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Nanocoating and its application as antimicrobials in the food industry: A review. International journal of biological macromolecules Nanocoatings are ultra-thin layers on the nanoscale (<100 nm) that are deposited on the substrate to improve their properties and functionality. These nanocoatings provide significant advantages compared to traditional coating, including stain resistance, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities, odor control and delivery of active agents, and liquid repellence properties. In the food industry, nanocoating is widely used in the food packaging sector. In this regard, nanocoating offers antimicrobials and antioxidant properties to active food packaging by incorporating active bioactive compounds into materials used in already existing packaging. The application of nanocoating is applied to these kinds of food packaging with nano coating to improve shelf life, safety, and quality of food packaging. In smart/intelligent packaging, the active packaging coating is promising food packaging, which is designed by releasing preservatives and nanocoating as an antimicrobial, antifungal, antioxidant, barrier coating, and self-cleaning food contact surfaces. In addition, nanocoating can be used for food contact surfaces, kitchen utensils, and food processing equipment to create antimicrobial, antireflective, and dirt-repellent properties. These are critical properties for food processing, especially for meat and dairy processing facilities, which can reduce biofilm formation and prevent cross-contamination. Recently, appreciable growth in the development of the application of nanocoating as edible films for coating food products has emerged to improve food safety issues. In this regard, much scientific research in the area of nanocoating fruits and vegetables, and other food products was performed to address food safety issues. Hence, this promising technology can be a great addition to the agricultural and food industries. Thus, this review addresses the most relevant information about this technology and the applications of nanocoating in the food industry. 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2023.127906
Recent advances in the application of nanotechnology to create antioxidant active food packaging materials. Critical reviews in food science and nutrition Nanotechnology is being used to create innovative food packaging systems that can inhibit the oxidation of foods, thereby improving their quality, safety, and shelf life. These nano-enabled antioxidant packaging materials may therefore increase the healthiness and sustainability of the food supply chain. Recent progress in the application of nanotechnology to create antioxidant packaging materials is reviewed in this paper. The utilization of nanoparticles, nanofibers, nanocrystals, and nanoemulsions to incorporate antioxidants into these packaging materials is highlighted. The application of nano-enabled antioxidant packaging materials to preserve meat, seafood, fruit, vegetable, and other foods is then discussed. Finally, future directions and challenges in the development of this kind of active packaging material are highlighted to stimulate new areas of future research. Nanotechnology has already been used to create antioxidant packaging materials that inhibit oxidative deterioration reactions in foods, thereby prolonging their shelf life and reducing food waste. However, the safety, cost, efficacy, and scale-up of this technology still needs to be established before it will be commercially viable for many applications. 10.1080/10408398.2022.2128035
Nanotechnology: An Untapped Resource for Food Packaging. Frontiers in microbiology Food commodities are packaged and hygienically transported to protect and preserve them from any un-acceptable alteration in quality, before reaching the end-consumer. Food packaging continues to evolve along-with the innovations in material science and technology, as well as in light of consumer's demand. Presently, the modern consumers of competitive economies demands for food with natural quality, assured safety, minimal processing, extended shelf-life and ready-to-eat concept. Innovative packaging systems, not only ascertains transit preservation and effective distribution, but also facilitates communication at the consumer levels. The technological advances in the domain of food packaging in twenty-first century are mainly chaired by nanotechnology, the science of nano-materials. Nanotechnology manipulates and creates nanometer scale materials, of commercial and scientific relevance. Introduction of nanotechnology in food packaging sector has significantly addressed the food quality, safety and stability concerns. Besides, nanotechnology based packaging intimate's consumers about the real time quality of food product. Additionally, nanotechnology has been explored for controlled release of preservatives/antimicrobials, extending the product shelf life within the package. The promising reports for nanotechnology interventions in food packaging have established this as an independent priority research area. Nanoparticles based food packages offer improved barrier and mechanical properties, along with food preservation and have gained welcoming response from market and end users. In contrary, recent advances and up-liftment in this area have raised various ethical, environmental and safety concerns. Policies and regulation regarding nanoparticles incorporation in food packaging are being reviewed. This review presents the existing knowledge, recent advances, concerns and future applications of nanotechnology in food packaging sector. 10.3389/fmicb.2017.01735
