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Intestinal phages interact with bacteria and are involved in human diseases. Gut microbes LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS:EMBL-EBI The European Bioinformatics Institute; E. coli Escherichia coli; E. faecalis Enterobacter faecalis; B. fragilis Bacteroides fragilis; B. vulgatus Bacteroides vulgatus; SaPIs Staphylococcus aureus pathogenicity islands; ARGs Antibiotic resistance genes; STEC Shiga toxigenic E. coli; Stx Shiga toxin; BLAST Basic Local Alignment Search Tool; TSST-1 Toxic shock toxin 1; RBPs Receptor-binding proteins; LPS lipopolysaccharide; OMVs Outer membrane vesicles; PT Phosphorothioate; BREX Bacteriophage exclusion; OCR Overcome classical restriction; Pgl Phage growth limitation; DISARM Defense island system associated with restrictionmodification; R-M system Restriction-modification system; BREX system Bacteriophage exclusion system; CRISPR Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats; Cas CRISPR-associated; PAMs Prospacer adjacent motifs; crRNA CRISPR RNA; SIE; OMPs; Superinfection exclusion; Outer membrane proteins; Abi Abortive infection; TA Toxin-antitoxin; TLR Toll-like receptor; APCs Antigen-presenting cells; DSS Dextran sulfate sodium; IELs Intraepithelial lymphocytes; FMT Fecal microbiota transfer; IFN-γ Interferon-gamma; IBD Inflammatory bowel disease; AgNPs Silver nanoparticles; MDSC Myeloid-derived suppressor cell; CRC Colorectal cancer; VLPs Virus-like particles; TMP Tape measure protein; PSMB4 Proteasome subunit beta type-4; ALD Alcohol-related liver disease; GVHD Graft-versus-host disease; ROS Reactive oxygen species; RA Rheumatoid arthritis; CCP Cyclic citrullinated protein; AMGs Accessory metabolic genes; T1DM Type 1 diabetes mellitus; T2DM Type 2 diabetes mellitus; SCFAs Short-chain fatty acids; GLP-1 Glucagon-like peptide-1; A. baumannii Acinetobacter baumannii; CpG Deoxycytidylinate-phosphodeoxyguanosine; PEG Polyethylene glycol; MetS Metabolic syndrome; OprM Outer membrane porin M. 10.1080/19490976.2022.2113717