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Changes in Ocular Hemodynamics after Carotid Artery Angioplasty and Stenting (CAAS) in Patients with Different Severity of Ocular Ischemic Syndrome. Ma Feiyan,Su Jing,Shang Qingli,Ma Jingxue,Zhang Tongdi,Wang Xin,Ma Honglei,Yu Jianghua Current eye research PURPOSE:To evaluate the effects of carotid artery angioplasty and stenting (CAAS) on patients who were diagnosed with ocular ischemic syndrome (OIS). METHODS:Sixty-four eyes of 64 OIS patients with ipsilateral internal carotid artery stenosis ≥70% were included in the study. The study eyes were divided into two groups according to the presence of iris neovascularization: NVI-absent group and NVI-present group, with 32 eyes, respectively. All patients received ocular treatment modality according to the presence of non-perfusion area (pan-retinal photocoagulation) and intraocular pressure (medical treatment included timolol maleate eye drops combined with brinzolamide eye drop; trabeculectomy and cyclophotocoagulation). All patients went through CAAS surgery for treatment of internal carotid artery stenosis. Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA); intraocular pressure (IOP), slit lamp examination, iris fluorescence angiography, fundus fluorescein angiography and color Doppler ultrasound of the internal carotid artery (ICA), ophthalmic artery (OA), central retinal artery (CRA), and short posterior ciliary arteries (PCA) were performed pre-operatively and 1 month, 3 months, 6 months, and 12 months post-operatively. RESULTS:There was no significant BCVA change postoperatively in the NVI-absent group, while postoperative BCVA in the INV-present group decreased significantly. There was no significant BCVA difference at pre-operative and 1month post-operative follow-up between the two groups. However, post-operative BCVA of NVI-present group starting from 3-months follow-up was significantly worse than NVI-absent group. Arm-retinal artery circulation time and arteriovenous circulation time decreased significantly in NVI-absent group, while showed no statistical difference in NVI-present group during the 12-months follow-up. Postoperative peak systolic velocity (PSV) of the ophthalmic artery, the central retinal artery, and short posterior ciliary artery showed significant increases at 1 month, 3 months, 6 months and 12 months follow-up in both groups. CONCLUSION:CAAS can greatly improve ocular blood in OIS patients with and without iris neovascularization. However, CAAS improved BCVA only in patients without iris neovascularization. 10.1080/02713683.2017.1390771
"A case of ocular ischemic syndrome in spontaneous acute internal carotid dissection: The importance of multidisciplinary management". European journal of ophthalmology AIMS:To emphasize that ocular ischemic syndrome (OIS) is a rare but threatening condition. It is a consequence of occlusion or dissection of internal carotid artery (ICA). METHODS:A 66-year-old caucasian male presented in the emergency room with painful vision loss in his right eye and mild neurological symptoms. He was diagnosed ocular ischemic syndrome (OIS) in ICA and ophthalmic artery occlusion due to right ICA dissection. CONCLUSIONS:It is very important to know and be able to recognise OIS as it may often be misdiagnosed or treated as a different entity. Patients with ICA occlusion and OIS must be treated as soon as possible by a stroke unit team to resolve ICA occlusion/dissection and by the ophthalmologist to prevent further ocular related complications. 10.1177/11206721231199516
Significant changes of the choroid in patients with ocular ischemic syndrome and symptomatic carotid artery stenosis. Kang Hae Min,Choi Jeong Hoon,Koh Hyoung Jun,Lee Sung Chul PloS one PURPOSE:To evaluated the changes in choroidal vasculature in patients with ocular ischemic syndrome (OIS) and in the ipsilateral eyes of patients with symptomatic carotid artery stenosis (CAS). METHOD:A total of 50 patients (15 patients with OIS, 10 patients with symptomatic CAS, 25 patients of age-and sex-matched control group) were included, and the medical records were retrospectively reviewed. The mean subfoveal choroidal thickness (SFCT) of each eye was measured, and binary images of the choroid were evaluated to compare the mean choroidal area and the luminal area. RESULTS:The