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Neuro-immune Interactions in the Tissues. Immunity The ability of the nervous system to sense environmental stimuli and to relay these signals to immune cells via neurotransmitters and neuropeptides is indispensable for effective immunity and tissue homeostasis. Depending on the tissue microenvironment and distinct drivers of a certain immune response, the same neuronal populations and neuro-mediators can exert opposing effects, promoting or inhibiting tissue immunity. Here, we review the current understanding of the mechanisms that underlie the complex interactions between the immune and the nervous systems in different tissues and contexts. We outline current gaps in knowledge and argue for the importance of considering infectious and inflammatory disease within a conceptual framework that integrates neuro-immune circuits both local and systemic, so as to better understand effective immunity to develop improved approaches to treat inflammation and disease. 10.1016/j.immuni.2020.02.017