Preparation, characterization and food packaging application of nano ZnO@Xylan/quaternized xylan/polyvinyl alcohol composite films. International journal of biological macromolecules Xylan could be considered as a good potential candidate for food packaging film because of the vast source and biodegradability, however, its application was restricted by the drawbacks of poor film-forming property, humidity sensitivity, weak mechanical strength and poor antibacterial property. In this paper, xylan was firstly modified by quaternization to improve the film-forming property, then ZnO nanoparticles encapsulated by xylan (nano ZnO@Xylan) was prepared by nanoprecipitation method, finally a series of biodegradable composite films were prepared using quaternized xylan and polyvinyl alcohol with incorporation of nano ZnO@Xylan. The surface morphology, molecular structure and crystallography structure of the films were characterized. The addition of nano ZnO@Xylan decreased water vapor permeability and solubility, meanwhile obviously increased the ultraviolet shielding performance as well as the antibacterial properties of the films. The bacteriostasis rate of the films against E. coli and S. aureus reached up to 99 %. Furthermore, the preservation time of cherry tomatoes covered with ZnO@Xylan/QX/PVA films was extended to at least 21 days. In conclusion, all the results ensure that the fabricated composite films have considerable promising application in the food packaging industry. 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2022.06.157
Construction of nano slow-release systems for antibacterial active substances and its applications: A comprehensive review. Frontiers in nutrition At present, nano-carrier materials with antibacterial activity are of great significance. Due to the widespread resistance of many pathogenic microorganisms, it has seriously threatened human health. The natural antimicrobial substances extracted from fruits and vegetables can significantly improve their stability combined with nano-carrier materials. The resistance of pathogenic microorganisms will be substantially reduced, greatly enhancing the effect of active antimicrobial substances. Nanotechnology has excellent research prospects in the food industry, antibacterial preservation, food additives, food packaging, and other fields. This paper introduces nano-carrier materials and preparation techniques for loading and encapsulating active antibacterial substances in detail by constructing a nano-release system for active antibacterial substances. The antibacterial effect can be achieved by protecting them from adverse external conditions and destroying the membrane of pathogenic microorganisms. The mechanism of the slow release of the bacteriostatic active substance is also described. The mechanism of carrier loading and release is mainly through non-covalent forces between the bacteriostatic active substance and the carrier material, such as hydrogen bonding, π-π stacking, van der Waals forces, electrostatic interactions, etc., as well as the loading and adsorption of the bacteriostatic active substance by the chemical assembly. Finally, its wide application in food and medicine is introduced. It is hoped to provide a theoretical basis and technical support for the efficient utilization and product development of bacteriostatic active substances. 10.3389/fnut.2023.1109204
Nano and Technological Frontiers as a Sustainable Platform for Postharvest Preservation of Berry Fruits. Foods (Basel, Switzerland) Berries are highly perishable and susceptible to spoilage, resulting in significant food and economic losses. The use of chemicals in traditional postharvest protection techniques can harm both human health and the environment. Consequently, there is an increasing interest in creating environmentally friendly solutions for postharvest protection. This article discusses various approaches, including the use of "green" chemical compounds such as ozone and peracetic acid, biocontrol agents, physical treatments, and modern technologies such as the use of nanostructures and molecular tools. The potential of these alternatives is evaluated in terms of their effect on microbial growth, nutritional value, and physicochemical and sensorial properties of the berries. Moreover, the development of nanotechnology, molecular biology, and artificial intelligence offers a wide range of opportunities to develop formulations using nanostructures, improving the functionality of the coatings by enhancing their physicochemical and antimicrobial properties and providing protection to bioactive compounds. Some challenges remain for their implementation into the food industry such as scale-up and regulatory policies. However, the use of sustainable postharvest protection methods can help to reduce the negative impacts of chemical treatments and improve the availability of safe and quality berries. 10.3390/foods12173159
