pathogenic strains isolated from melon from different parts of the world are described here. These data shed light on the genetic diversity, population structure and the potential evolutionary trajectories which have led to the emergence of different Fom races, and will facilitate identification of avirulence genes which will be helpful to develop resistant melon cultivars. DATA DESCRIPTION:Genomic DNA was extracted from mycelium of 38 Fusarium oxysporum (Fo) strains collected from different parts of the world including Belgium, China, France, Iran, Israel, Japan, Mexico, New Zealand, Spain, the Netherlands, and the United States. The genomes were sequenced to ≈ 20 × coverage using the Illumina Hiseq Xten system, resulting in paired-end reads of 151 bp and assemblies of 1675 (Fom-18L) to 4472 (Fom-R12-13) scaffolds. The genome sequences are available in the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) and the Sequence Read Archive (SRA) under Project number PRJNA596396 and PRJNA596396, respectively. The presented data set can be useful to identify the genes associated with pathogenic strategies. 10.1186/s13104-022-06112-1
Identification and Chemical and Biological Management of Fusarium Root and Crown Rot Disease of Oakleaf Hydrangea. Plant disease Oakleaf hydrangea () is an important ornamental plant grown in Tennessee. In May 2018, after late spring frost, cultivars Pee Wee and Queen of Hearts showed root and crown rot symptoms and identification and management of the disease was a major concern. The objective of this research was to identify the causal organism of this disease and develop management recommendations for nursery growers. Isolates from the infected root and crown parts were subjected to microscopy, and the morphology of fungi resembled . Molecular analysis was conducted by amplifying the internal transcribed spacer of ribosomal DNA, β-tubulin, and translation elongation factor 1-α regions. was identified as a causal organism based on molecular analysis. A pathogenicity test was done to complete the Koch's postulates by drenching containerized oakleaf hydrangea with a conidial suspension. Experiments were conducted to evaluate different chemical fungicides and biological products with different rates for Fusarium root and crown rot management in container-grown Queen of Hearts. Plants were inoculated by drenching containerized oakleaf hydrangea with 150-ml conidial suspensions of , maintaining the concentration of 1 × 10 conidia/ml. Root and crown rot were assessed using a scale of 0 to 100%. Recovery of was recorded by plating root and crown sections. Chemical fungicides such as mefentrifluconazole (BAS75002F), the low rate (1.09 ml/liter) of difenoconazole + pydiflumetofen (Postiva), and the high rate (1.32 ml/liter) of isofetamid (Astun) and biopesticide were applied; the high rate (1.64 g/liter) of ningnanmycin (SP2700 WP) effectively reduced Fusarium root rot severity and pyraclostrobin effectively reduced Fusarium crown rot severity in both trials. 10.1094/PDIS-11-22-2609-RE
Invasion and Colonization of Pathogenic R1 in L. during Corm Rot Disease Progression. Journal of fungi (Basel, Switzerland) The corm rot of saffron caused by Fusarium oxysporum (Fox) has been reported to be the most destructive fungal disease of the herb globally. The pathogen, Fusarium oxysporum R1 (Fox R1) isolated by our group from Kashmir, India, was found to be different from Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. gladioli commonly reported corm rot agent of saffron. In the present study, Fox R1 was further characterized using housekeeping genes and pathogenicity tests, as Fusarium oxysporum R1 f.sp. iridacearum race 4. Though Fox R1 invaded the saffron plant through both corm and roots, the corm was found to be the preferred site of infection. In addition, the route of pathogen movement wastracked by monitoring visual symptoms, semi-quantitative PCR, quantitative-PCR (q-PCR), real-time imaging of egfp-tagged Fusarium oxysporum R1, and Fox R1 load quantification. This study is the first study of its kind on the bidirectional pathogenesis from corm to roots and vice-versa, as the literature only reports unidirectional upward movement from roots to other parts of the plant. In addition, the colonization pattern of Fox R1 in saffron corms and roots was studied. The present study involved a systematic elucidation of the mode and mechanism of pathogenesis in the saffron Fusarium oxysporum strain R1 pathosystem. 10.3390/jof8121246
Identification of Fusarium Basal Rot Pathogens of Onion and Evaluation of Fungicides against the Pathogens. Mycobiology Onion ( L.) is an economically important vegetable crop worldwide. However, various fungal diseases, including Fusarium basal rot (FBR), neck rot, and white rot, reduce onion production or bulb storage life. FBR caused by species is among the most destructive onion diseases. In this study, we identified species associated with FBR in Jeolla and Gyeongsang Provinces in South Korea and evaluated fungicides against the pathogens. Our morphological and molecular analyses showed that FBR in onions is associated with , , and . We selected seven fungicides (fludioxonil, hexaconazole, mandestrobin, penthiopyrad, prochloraz-manganese, pydiflumetofen, and tebuconazole) and evaluated their inhibitory effects on mycelial growth of the pathogens at three different concentrations (0.01, 0.1, and 1 mg/mL). We found that prochloraz-manganese was highly effective, inhibiting 100% of the mycelial growth of the pathogens at all concentrations, followed by tebuconazole. Fludioxonil showed < 50% inhibition at 1 mg/mL for the tested isolates. 10.1080/12298093.2023.2243759
