logo logo
Subsequent Vertebral Fractures Post Cement Augmentation of the Thoracolumbar Spine: Does it Correlate With Level-specific Bone Mineral Density Scores? Hey Hwee Weng Dennis,Hwee Weng Dennis Hey,Tan Jun Hao,Jun Hao Tan,Tan Chuen Seng,Chuen Seng Tan,Tan Hsi Ming Bryan,Ming Bryan Tan Hsi,Lau Puang Huh Bernard,Huh Bernard Lau Puang,Hee Hwan Tak,Hwan Tak Hee Spine STUDY DESIGN:A case-control study. OBJECTIVE:In this study, we investigated the correlation between level-specific preoperative bone mineral density and subsequent vertebral fractures. We also identified factors associated with subsequent vertebral fractures. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA:Complications of cement augmentation of the spine include subsequent vertebral fractures, leading to unnecessary morbidity and more treatment. Ability to predict at-risk vertebra will help guide management. METHODS:We studied all patients with osteoporotic compression fractures who underwent cement augmentation in a single institution from November 2001 to December 2010 by a single surgeon. Association between level-specific bone mineral density T-scores and subsequent fractures was assessed. Multivariable analysis was performed to identify significant factors associated with subsequent vertebral fractures. RESULTS:93 patients followed up for a mean duration of 25.1 months (12-96) had a mean age of 76.8 years (47-99). Vertebroplasty was performed in 58 patients (62.4%) on 68 levels and kyphoplasty in 35 patients (37.6%) on 44 levels. Refracture was seen in 16 patients (17.2%). The time to subsequent fracture post cement augmentation was 20.5 months (2-90). For refracture cases, 43.8% (7/16) fractured in the adjacent vertebrae. Subsequently fractured vertebra had a mean T-score of -2.860 (95% confidence interval -3.268 to -2.452) and nonfractured vertebra had a mean T-score of -2.180 (95% confidence interval -2.373 to -1.986). A T-score of -2.2 or lower is predictive of refracture at that vertebra (P = 0.047). Odds ratio increases with decreasing T-scores from -2.2 or lower to -2.6 or lower. A T-score of -2.6 or lower gives no additional predictive advantage. After multivariable analysis, age (P = 0.049) and loss of preoperative anterior vertebral height (P = 0.017) are associated with refracture. CONCLUSION:Level-specific T-scores are predictive of subsequent fractures and the odds ratio increases with lower T-scores from -2.2 or less to -2.6 or less. They have a low positive predictive value, but a high negative predictive value for subsequent fractures. Other significant associations with subsequent refractures include age and anterior vertebral height. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE:4. 10.1097/BRS.0000000000001066
Preoperative prediction of residual back pain after vertebral augmentation for osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures: Initial application of a radiomics score based nomogram. Frontiers in endocrinology Background:Most patients with osteoporotic vertebral compression fracture (OVCF) obtain pain relief after vertebral augmentation, but some will experience residual back pain (RBP) after surgery. Although several risk factors of RBP have been reported, it is still difficult to estimate the risk of RBP preoperatively. Radiomics is helpful for disease diagnosis and outcome prediction by establishing complementary relationships between human-recognizable and computer-extracted features. However, musculoskeletal radiomics investigations are less frequently reported. Objective:This study aims to establish a radiomics score (rad-score) based nomogram for the preoperative prediction of RBP in OVCF patients. Methods:The training cohort of 731 OVCF patients was used for nomogram development, and the validation cohort was utilized for performance test. RBP was determined as the score of visual analogue scale ≥ 4 at both 3 and 30 days following surgery. After normalization, the RBP-related radiomics features were selected to create rad-scores. These rad-scores, along with the RBP predictors initially identified by univariate analyses, were included in the multivariate analysis to establish a nomogram for the assessment of the RBP risk in OVCF patients preoperatively. Results:A total of 81 patients (11.2%) developed RBP postoperatively. We finally selected 8 radiomics features from 1316 features extracted from each segmented image to determine the rad-score. Multivariate analysis revealed that the rad-score plus bone mineral density, intravertebral cleft, and thoracolumbar fascia injury were independent factors of RBP. Our nomograms based on these factors demonstrated good discrimination, calibration, and clinical utility in both training and validation cohorts. Furthermore, it achieved better performance than the rad-score itself, as well as the nomogram only incorporating regular features. Conclusion:We developed and validated a nomogram incorporating the rad-score and regular features for preoperative prediction of the RBP risk in OVCF patients, which contributed to improved surgical outcomes and patient satisfaction. 10.3389/fendo.2022.1093508