mean SFCT was 170.5±75.3 μm in the eyes with OIS, 154.8±62.9 μm in the ipsilateral eyes with symptomatic CAS, and 277.5±73.2 μm in the right eyes of the control group patients (P<0.001). The mean choroidal area was 494,478.6±181,846.2 μm2 in the eyes with OIS, 453,750.0±196,725.8 μm2 in the ipsilateral eyes with symptomatic CAS, and 720,520±281,319.5 μm2 in the control group eyes (P = 0.036). The mean luminal area was 333,185.7±112,665.9 μm2 in the eyes with OIS, 313,983.3±132,032.1 μm2 in the ipsilateral eyes with symptomatic CAS, and 480,325.0±185,112.6 μm2 in the control group eyes (P = 0.046). The mean SFCT, mean choroidal area, and mean luminal area were significantly smaller in the eyes with OIS (P = 0.017, P = 0.005, and P = 0.004, respectively), and those with symptomatic CAS (P = 0.020, P = 0.016, and P = 0.021, respectively) than in the unaffected contralateral eyes. There were no significant differences between the eyes in the control group (P = 0.984, P = 284, and P = 0.413, respectively). CONCLUSION:The mean SFCT, mean choroidal area, and mean luminal area were significantly thinner in the eyes with OIS and the ipsilateral eyes with symptomatic CAS, compared with the control group eyes. The eyes with OIS and those with symptomatic CAS had significantly thinner SFCT, and smaller choroidal area and luminal area than the unaffected contralateral eyes. Choroid may reflect the vascular status of the carotid artery, indicated by choroidal thinning and decreasing choroidal area, especially luminal area. 10.1371/journal.pone.0224210
Management of ocular arterial ischemic diseases: a review. Graefe's archive for clinical and experimental ophthalmology = Albrecht von Graefes Archiv fur klinische und experimentelle Ophthalmologie PURPOSE:To summarize the existing treatment options regarding central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO), branch retinal artery occlusion (BRAO), arteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (AAION), non-arteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION), and ocular ischemic syndrome (OIS), proposing an approach to manage and treat these patients. METHODS:A systematic literature search of articles published since 1st January 2010 until 31st December 2020 was conducted using MEDLINE (PubMed), Scopus, and Web of Science. Exclusion criteria included case reports, non-English references, articles not conducted in humans, and articles not including diagnostic or therapeutic options. Further references were gathered through citation tracking, by hand search of the reference lists of included studies, as well as topic-related European society guidelines. RESULTS:Acute ocular ischemia, with consequent visual loss, has a variety of causes and clinical presentations, with prognosis depending on an accurate diagnosis and timely therapeutic implementation. Unfortunately, most of the addressed entities do not have a standardized management, especially regarding their treatment, which often lacks good quality evidence on whether it should or not be used to treat patients. CONCLUSION:Ophthalmologic signs and symptoms may be a warning sign of cardiovascular or cerebrovascular events, namely stroke. Most causes of acute ocular ischemia do not have a standardized management, especially regarding their treatment. Timely intervention is essential to improve the visual, and possibly vital, prognosis. Awareness must be raised among non-ophthalmologist clinicians that might encounter these patients. Further research should focus on assessing the benefit of the management strategies already being employed . 10.1007/s00417-022-05747-x
[Ocular ischemic syndrome : An important differential diagnosis]. Der Ophthalmologe : Zeitschrift der Deutschen Ophthalmologischen Gesellschaft BACKGROUND:Ocular ischemic syndrome is a rare disease, which must be considered as a differential diagnosis in cases of painful loss of vision. CASE REPORT:A 63-year-old male patient presented as an emergency in our consultation with hyphemia and decompensated intraocular pressure of the right eye. The right eye had been painful for 3 weeks. Apart from nicotine abuse, no relevant pre-existing medical conditions were known. With suspected iritis, the initial treatment was performed with eye drops containing a corticosteroid. After initial improvement in symptoms, an acute