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Physicochemical Properties, Antioxidant Markers, and Meat Quality as Affected by Heat Stress: A Review. Molecules (Basel, Switzerland) Heat stress is one of the most stressful events in livestock life, negatively impacting animal health, productivity, and product quality. Moreover, the negative impact of heat stress on animal product quality has recently attracted increasing public awareness and concern. The purpose of this review is to discuss the effects of heat stress on the quality and the physicochemical component of meat in ruminants, pigs, rabbits, and poultry. Based on PRISMA guidelines, research articles were identified, screened, and summarized based on inclusion criteria for heat stress on meat safety and quality. Data were obtained from the Web of Science. Many studies reported the increased incidences of heat stress on animal welfare and meat quality. Although heat stress impacts can be variable depending on the severity and duration, the exposure of animals to heat stress (HS) can affect meat quality. Recent studies have shown that HS not only causes physiological and metabolic disturbances in living animals but also alters the rate and extent of glycolysis in postmortem muscles, resulting in changes in pH values that affect carcasses and meat. It has been shown to have a plausible effect on quality and antioxidant activity. Acute heat stress just before slaughter stimulates muscle glycogenolysis and can result in pale, tender, and exudative (PSE) meat characterized by low water-holding capacity (WHC). The enzymatic antioxidants such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) act by scavenging both intracellular and extracellular superoxide radicals and preventing the lipid peroxidation of the plasma membrane. Therefore, understanding and controlling environmental conditions is crucial to successful animal production and product safety. The objective of this review was to investigate the effects of HS on meat quality and antioxidant status. 10.3390/molecules28083332
Review: What have we learned about the effects of heat stress on the pig industry? Animal : an international journal of animal bioscience Pig production faces seasonal fluctuations. The low farrowing rate of sows mated in summer, increased carcass fatness of progeny born to the sows mated in summer, and slower growth rate of finisher pigs in summer are three economically important impacts identified in the pig industry. The purpose of this review is to examine advances over the past decade in understanding the mechanisms underlying the three impacts associated with summer conditions, particularly heat stress (HS), and to provide possible amelioration strategies. For impact 1, summer mating results in low farrowing rates mainly caused by the high frequency of early pregnancy disruptions. The contributions of semen DNA damage, poor oocyte quality, local progesterone concentrations, and suboptimal embryonic oestrogen secretion are discussed, as these all may contribute to HS-mediated effects around conception. Despite this, it is still unclear what the underlying mechanisms might be and thus, there is currently a lack of commercially viable solutions. For impact 2, there have been recent advances in the understanding of gestational HS on both the sow and foetus, with gestational HS implicated in decreased foetal muscle fibre number, a greater proportion of lighter piglets, and increased carcass fatness at slaughter. So far, no effective strategies have been developed to mitigate the impacts associated with gestational HS on foetuses. For impact 3, the slowed growth rate of pigs during summer is one reason for the reduced carcass weights in summer. Studies have shown that the reduction in growth rates may be due to more than reductions in feed intake alone, and the impaired intestinal barrier function and inflammatory response may also play a role. In addition, it is consistently reported that HS attenuates fat mobilisation which can potentially exacerbate carcass fatness when carcass weight is increased. Novel feed additives have exhibited the potential to reduce the impacts of HS on intestinal barrier function in grower pigs. Collectively, based on these three impacts, the economic loss associated with HS can be estimated. A review of these impacts is warranted to better align the future research directions with the needs of the pig industry. Ultimately, a better understanding of the underlying mechanisms and continuous investments in developing commercially viable strategies to combat HS will benefit the pig industry. 10.1016/j.animal.2021.100349
The Genetics of Thermoregulation in Pigs: A Review. Gourdine Jean-Luc,Rauw Wendy Mercedes,Gilbert Hélène,Poullet Nausicaa Frontiers in veterinary science Heat stress (HS) affects pig performance, health and welfare, resulting in a financial burden to the pig industry. Pigs have a limited number of functional sweat glands and their thermoregulatory mechanisms used to maintain body temperature, are challenged by HS to maintain body temperature. The genetic selection of genotypes tolerant to HS is a promising long-term (adaptation) option that could be combined with other measures at the production system level. This review summarizes the current knowledge on the genetics of thermoregulation in pigs. It also discusses the different phenotypes that can be used in genetic studies, as well as the variability in thermoregulation between pig breeds and the inheritance of traits related to thermoregulation. This review also considers on-going challenges to face for improving heat tolerance in pigs. 10.3389/fvets.2021.770480
