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Microglial and macrophage polarization—new prospects for brain repair. Hu Xiaoming,Leak Rehana K,Shi Yejie,Suenaga Jun,Gao Yanqin,Zheng Ping,Chen Jun Nature reviews. Neurology The traditional view of the adult brain as a static organ has changed in the past three decades, with the emergence of evidence that it remains plastic and has some regenerative capacity after injury. In the injured brain, microglia and macrophages clear cellular debris and orchestrate neuronal restorative processes. However, activation of these cells can also hinder CNS repair and expand tissue damage. Polarization of macrophage populations toward different phenotypes at different stages of injury might account for this dual role. This Perspectives article highlights the specific roles of polarized microglial and macrophage populations in CNS repair after acute injury, and argues that therapeutic approaches targeting cerebral inflammation should shift from broad suppression of microglia and macrophages towards subtle adjustment of the balance between their phenotypes. Breakthroughs in the identification of regulatory molecules that control these phenotypic shifts could ultimately accelerate research towards curing brain disorders. 10.1038/nrneurol.2014.207
Modulating the polarization phenotype of microglia - A valuable strategy for central nervous system diseases. Ageing research reviews Central nervous system (CNS) diseases have become one of the leading causes of death in the global population. The pathogenesis of CNS diseases is complicated, so it is important to find the patterns of the disease to improve the treatment strategy. Microglia are considered to be a double-edged sword, playing both harmful and beneficial roles in CNS diseases. Therefore, it is crucial to understand the progression of the disease and the changes in the polar phenotype of microglia to provide guidance in the treatment of CNS diseases. Microglia activation may evolve into different phenotypes: M1 and M2 types. We focused on the roles that M1 and M2 microglia play in regulating intercellular dialogues, pathological reactions and specific diseases in CNS diseases. Importantly, we summarized the strategies used to modulate the polarization phenotype of microglia, including traditional pharmacological modulation, biological therapies, and physical strategies. This review will contribute to the development of potential strategies to modulate microglia polarization phenotypes and provide new alternative therapies for CNS diseases. 10.1016/j.arr.2023.102160