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The effect of ultrasound-guided intercostal nerve block on postoperative analgesia in thoracoscopic surgery: a randomized, double-blinded, clinical trial. Journal of cardiothoracic surgery BACKGROUND:Intercostal nerve block (ICNB) is a very effective analgesic method. We aimed to explore the effect of preemptive analgesia with ultrasound-guided intercostal nerve block on postoperative analgesia in thoracoscopic surgery. METHODS:126 patients, aged 18-70 years, with American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) physical status I-II and scheduled for thoracoscopic pulmonary resection were enrolled in this study. 119 patients were left for final analysis. Patients were randomly allocated to group ICNB and group CONTROL. Patients in CONTROL group were administered sufentanil with patient-controlled analgesia device after operation In group ICNB, patients received ropivacaine ICNB prior to surgery and patient-controlled analgesia device after operation. The primary outcome is visual analog scale pain score (VAS) at rest at 0,4, 8,16,24,48,72 and 168 h postoperatively and they were compared. Surgical outcomes and rescue analgesia requirement were also recorded. RESULTS:VAS scores were statistically significantly lower for ICNB group compared to control group at 0, 4, 8, 16, 24 and 48 h postoperatively. The duration of insertion of chest tube in ICBN group was shorter than that in control group, and the difference was statistically significant (4.69 ± 2.14 vs. 5.67 ± 2.86, P = 0.036). The postoperative hospital stay, incidence of nausea and vomiting and postoperative pulmonary infection rate in ICBN group were all lower than those in the control group, but there were no statistical differences. The frequency of rescue analgesia during 48 postoperative hours was different between the two groups (ICNB vs. Control; 9.83% vs. 31.03%, P = 0.004). CONCLUSIONS:For patients undergoing thoracoscopic surgery, ultrasound-guided ICNB is simple, safe, and effective for providing acute postoperative pain management during the early postoperative stage. TRIAL REGISTRATION:Chinese clinical trials: chictr.org.cn, ChiCTR1900021017. Registred on 25/01/2019. 10.1186/s13019-023-02210-8
Several key issues must be noted in determining postoperative analgesic efficacy of intercostal nerve block for thoracoscopic surgery. Journal of cardiothoracic surgery The letter to the editor was written in response to "The effect of ultrasound-guided intercostal nerve block on postoperative analgesia in thoracoscopic surgery: a randomized, double-blinded, clinical trial", which was recently published by Li et al. (J Cardiothorac Surg 18(1):128, 2023). In this article, Li et al. showed that addition of a preoperative intercostal nerve block to the multimodal analgesic strategy significantly reduced the pain scores within 48 h after surgery. However, we noted several issues in this study that were not well addressed. They were no use of a standard opioid-sparing multimodal analgesic strategy recommended in the current Enhanced Recovery After Surgery protocols for thoracic surgery, the lack of clear description for reasonable selection of rescue analgesics, the interpretion of between-group differences in the postoperative pain scores based on only statistical differences rather than clinically meaningful differences, inclusion of patients who were not blinded to study intervention, not reporting cumulative opioid consumption and complications of intercostal nerve block. We believe that clarification of these issues is not only useful for improving design quality of randomized clinical trials which assess postoperative analgesic efficacy of nerve blocks, but also is helpful for the readers who want to use an opioid-sparing multimodal protocol including a nerve block in patients undergoing thoracoscopic surgery. 10.1186/s13019-023-02456-2
Comparisons in analgesic effects between ultrasound-guided erector spinae plane block and surgical intercostal nerve block after video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery: A randomized controlled trial. Journal of clinical anesthesia STUDY OBJECTIVE:This study aimed to compare the analgesic effects of anesthesiologist-administrated erector spinae plane block (ESPB) and surgeon-administrated intercostal nerve block (ICNB) following video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS). DESIGN:Randomized, controlled, double-blinded study. SETTING:Operating room, postoperative recovery room and ward in two centers. PATIENTS:One hundred patients, ASA I-III and scheduled for elective VATS. INTERVENTIONS:The anesthesiologist-administrated ESPB under ultrasound guidance or surgeon-administrated ICNB under video-assisted thoracoscopy was randomly provided during VATS. Regular oral non-opioid analgesic combined with intravenous rescue morphine were prescribed for multimodal analgesia after surgery. MEASUREMENTS:The primary outcomes were the pain score and morphine consumption during 48 h after surgery. Postoperative pain intensity were assessed using the 10-cm visual analogue scale at 1 h, 24 h, and 48 h after surgery. Morphine consumption at these time points was compared between the two study groups. Furthermore, oral weak opioid rescue analgesic was also provided at 24 h after surgery. Postoperative quality of recovery at 24 h was also assessed using the QoR-15 