Phylogenetic and phenotypic characterization of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum isolates from Florida-grown watermelon. Fulton James C,Amaradasa B Sajeewa,Ertek Tülin S,Iriarte Fanny B,Sanchez Tatiana,Ji Pingsheng,Paret Mathews L,Hudson Owen,Ali Md Emran,Dufault Nicholas S PloS one Fusarium wilt of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum (Fon), has become an increasing concern of farmers in the southeastern USA, especially in Florida. Management of this disease, most often through the use of resistant cultivars and crop rotation, requires an accurate understanding of an area's pathogen population structure and phenotypic characteristics. This study improved the understanding of the state's pathogen population by completing multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) of two housekeeping genes (BT and TEF) and two loci (ITS and IGS), aggressiveness and race-determining bioassays on 72 isolates collected between 2011 and 2015 from major watermelon production areas in North, Central, and South Florida. Multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) failed to group race 3 isolates into a single large clade; moreover, clade membership was not apparently correlated with aggressiveness (which varied both within and between clades), and only slightly with sampling location. The failure of multilocus sequence analysis using four highly conserved housekeeping genes and loci to clearly group and delineate known Fon races provides justification for future whole genome sequencing efforts whose more robust genomic comparisons will provide higher resolution of intra-species genetic distinctions. Consequently, these results suggest that identification of Fon isolates by race determination alone may fail to detect economically important phenotypic characteristics such as aggressiveness leading to inaccurate risk assessment. 10.1371/journal.pone.0248364
Identification and Characterization of Associated with Saffron Corm Rot Disease. Mirghasempour S Ali,Studholme David J,Chen Weiliang,Cui Dongzhu,Mao Bizeng Plant disease Saffron ( L.) is the most expensive spice plant and is distributed widely around the world. However, its production is limited by corm rot, a disastrous disease, attributed to in many regions of the world. In 2020, extensive surveys were carried out in Zhejiang, Shanghai, Anhui, and Guizhou provinces as saffron growing areas of China. Fourteen single-spore isolates were obtained from rotted corms and identified as according to morphological appearance and multilocus phylogenetic analysis with translation elongation factor 1-α (), DNA-directed RNA polymerase II largest subunit (), and β-tubulin (). Results of the pathogenicity assay supported the conclusion that is the pathogen responsible for corm rot. In this study, we obtained the whole genome sequence of two highly virulent strains via the Illumina HiSeq platform. Genome sequence assemblies of approximately 52.7 and 52.2 Mb were generated for isolates WY5 and SH1, respectively. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of causing corm rot in China and indeed worldwide. Results from this research contribute to our understanding of genetic diversity, genomic information, and host determination, which will enable researchers to design appropriate management measures for this hazardous disease. 10.1094/PDIS-04-21-0871-RE
Phytochemistry, quality control and medicinal uses of Saffron (.): an updated review. Journal of medicine and life Saffron, botanically known as ., is renowned as the world's most expensive spice and has been utilized in various fields since ancient times. Extensive scientific research has been conducted on , focusing on its phytochemical composition, diverse applications, and biological activities. phytochemicals consist mainly of three compounds, namely crocin, picrocrocin, and safranal, which are responsible for most of its properties. Saffron is rich in bioactive compounds, more than 150 of which have been isolated. Owing to its unique composition and properties, saffron is used in various fields, such as the food industry, perfumery, cosmetics, pharmaceutics, and medicine. However, the high economic value of saffron makes it susceptible to adulteration and various fraudulent practices. To deal with this issue, a number of methods and techniques have been developed to authenticate and determine adulterants in saffron. This paper presents a bibliometric study of saffron based on the Web of Science database, analyzing 3,735 studies published between 2000 and 2021. The study also examined author participation and collaboration networks among countries. Production, transformation, chemical composition, methods of adulteration detection, uses, and health properties of saffron are also discussed. 10.25122/jml-2022-0353
