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Leukotriene receptor antagonists as add-on therapy to antihistamines for urticaria: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials. The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology BACKGROUND:The benefits and harms of adding antileukotrienes to H1-antihistamines for the management of urticaria (hives, itch, and/or angioedema) remain unclear. OBJECTIVE:We sought to systematically synthesize the treatment outcomes of antileukotrienes in combination with H1-antihistamines versus H1-antihistamines alone for acute and chronic urticaria. METHODS:As part of updating American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology and American College of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology Joint Task Force on Practice Parameters urticaria guidelines, we searched MEDLINE, Embase, CENTRAL, LILACS, WPRIM, IBECS, ICTRP, CBM, CNKI, VIP, Wanfang, FDA, and EMA databases from inception to December 18, 2023 for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating antileukotrienes and H1-antihistamines versus H1-antihistamines alone in patients with urticaria. Paired reviewers independently screened citations, extracted data, and assessed risk of bias. Random effects models pooled effect estimates for urticaria activity, itch, wheal, sleep, quality of life, and harms. The GRADE approach informed certainty of evidence ratings. Open Science Framework registration: https://osf.io/h2bfx/. RESULTS:Thirty-four RCTs enrolled 3,324 children and adults. Compared to H1-antihistamines alone, the combination of a leukotriene receptor antagonist (LTRA) with H1-antihistamines probably modestly reduces urticaria activity (mean difference: -5.04, 95%CI -6.36 to -3.71; 7-day Urticaria Activity Score) with moderate certainty. We made similar findings for itch and wheal severity, and quality of life. Adverse events were probably not different between groups (moderate certainty), however, no RCT reported on neuropsychiatric adverse events. CONCLUSION:Among patients with urticaria, adding LTRAs to H1-antihistamines probably modestly improves urticaria activity with little to no increase in overall adverse events. The added risk of neuropsychiatric adverse events in this population with LTRAs is small and uncertain. 10.1016/j.jaci.2024.05.026