Managing prolific sows in tropical environments. Molecular reproduction and development Litter size in modern sows has been dramatically improved in recent decades by genetic selection for highly prolific sows. In a tropical environment, the average total number of pigs born and number born alive are reported to be as high as 17.2 and 15.1 piglets per litter, respectively. Therefore, the new production target in many herds aims to achieve 30-40 pigs weaned per sow per year. Despite the improvements in litter size, the mean preweaning piglet mortality rate remains high, at between 10% and 20%, in major pig-producing countries. A sufficient daily feed intake by lactating sows is important for high milk production as sow milk yield is the limiting factor for piglet growth rate. Heat stress, which can occur when the ambient temperatures rise above 25°C, is one of the major problems that decreases daily feed intake and compromises milk yield. Therefore, it is necessary to encourage high feed intakes to achieve high milk yields. However, even with high nutrient intakes, productivity can be constrained by intestinal barrier function, limiting digestive ability, and allowing potential pathogens and/or toxins to become systemic. This is more likely greater under tropical conditions because of heat stress, exacerbating sow fertility problems. Underpinning sow herd performance, including responses to environmental challenges, is the selection of appropriate gilts, for example, selection and management for early puberty, thus presumably selecting the more fertile gilts and the correct management of lactation to improve the number of weaned piglets are some of the key factors for future reproductive efficiency of the farm under tropical conditions. 10.1002/mrd.23661
Scrambled eggs-Negative impacts of heat stress and chemical exposures on ovarian function in swine. Molecular reproduction and development Exposure to environmental toxicants and hyperthermia can hamper reproduction in female mammals including swine. Phenotypic manifestations include poor quality oocytes, endocrine disruption, infertility, lengthened time to conceive, pregnancy loss, and embryonic defects. The ovary has the capacity for toxicant biotransformation, regulated in part by the phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase signaling pathway. The impacts of exposure to mycotoxins and pesticides on swine reproduction and the potential for an emerging chemical class of concern, the per- and polyfluoroalkylated substances, to hamper porcine reproduction are reviewed. The negative impairments of heat stress (HS) on swine reproductive outcomes are also described and the cumulative effect of environmental exposures, such as HS, when present in conjunction with a toxicant is considered. 10.1002/mrd.23669
Effects of Heat Stress on Motion Characteristics and Metabolomic Profiles of Boar Spermatozoa. Genes Heat stress (HS) commonly causes boar infertility and economic loss in the swine industry. The heat tolerance of boar semen presents obvious differences among individuals. However, whether heat stress affects motion characteristics and the metabolome profile in boar sperm remains unclear. In this study, the kinetic features of sperm from HS and non-HS (NHS) groups were detected by computer-assisted sperm analysis, and metabolomic profiling was performed by liquid chromatography−mass spectrometry. The results showed that heat stress significantly reduced sperm motility, average path distance (APD), straight-line velocity (VSL), straightness (STR), and linearity (LIN) (p < 0.05). A total of 528 and 194 metabolites in sperm were identified in the positive and negative ion modes, respectively. Lipids and lipid-like molecules, and organic acids and derivatives were major metabolic classes in the two modes. Furthermore, we separately identified 163 and 171 differential metabolites in the two modes between HS and NHS groups. Clustering analysis further revealed significant metabolic changes in sperm after heat stress. The Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analysis showed that differential metabolites in the two modes were enriched in glycerophospholipid, choline, and alanine, aspartate, and glutamate and lysine metabolism. Taken together, these results demonstrate that heat stress can alter the motion characteristics and metabolomic profiles of boar sperm. 10.3390/genes13091647
Heat stress in pregnant sows: Thermal responses and subsequent performance of sows and their offspring. Lucy Matthew C,Safranski Timothy J Molecular reproduction and development Seasonal infertility is a significant problem in the swine industry, and may be influenced by photoperiod and heat stress. Heat stress during gestation in particular affects pregnancy, resulting in long-term developmental damage to the offspring. This review summarizes what is known about how heat stress on the pregnant sow affects lactation and her offspring. Sows responded to heat stress during gestation with increased rectal temperature, respiration rate, and skin temperature, and tended to reduce their activity-which may have changed their body composition, increasing the adipose-to-muscle ratio. Heat stress during gestation caused temporary insulin resistance during lactation, but this metabolic state did not seem to affect health, lactation, or rebreeding performance of the sow. Heat-stressed sows also presented with a shorter gestation period and reduced litter birth weight, although weaning weights are not affected when these sows are moved to thermoneutral conditions for lactation. The offspring of gestational heat-stressed sows, however, possessed unique phenotypes, including elevated body temperature, greater fat deposition, and impaired gonad development. Thus, gestational heat stress may significantly impact a herd through its effects on sows and their offspring. Further work is necessary to determine the magnitude of the effects across fa cilities and breeds. 10.1002/mrd.22844