Metabolic impact of saffron and crocin: an updated systematic and meta-analysis of randomised clinical trials. Archives of physiology and biochemistry The present systematic and meta-analysis study was designed to show the protective impact of saffron and crocin supplementation on hyperlipidaemia and hyperglycaemia in randomised and clinical trials (RCTs). A pooled analysis using a model for random-effects showed that HDL-C levels were 0.21 fold higher in the saffron and 0.01 fold higher in the crocin group than placebo. LDL-C levels in the saffron group reduced by 0.51 and 0.04 fold in the crocin group versus the placebo. Moreover, TC levels in the saffron group were 0.19 lower and 0.11 fold lower in crocin group than in the placebo group. TG level in saffron group was 0.04 lower and 0.02 fold lower in crocin than the control group. The blood glucose levels did not significantly differ from the control group. This study suggests that saffron and crocin may modulate the serum lipid profile in patient with metabolic disorders. 10.1080/13813455.2020.1716020
Phytochemistry, pharmacology, and potential clinical applications of saffron: A review. Xing Bingcong,Li Shuailing,Yang Jiaxin,Lin Ding,Feng Yue,Lu Jiangjie,Shao Qingsong Journal of ethnopharmacology ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE:Saffron, the dried red stigma of the perennial herb Crocus sativus L. (Iridaceae), is one of the most important and expensive spices in the world. It is used as a traditional Chinese medicine with demonstrated effects in promoting blood circulation and suppressing blood stasis, cooling blood detoxification, and relieving depression. It is mainly used for the treatment of depression, irregular menstruation, postpartum thrombosis, and bruises. AIM OF THE STUDY:This review aims to provide a systematic and up-to-date overview of the phytochemistry, pharmacology, and clinical applications of saffron. We hope it could provide useful references and guidance for the future directions of research on saffron. MATERIALS AND METHODS:The online database, such as Web of Science, Google Scholar, Science Direct, PubMed, SpringerLink, Wiley Online Library, SciFinder and Chemical book, and CNKI were used to collect relevant literature. And the classic books about Chinese herbal medicine were also being referenced. RESULTS:More than 150 chemical compounds, including carotenoids, flavonoids and flavonoid glycosides, monoterpenes and monoterpenoid derivatives, monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, amino acids, alkaloids and others, were revealed. The pharmacological activities study of saffron were focused on the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antitumor, antidepressant, hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, memory-enhancing, and so on. Currently, saffron is mainly used for the treatment of diabetes, Alzheimer's disease, depression, anxiety disorders, cardiovascular diseases, learning and memory disorders, cancer, and other conditions. CONCLUSIONS:Phytochemical and pharmacological analyses of saffron have been revealed in recent studies. However, clinical studies have focused mainly on AD, depression and anxiety disorders. Therefore, a large number of clinical trials are needed to study the efficacy of saffron and its major chemical components against other diseases including hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and cancer. Further studies of the mechanism of action and toxicological properties of saffron are also required, especially research to establish an effective dose of saffron and its long-term toxicity in vivo. 10.1016/j.jep.2021.114555
Nutritional and health beneficial properties of saffron ( L): a comprehensive review. Abu-Izneid Tareq,Rauf Abdur,Khalil Anees Ahmed,Olatunde Ahmed,Khalid Ahood,Alhumaydhi Fahad A,Aljohani Abdullah S M,Sahab Uddin Md,Heydari Mojtaba,Khayrullin Mars,Shariati Mohammad Ali,Aremu Adeyemi Oladapo,Alafnan Ahmed,Rengasamy Kannan R R Critical reviews in food science and nutrition Saffron ( L., family Iridaceae) is used traditionally for medicinal purpose in Chinese, Ayurvedic, Persian and Unani medicines. The bioactive constituents such as apocarotenoids, monoterpenoids, flavonoids, phenolic acids and phytosterols are widely investigated in experimental and clinical studies for a wide range of therapeutic effects, especially on the nervous system. Some of the active constituents of saffron have high bioavailability and bioaccessibility and ability to pass the blood-brain barrier. Multiple preclinical and clinical studies have supported neuroprotective, anxiolytic, antidepressant, learning and memory-enhancing effect of saffron and its bioactive constituents (safranal, crocin, and picrocrocin). Thus, this plant and its active compounds could be a beneficial medicinal food ingredient in the formation of drugs targeting nervous system disorders. This review focuses on phytochemistry, bioaccessibility, bioavailability, and bioactivity of phytochemicals in saffron. Furthermore, the therapeutic effect of saffron against different nervous system disorders has also been discussed in detail. 10.1080/10408398.2020.1857682