questionnaire, along with duration of chest tube drainage and hospital stay were compared as secondary outcomes. MAIN RESULTS:Patients in the two study groups had comparable baseline characteristics, and surgical types were also similar. Postoperative VAS changes at 1 h, 24 h, and 48 h after surgery were also comparable between the two study groups. Both groups had low median scores (<4.0) at all time points (all p > 0.05). Patients in the ESPB group required statistically non-significant higher 48-h morphine consumption [3 (0-6) vs. 0 (0-6) mg in the ESPB group and ICNB group respectively; p = 0.135] and lower numbers of oral rescue analgesic (0.4 ± 1.2 vs. 1.0 ± 1.8 in the ESPB group and ICNB group respectively; p = 0.059). Additionally, patients in the two study groups had similar QoR15 scores and lengths of hospital stay. CONCLUSIONS:Both anesthesiologist-administered ultrasound-guided ESPB and surgeon-administered VATS ICNB were effective analgesic techniques for patients undergoing VATS for tumor resection. 10.1016/j.jclinane.2024.111448
Rhomboid intercostal block or thoracic paravertebral block for postoperative recovery quality after video-assisted thoracic surgery: A prospective, non-inferiority, randomised controlled trial. European journal of anaesthesiology BACKGROUND:The analgesic characteristics of rhomboid intercostal block (RIB) remain unclear. Before it can be fully recommended, we compared the recovery quality and analgesic effects of RIB and thoracic paravertebral block (TPVB) for video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS). OBJECTIVE:The current study aimed to investigate whether there is a difference in postoperative recovery quality between TPVB and RIB. DESIGN:A prospective, non-inferiority, randomised controlled trial. SETTING:Affiliated Hospital of Jiaxing University in China from March 2021 to August 2022. PATIENTS:Eighty patients aged 18 to 80 years, with ASA physical status I to III, and scheduled for elective VATS were enrolled in the trial. INTERVENTION:Ultrasound-guided TPVB or RIB was performed with 20 ml 0.375% ropivacaine. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:The primary outcome of the study was the mean difference of quality of recovery-40 scores 24 h postoperatively. The non-inferiority margin was defined as 6.3. Numeric rating scores (NRS) for pain at 0.5, 1, 3, 6, 12, 24 and 48 h postoperatively in all patients were also recorded. RESULTS:A total of 75 participants completed the study. The mean difference of quality of recovery-40 scores 24 h postoperatively was -1.6 (95% CI, -4.5 to 1.3), demonstrating the non-inferiority of RIB to TPVB. There was no significant difference between the two groups in the area under the curve for pain NRS over time, at rest and on movement, at 6, 12, 24 and 48 h postoperatively (all P  > 0.05), except for the area under the curve pain NRS over time on movement at 48 h postoperatively ( P  = 0.046). There were no statistical differences between the two groups in the postoperative sufentanil use at 0 to 24 h or 24 to 48 h (all P  > 0.05). CONCLUSION:Our study suggests that RIB was non-inferior to TPVB for the quality of recovery, with almost the same postoperative analgesic effect as TPVB after VATS. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION:chictr.org.cn: ChiCTR2100043841. 10.1097/EJA.0000000000001872
Efficacy of preemptive intercostal nerve block on recovery in patients undergoing video-assisted thoracic lobectomy. Journal of cardiothoracic surgery BACKGROUND:Preemptive intercostal nerve block (pre-ICNB) achieves the same analgesic effects as postoperative ICNB (post-ICNB) remains unclear. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of preemptive ICNB on perioperative outcomes for patients undergoing video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS). METHODS:This was a randomized, open-label study (ChiCTR2200055667) from August 1, 2021, to December 30, 2021. Eligible patients scheduled for lobectomy for lung cancer were allocated into the pre-ICNB group and the post-ICNB group. The postoperative pain evaluation, patient rehabilitation, and opioid consumption were observed. RESULTS:A total of 81 patients were included. When compared with the post-ICNB group, the pre-ICNB group had a lower proportion of hypertension comorbidity (P = 0.023), significantly lower total consumption of morphine milligram equivalents (MMEs) (P = 0.016), shorter extubation time (P = 0.019). The pre-ICNB group has similar Numeric Rating Scales (NRS) scores of dynamic pain in the post-anesthesia care unit (PACU), postoperative 6 h, 12 h, 24 h, and 48 h (P > 0.05), and had simialr scores of Bruggrmann Comfort Scale (BCS) in postoperative 6 h, 12 h, 24 and 48 h (P > 0.05). The scores of the Mini-mental state examination (MMSE) and Ramsay in the pre-ICNB group were comparable to those in the post-ICNB group, except the scores of MMSE and Ramsay in postoperative 6 h were lower (P = 0.048 and P = 0.019). The pain evaluation in the 1-month follow-up was comparable with that in the post-ICBN group (P > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS:Pre- ICNB is equally efficacious in perioperative pain management as post-ICNB, and pre-ICNB significantly reduces intra-operative opioid consumption, providing faster recovery in PACU. TRIAL REGISTRATION:Registered in the Chinese Clinical Trial Register (ChiCTR2200055667). 10.1186/s13019-023-02243-z