Establishment of a risk prediction model for residual low back pain in thoracolumbar osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures after percutaneous kyphoplasty. Journal of orthopaedic surgery and research OBJECTIVE:This study aims to identify potential independent risk factors for residual low back pain (LBP) in patients with thoracolumbar osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures (OVCFs) following percutaneous kyphoplasty (PKP) treatment. Additionally, we aim to develop a nomogram that can accurately predict the occurrence of residual LBP. METHODS:We conducted a retrospective review of the medical records of thoracolumbar OVCFs patients who underwent PKP treatment at our hospital between July 2021 and December 2022. Residual LBP was defined as the presence of moderate or greater pain (VAS score ≥ 4) in the low back one day after surgery, and patients were divided into two groups: the LBP group and the non-LBP group. These patients were then randomly allocated to either a training or a validation set in the ratio of 7:3. To identify potential risk factors for residual LBP, we employed lasso regression for multivariate analysis, and from this, we constructed a nomogram. Subsequently, the predictive accuracy and practical clinical application of the nomogram were evaluated through a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, a calibration curve, and a decision curve analysis (DCA). RESULTS:Our predictive model revealed that five variables-posterior fascial oedema, intravertebral vacuum cleft, time from fracture to surgery, sarcopenia, and interspinous ligament degeneration-were correlated with the presence of residual LBP. In the training set, the area under the ROC was 0.844 (95% CI 0.772-0.917), and in the validation set, it was 0.842 (95% CI 0.744-0.940), indicating that the model demonstrated strong discriminative performance. Furthermore, the predictions closely matched actual observations in both the training and validation sets. The decision curve analysis (DCA) curve suggested that the model provides a substantial net clinical benefit. CONCLUSIONS:We have created a novel numerical model capable of accurately predicting the potential risk factors associated with the occurrence of residual LBP following PKP in thoracolumbar OVCFs patients. This model serves as a valuable tool for guiding specific clinical decisions for patients with OVCFs. 10.1186/s13018-024-04528-y
Prediction of incident vertebral fractures in routine MDCT: Comparison of global texture features, 3D finite element parameters and volumetric BMD. Dieckmeyer Michael,Rayudu Nithin Manohar,Yeung Long Yu,Löffler Maximilian,Sekuboyina Anjany,Burian Egon,Sollmann Nico,Kirschke Jan S,Baum Thomas,Subburaj Karupppasamy European journal of radiology PURPOSE:In this case-control study, we evaluated different quantitative parameters derived from routine multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) scans with respect to their ability to predict incident osteoporotic vertebral fractures of the thoracolumbar spine. METHODS:16 patients who received baseline and follow-up contrast-enhanced MDCT and were diagnosed with an incident osteoporotic vertebral fracture at follow-up, and 16 age-, sex-, and follow-up-time-matched controls were included in the study. Vertebrae were labelled and segmented using a fully automated pipeline. Volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD), finite element analysis (FEA)-based failure load (FL) and failure displacement (FD), as well as 24 texture features were extracted from L1 - L3 and averaged. Odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI), expressed per standard deviation decrease, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) area under the curve (AUC), as well as logistic regression models, including all analyzed parameters as independent variables, were used to assess the prediction of incident vertebral fractures. RESULTS:The texture feature Correlation (AUC = 0.754, p = 0.014; OR = 2.76, CI = 1.16-6.58) and vBMD (AUC = 0.750, p = 0.016; OR = 2.67, CI = 1.12-6.37) classified incident vertebral fractures best, while the best FEA-based parameter FL showed an AUC = 0.719 (p = 0.035). Correlation was the only significant predictor of incident fractures in the logistic regression analysis of all parameters (p = 0.022). CONCLUSION:MDCT-derived FEA parameters and texture features, averaged from L1 - L3, showed only a moderate, but no statistically significant improvement of incident vertebral fracture prediction beyond BMD, supporting the hypothesis that vertebral-specific parameters may be superior for fracture risk assessment. 10.1016/j.ejrad.2021.109827