A review of therapeutic impacts of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) and its constituents. Physiological reports Application of herbal medicines in the treatment of diseases is in the center of attention of medical scientific societies. Saffron (Cricus sativus L.) is a medicinal plant belonging to the Iridaceae family with different therapeutic properties. The outcomes of human and animal experiments indicate that therapeutic impacts of saffron and its constituents, crocin, crocetin, and safranal, mainly are mediated via inhibiting the inflammatory reactions and scavenging free radicals. It has been suggested that saffron and crocin extracted from it also up-regulate the expression of sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) and nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), down-regulate nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) signaling pathway and untimely improve the body organs dysfunction. Inhibition of inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX2) also is attributed to crocin. The current review narrates the therapeutic effects of saffron and its constituents on various body systems through looking for the scientific databases including Web of Science, PubMed, Scopus, and Google Scholar from the beginning of 2010 until the end of 2022. 10.14814/phy2.15785
Pharmacokinetic Properties of Saffron and its Active Components. Hosseini Azar,Razavi Bibi Marjan,Hosseinzadeh Hossein European journal of drug metabolism and pharmacokinetics Saffron as a medicinal plant has many therapeutic effects. Phytochemical studies have reported that saffron is composed of at least four active ingredients which include crocin, crocetin, picrocrocin and safranal. The carotenoids of saffron are sensitive to oxygen, light, heat and enzymatic oxidization. However, regulation of these factors is required for saffron quality. Some pharmacologic effects of saffron and its active compounds include cardioprotective, neuroprotective, memory enhancer, antidepressant and anxiolytic. Among more than 150 chemicals of saffron, the most biologically active components are two carotenoids including crocin and crocetin. Most of the pharmacokinetic studies are related to these compounds. The pharmacokinetic studies have shown that crocin is not available after oral administration in blood circulation. Crocin is converted to crocetin in intestine but after intravenous injection, the level of crocetin in plasma is low. Crocetin can distribute in different tissues because of weak interaction between crocetin and albumin. Also it can penetrate blood-brain barrier and reach CNS by passive transcellular diffusion; thus it can be effective in neurodegenerative disorders. The large portion of crocin is eliminated via feces. 10.1007/s13318-017-0449-3
Saffron anti-metastatic properties, ancient spice novel application. Critical reviews in food science and nutrition L. (saffron), was applied as a spice, food colorant and medicine since four millennia ago and has been used as a remedy for various maladies. In the last three decades, the anti-primary tumor properties of saffron and its main carotenoids, crocin and crocetin, have been well explored. Despite the fact that metastasis is the leading cause of death in cancer patients, the anti-metastatic potential of saffron and its carotenoids has been surveyed only this decade. This review aims to provide an unprecedented overview of the anti-metastatic effects of saffron, crocin and crocetin, and the mechanisms underlying these effects. Investigations on various cancers demonstrated the anti-migratory, anti-invasion, anti-angiogenic potentials of saffron and its carotenoids, as well as their effects suppressing cell-ECM adhesion and enhancing cell-cell attachment. Saffron and its carotenoids exert their impact through different mechanisms such as reduction of CD34 and suppression of Wnt/β-catenin, Ras/ERK, P38, DCLK1, EMT, matrix metalloproteinases and urokinases. Crocin displayed more effective anti-metastatic potency, in comparison with saffron extract and crocetin. The bioaccessibility/bioavailability, nontoxicity on normal cells, confirmed anti-tumor efficiency and the recent evidence on the anti-metastatic potential of saffron and its carotenoids, recommends them as a propitious multipotent dietary agent and herbal medicine. 10.1080/10408398.2020.1871320
Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) and health outcomes: a meta-research review of meta-analyses and an evidence mapping study. Lu Cuncun,Ke Lixin,Li Jieyun,Zhao Haitong,Lu Tingting,Mentis Alexios Fotios A,Wang Youyou,Wang Zhifei,Polissiou Moschos G,Tang Liyao,Tang Hao,Yang Kehu Phytomedicine : international journal of phytotherapy and phytopharmacology BACKGROUND:Although a number of systematic reviews and meta-analyses of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) have been published, no study has comprehensively summarized the clinical evidence from meta-analyses, or assessed the reporting or methodological quality of these reviews. PURPOSE:The present meta-research study was designed to fill the gaps in knowledge to inform future studies and allow enhanced clinical decision-making on saffron. METHODS:The PubMed, Cochrane Library, Embase, and CNKI databases were systematically searched from inception to April 3 