deterioration occurred with decrease in visual acuity and increased pain starting 2 days previously. Biomicroscopic examination revealed rubeosis iridis with hyphemia. Due to the hyphemia the view of the fundus was greatly reduced but there were no indications for retinal bleeding. In gonioscopy a chamber angle closure was evident. Fluorescence angiography showed a significantly longer arm-retina time, a delayed arteriovenous passage, peripheral vascular leaks and reduced fluorescence of the choroid. An ocular ischemic syndrome was suspected, therefore, duplex sonography of the carotid arteries and computed tomography angiography were performed and showed complete stenosis of the right internal carotid artery and moderate stenosis of the left internal carotid artery. An intravitreal administration of anti-VEGF and panretinal laser photocoagulation were carried out. Furthermore, an evaluation of the cardiovascular risk factors was initiated as part of the interdisciplinary investigation. 10.1007/s00347-020-01233-z
Carotid Endarterectomy for Ocular Ischemic Syndrome: A Case Report and Review of the Literature. Lauria Alexis L,Koelling Erin E,Houghtaling Paul M,White Paul W Annals of vascular surgery Ocular ischemic syndrome is a rare complication of carotid arterial disease that can lead to irreversible vision loss. The disease is related to ocular hypoperfusion secondary to carotid stenosis. Carotid endarterectomy (CEA) has been proven to reduce the risk of embolic stroke in specific patient populations; however, the role of CEA in the treatment of ocular ischemic syndrome or other flow-related symptoms is less well defined. We present a case of ocular ischemic syndrome successfully treated with carotid endarterectomy, and summarize the current literature regarding management of ocular ischemic syndrome. 10.1016/j.avsg.2020.03.005
Ocular ischemic syndrome. Mendrinos Efstratios,Machinis Theofilos G,Pournaras Constantin J Survey of ophthalmology Ocular ischemic syndrome encompasses a spectrum of clinical findings that result from chronic ocular hypoperfusion. It is relatively uncommon, and the diagnosis may be difficult to make because of its variable presentations. The presence of an ocular ischemic syndrome always implies underlying severe carotid occlusive disease and may be its sole clinical manifestation. It may also result from other causes of reduced blood flow to the eye and the orbit such as systemic vasculitis. Besides visual loss and ocular/orbital pain, affected patients are also at risk for developing cerebral and myocardial infarction. Establishing the diagnosis is therefore essential with respect not only to visual prognosis but also to patient survival. Ophthalmologists have an important role in early diagnosis and in coordinating the systemic evaluation of patients. Referral to the neuroradiologist and the neurovascular specialist is warranted. We present the current knowledge on the ocular ischemic syndrome. 10.1016/j.survophthal.2009.02.024
Ocular Ischemic Syndrome and Its Related Experimental Models. International journal of molecular sciences Ocular ischemic syndrome (OIS) is one of the severe ocular disorders occurring from stenosis or occlusion of the carotid arteries. As the ophthalmic artery is derived from the branch of the carotid artery, stenosis or occlusion of the carotid arteries could induce chronic ocular hypoperfusion, finally leading to the development of OIS. To date, the pathophysiology of OIS is still not clearly unraveled. To better explore the pathophysiology of OIS, several experimental models have been developed in rats and mice. Surgical occlusion or stenosis of common carotid arteries or internal carotid arteries was conducted bilaterally or unilaterally for model development. In this regard, final ischemic outcomes in the eye varied depending on the surgical procedure, even though similar findings on ocular hypoperfusion could be observed. In the current review, we provide an overview of the pathophysiology of OIS from various experimental models, as well as several clinical cases. Moreover, we cover the status of current therapies for OIS along with promising preclinical treatments with recent advances. Our review will enable more comprehensive therapeutic approaches to prevent the development and/or progression of OIS. 10.3390/ijms23095249