Bone density and strength from thoracic and lumbar CT scans both predict incident vertebral fractures independently of fracture location. Osteoporosis international : a journal established as result of cooperation between the European Foundation for Osteoporosis and the National Osteoporosis Foundation of the USA In a population-based study, we found that computed tomography (CT)-based bone density and strength measures from the thoracic spine predicted new vertebral fracture as well as measures from the lumbar spine, suggesting that CT scans at either the thorax or abdominal regions are useful to assess vertebral fracture risk. INTRODUCTION:Prior studies have shown that computed tomography (CT)-based lumbar bone density and strength measurements predict incident vertebral fracture. This study investigated whether CT-based bone density and strength measurements from the thoracic spine predict incident vertebral fracture and compared the performance of thoracic and lumbar bone measurements to predict incident vertebral fracture. METHODS:This case-control study of community-based men and women (age 74.6 ± 6.6) included 135 cases with incident vertebral fracture at any level and 266 age- and sex-matched controls. We used baseline CT scans to measure integral and trabecular volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) and vertebral strength (via finite element analysis, FEA) at the T8 and L2 levels. Association between these measurements and vertebral fracture was determined by using conditional logistic regression. Sensitivity and specificity for predicting incident vertebral fracture were determined for lumbar spine and thoracic bone measurements. RESULTS:Bone measurements from T8 and L2 predicted incident vertebral fracture equally well, regardless of fracture location. Specifically, for predicting vertebral fracture at any level, the odds ratio (per 1-SD decrease) for the vBMD and strength measurements at L2 and T8 ranged from 2.0 to 2.7 (p < 0.0001) and 1.8 to 2.8 (p < 0.0001), respectively. Results were similar when predicting fracture only in the thoracic versus the thoracolumbar spine. Lumbar and thoracic spine bone measurements had similar sensitivity and specificity for predicting incident vertebral fracture. CONCLUSION:These findings indicated that like those from the lumbar spine, CT-based bone density and strength measurements from the thoracic spine may be useful for identifying individuals at high risk for vertebral fracture. 10.1007/s00198-020-05528-4
Is magnetic resonance imaging needed for decision making diagnosis and treatment of thoracic and lumbar vertebral fractures? European journal of orthopaedic surgery & traumatology : orthopedie traumatologie PURPOSE:The radiological examination including plain radiography, CT and MRI are critical to assess the severity of the instability, to diagnose the fracture type and to select the appropriate treatment strategy for the thoracic and lumbar vertebral fractures. The aim of this prospective observational study was to investigate the effect of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) on decision making for the diagnosis and treatment of acute thoracic and lumbar vertebral fractures. METHODS:Consecutive 180 patients with acute thoracic and/or lumbar vertebral fractures were included in the study. The fracture pattern was evaluated by using initial radiographs, computed tomography (CT) and MRI within 24 h of trauma. Fractures were classified according to AO classification before and after MRI. TLICS classification was also used to decide treatment plan. MRI findings were compared to surgical findings in the surgically treated patients. RESULTS:A significant moderate agreement was found between Xray + CT and post-MRI classifications for all fracture types (Kappa = 0.511; p < 0.001). In 101 patients with new findings on MRI, a significant moderate correlation was observed between Xray + CT and post-MRI classifications in the fracture re-classification (Kappa = 0.441, p < 0.001). There was a significant change in the treatment plan of patients with new findings on MRI according to Xray + CT (p < 0.0001). After MRI evaluation, the treatment plan changed in favor of surgery in 33.9% of patients who were scheduled for conservative treatment according to Xray + CT (p < 0.0001). CONCLUSION:Since MRI assessment of acute thoracic and/or lumbar injuries has led to a remarkable treatment change decision that confirms intraoperative findings of the patients who were decided to undergo surgery, MRI should be obtained in thoracic and lumbar vertebral fractures, regardless of the CT and plain radiographic findings. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE:Level II, prospective observational study. 10.1007/s00590-021-03165-z