rd, 2021, for meta-analyses of clinical trials that assessed the efficacy and safety of saffron. PRISMA 2009 and AMSTAR-2 were employed to assess the reporting and methodological quality of meta-analyses identified in the search, respectively. The present study was registered on PROSPERO with registration number CRD42020220274. RESULTS:Nineteen eligible systematic reviews with meta-analyses published in English were identified from 235 records. These meta-analyses were published in 12 peer-reviewed journals from 2013 to 2021. The heterogeneous results indicated that saffron significantly reduced fasting blood glucose, waist circumference, diastolic blood pressure, concentrations of total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and improved symptoms of depression, cognitive function and sexual dysfunction compared with controls (mainly placebos). Common side effects of saffron consumption included nausea, dry mouth, poor appetite, and headache, but no serious adverse reactions were reported. Primary analysis and sensitivity analysis confirmed that the reporting and methodological quality of reviews included in the study were highly correlated (p < 0.001). The quality of meta-analyses of saffron requires improvement by including a structured abstract, a prospective protocol and registration, explanation of the study designs within each study that is reviewed, the searches, risk of bias assessment, literature selection, and reporting of funding sources. CONCLUSION:The available evidence indicates that saffron is a safe plant for administration as a medicine and can improve diverse clinical outcomes, but the scientific quality of the published systematic reviews needs to be improved. Moreover, the clinical effects of saffron need to be confirmed through high-quality randomized trials in multiple countries with large sample sizes. 10.1016/j.phymed.2021.153699
Saffron: Its Phytochemistry, Developmental Processes, and Biotechnological Prospects. Ahrazem Oussama,Rubio-Moraga Angela,Nebauer Sergio G,Molina Rosa Victoria,Gómez-Gómez Lourdes Journal of agricultural and food chemistry The present state of knowledge concerning developmental processes and the secondary metabolism of saffron, Crocus sativus L. (Iridaceae), along with the genes involved in these processes so far known, is reviewed. Flowers and corms constitute the most valuable parts of saffron. Corm and flower development are two key aspects to be studied in saffron to increase the yield and quality of the spice, to raise its reproductive rate, and to implement new production systems. Important knowledge about the physiology of flowering and vegetative growth has been acquired in recent years, but there is still only limited information on molecular mechanisms controlling these processes. Although some genes involved in flower formation and meristem transition in other species have been isolated in saffron, the role of these genes in this species awaits further progress. Also, genes related with the synthesis pathway of abscisic acid and strigolactones, growth regulators related with bud endodormancy and apical dominance (paradormancy), have been isolated. However, the in-depth understanding of these processes as well as of corm development is far from being achieved. By contrast, saffron phytochemicals have been widely studied. The different flower tissues and the corm have been proved to be an important source of phytochemicals with pharmacological properties. The biotechnological prospects for saffron are here reviewed on the basis of the discovery of the enzymes involved in key aspects of saffron secondary metabolism, and we also analyze the possibility of transferring current knowledge about flowering and vegetative propagation in model species to the Crocus genus. 10.1021/acs.jafc.5b03194
Saffron: a promising natural medicine in the treatment of metabolic syndrome. Razavi Bibi Marjan,Hosseinzadeh Hossein Journal of the science of food and agriculture Metabolic syndrome is a disorder which encompasses obesity, high blood glucose, high cholesterol levels and high blood pressure. Moreover, metabolic syndrome is considered as the most important risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). CVD is the leading cause of mortality in the world for both men and women. Several chemical drugs are available to treat metabolic risk factors, but because of the safety, efficacy, cultural acceptability and lesser side effects, nowadays herbal therapy has a critical role in the treatment of these CVD risk factors. Crocus sativus L. (saffron) is a perennial herb that belongs to the Iridaceae family. Saffron is an extensively used food additive for its colour and taste and has been widely used in traditional as well as modern medicine to treat several illnesses including cardiovascular diseases. Most of the unique properties of this plant are attributed to the presence of three major components, including crocin, safranal and crocetin. It has been proved that saffron has an important role in the management of metabolic syndrome because of its marvelous activities including anti-diabetic, anti-obesity, hypotensive and hypolipidaemic properties. In this review article, we discuss the beneficial properties of saffron and its active components to treat different components of metabolic syndrome and most relevant animal and human studies regarding the use of this plant in cardiovascular disease, with focus on the metabolic risk factors. This review also suggests that after randomised clinical trials, saffron may be implicated as a preventive or therapeutic agent against metabolic syndrome. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. 10.1002/jsfa.8134