Thoracic kyphosis and rate of incident vertebral fractures: the Fracture Intervention Trial. Osteoporosis international : a journal established as result of cooperation between the European Foundation for Osteoporosis and the National Osteoporosis Foundation of the USA SUMMARY:Biomechanical analyses support the theory that thoracic spine hyperkyphosis may increase risk of new vertebral fractures. While greater kyphosis was associated with an increased rate of incident vertebral fractures, our analysis does not show an independent association of kyphosis on incident fracture, after adjustment for prevalent vertebral fracture. Excessive kyphosis may still be a clinical marker for prevalent vertebral fracture. INTRODUCTION:Biomechanical analyses suggest hyperkyphosis may increase risk of incident vertebral fracture by increasing the load on vertebral bodies during daily activities. We propose to assess the association of kyphosis with incident radiographic vertebral fracture. METHODS:We used data from the Fracture Intervention Trial among 3038 women 55-81 years of age with low bone mineral density (BMD). Baseline kyphosis angle was measured using a Debrunner kyphometer. Vertebral fractures were assessed at baseline and follow-up from lateral radiographs of the thoracic and lumbar spine. We used Poisson models to estimate the independent association of kyphosis with incident fracture, controlling for age and femoral neck BMD. RESULTS:Mean baseline kyphosis was 48° (SD = 12) (range 7-83). At baseline, 962 (32%) participants had a prevalent fracture. There were 221 incident fractures over a median of 4 years. At baseline, prevalent fracture was associated with 3.7° greater average kyphosis (95% CI 2.8-4.6, p < 0.0005), adjusting for age and femoral neck BMD. Before adjusting for prevalent fracture, each 10° greater kyphosis was associated with 22% increase (95% CI 8-38%, p = 0.001) in annualized rate of new radiographic vertebral fracture, adjusting for age and femoral neck BMD. After additional adjustment for prevalent fracture, estimated increased annualized rate was attenuated and no longer significant, 8% per 10° kyphosis (95% CI -4 to 22%, p = 0.18). CONCLUSIONS:While greater kyphosis increased the rate of incident vertebral fractures, our analysis does not show an independent association of kyphosis on incident fracture, after adjustment for prevalent vertebral fracture. Excessive kyphosis may still be a clinical marker for prevalent vertebral fracture. 10.1007/s00198-015-3478-2
The Conservative Treatment of Traumatic Thoracolumbar Vertebral Fractures. Deutsches Arzteblatt international BACKGROUND:The conservative treatment of traumatic thoracolumbar vertebral fractures is often not clearly defined. METHODS:This review is based on articles retrieved by a systematic search in the PubMed and Web of Science databases for publications up to February 2018 dealing with the conservative treatment of traumatic thoracolumbar vertebral fractures. The search initially yielded 3345 hits, of which 35 were suitable for use in this review. RESULTS:It can be concluded from the available original clinical research on the subject, including three randomized controlled trials (RCTs), that the primary diagnostic evaluation should be with plain x-rays, in the standing position if possible. If a fracture is suspected on the plain films, computed tomography (CT) is indicated. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is additionally advisable if there is a burst fracture. The spinal deformity resulting from the fracture should be quantified in terms of the Cobb angle. The choice of a conservative or operative treatment strategy is based on the primary stability of the fracture, the degree of deformity, the presence or absence of disc injury, and the patient's clinical state. Our analysis of the three RCTs implies that early functional therapy without a corset should be performed, although treatment in a corset may be appropriate to control pain. Follow-up x-rays should be obtained after mobilization and at one week, three weeks, six weeks, and twelve weeks. CONCLUSION:Further comparative studies of the indications for surgery and specific conservative treatment modalities would be desirable. 10.3238/arztebl.2018.0697