Saffron against Components of Metabolic Syndrome: Current Status and Prospective. Shafiee Mojtaba,Aghili Moghaddam Nazanin Sadat,Nosrati Mohammad,Tousi Mahsa,Avan Amir,Ryzhikov Mikhail,Parizadeh Mohammad Reza,Fiuji Hamid,Rajabian Majid,Bahreyni Amirhossein,Khazaei Majid,Hassanian Seyed Mahdi Journal of agricultural and food chemistry Saffron, the dried stigmas of Crocus sativus L., is mainly used as a food coloring and flavoring agent. This agricultural product is used in traditional medicine for the treatment of several diseases including asthma, liver disease, menstruation disorders, and, of special interest in this review, metabolic syndrome. Saffron and its active components including crocin, crocetin, and safranal are potential therapeutic candidates for attenuating MetS complications including hypertension, hyperglycemia, obesity, and dyslipidemia. This review summarizes the protective role of saffron and its constituents in the pathogenesis of MetS for a better understanding and hence a better management of this disease. 10.1021/acs.jafc.7b03762
Saffron bioactives crocin, crocetin and safranal: effect on oxidative stress and mechanisms of action. Cerdá-Bernad Débora,Valero-Cases Estefanía,Pastor Joaquín-Julián,Frutos María José Critical reviews in food science and nutrition Saffron ( L.) is used as a spice for its organoleptic characteristics related to its coloring and flavoring properties, and it has been also used in traditional medicine to treat various diseases. The main chemical components responsible for these properties are crocin, crocetin and safranal. These compounds have been shown to have a wide spectrum of biological activities, including several properties as antigenotoxic, antioxidant, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antiatherosclerotic, antidiabetic, hypotensive, hypoglycemic, antihyperlipidemic, antidegenerative and antidepressant, among others. This review article highlights the antioxidant effects of these bioactive compounds to reduce reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the mechanisms of action involved, since there are a multitude of diseases related to oxidative stress and the generation of free radicals (FRs). Recent studies have shown that the effects of crocin, crocetin and safranal against oxidative stress include the reduction in lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde [MDA] levels) and nitric oxide (NO) levels, and the increase in the levels of glutathione, antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase [SOD], catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase [GPx]) and thiol content. Therefore, due to the great antioxidant effects of these saffron compounds, it makes saffron a potential source of bioactive extracts for the development of bioactive ingredients, which can be used to produce functional foods. 10.1080/10408398.2020.1864279
Saffron, Its Active Components, and Their Association with DNA and Histone Modification: A Narrative Review of Current Knowledge. Nutrients Intensive screening for better and safer medications to treat diseases such as cancer and inflammatory diseases continue, and some phytochemicals have been discovered to have anti-cancer and many therapeutical activities. Among the traditionally used spices, (saffron) and its principal bioactive constituents have anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and chemopreventive properties against multiple malignancies. Early reports have shown that the epigenetic profiles of healthy and tumor cells vary significantly in the context of different epigenetic factors. Multiple components, such as carotenoids as bioactive dietary phytochemicals, can directly or indirectly regulate epigenetic factors and alter gene expression profiles. Previous reports have shown the interaction between active saffron compounds with linker histone H1. Other reports have shown that high concentrations of saffron bind to the minor groove of calf thymus DNA, resulting in specific structural changes from B- to C-form of DNA. Moreover, the interaction of crocin G-quadruplex was reported. A recent in silico study has shown that residues of SIRT1 interact with saffron bio-active compounds and might enhance SIRT1 activation. Other reports have shown that the treatment of Saffron bio-active compounds increases γH2AX, decreases HDAC1 and phosphorylated histone H3 (p-H3). However, the question that still remains to be addressed how saffron triggers various epigenetic changes? Therefore, this review discusses the literature published till 2022 regarding saffron as dietary components and its impact on epigenetic mechanisms. Novel bioactive compounds such as saffron components that lead to epigenetic alterations might be a valuable strategy as an adjuvant therapeutic drug. 10.3390/nu14163317