Electrospun nanofibers food packaging: trends and applications in food systems. Critical reviews in food science and nutrition Food safety is a bottleneck problem. In order to provide information about advanced and unique food packaging technique, this study summarized the advancements of electrospinning technique. Food packaging is a multidisciplinary area involving food science, food engineering, food chemistry, and food microbiology, and the interest in maintaining the freshness and quality of foods has grown considerably. For this purpose, electrospinning technology has gained much attention due to its unique functions and superior processing. Sudden advancements of electrospinning have been rapidly incorporated into research. This review summarized some latest information about food packaging and different materials used for the packaging of various foods such as fruits, vegetables, meat, and processed items. Also, the use of electrospinning and materials used for the formation of nanofibers are discussed in detail. However, in food industry, the application of electrospun nanofibers is still in its infancy. In this study, different parameters, structures of nanofibers, features and fundamental properties are described briefly, while polymers fabricated through electrospinning with advances in food packaging films are described in detail. Moreover, this comprehensive review focuses on the polymers used for the electrospinning of nanofibers as packaging films and their applications for variety of foods. This will be a valuable source of information for researchers studying various polymers for electrospinning for application in the food packaging industry. 10.1080/10408398.2021.1899128
Application of Nano-coating and Chitosan Combination Films on Cantaloupe Preservation. Eldib Rok Pakistan journal of biological sciences : PJBS BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE:Fresh-cut cantaloupe faces several quality challenges as an increase of decay rate, browning, respiration and other changes which can reduce the shelf life. Nano-coating combination films as chitosan-nano-silicon dioxide and chitosan-nano-titanium dioxide can extend the shelf life of cantaloupe pieces. MATERIALS AND METHODS:Cantaloupes were classified into four sets, Control (C), Chitosan (CTSN), Chitosan-Nano-Silicon Dioxides (CTSN/NSD) and Chitosan-Nano-titanium Dioxide (CTSN/NTD). RESULTS:Coated cantaloupe pieces had the best browning activity of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) (0.26 U/min/g) and the lowest water activity (Aw) (0.89) by chitosan-nano-silicon dioxide films. Chitosan-nano-titanium dioxide films could maintain weight loss (0.93%) and color pigments for L* value. It worked effectively against lipid peroxidation (MDA) (0.15 nmol g-1), Peroxidase Activity (POD) (3.92 U/min/g) and microbial contaminations (6.44 log CFU g-1). CONCLUSION:Both nano-coating films improved some chemical parameters as Titratable Acidity (TA), Soluble Solid Content (SSC) and pH. Nano-coatings films techniques were recommended for cantaloupes preservation methods. 10.3923/pjbs.2020.1037.1043
Advantages of nanotechnology developments in active food packaging. Mahmud Jumana,Sarmast Elham,Shankar Shiv,Lacroix Monique Food research international (Ottawa, Ont.) Active food packaging (AP) is an innovative technology, which provides a new system for food preservation in the food industry. The growing need towards consumer demands and market trends inspires researchers and food industries to employ AP. The advent of nanotechnology has had a significant impact on AP applications due to its distinctive physicochemical and biological properties. The incorporation of nano-sized materials into the polymer matrix has greatly improved the thermal, mechanical, gas barrier properties and compostability of biopolymers, thereby overcoming the shortcomings of bio-based film packaging. One of the great features of nano-sized materials is that they can act as release-controlling devices for active compounds in AP. The current review summarized the impact of nano-sized materials in the physical properties of the bio-based packaging films and their potential utilization and applications in AP. The safety concentrations of nano-sized materials and their possible migration from food packaging into food were also reviewed to gain a perspective view on their utilization in AP. 10.1016/j.foodres.2022.111023
Application of Nanotechnology in Food Science: Perception and Overview. Singh Trepti,Shukla Shruti,Kumar Pradeep,Wahla Verinder,Bajpai Vivek K Frontiers in microbiology Recent innovations in nanotechnology have transformed a number of scientific and industrial areas including the food industry. Applications of nanotechnology have emerged with increasing need of nanoparticle uses in various fields of food science and food microbiology, including food processing, food packaging, functional food development, food safety, detection of foodborne pathogens, and shelf-life extension of food and/or food products. This review summarizes the potential of nanoparticles for their uses in the food industry in order to provide consumers a safe and contamination free food and to ensure the consumer acceptability of the food with enhanced functional properties. Aspects of application of nanotechnology in relation to increasing in food nutrition and organoleptic properties of foods have also been discussed briefly along with a few insights on safety issues and regulatory concerns on nano-processed food products. 10.3389/fmicb.2017.01501
Introducing nano/microencapsulated bioactive ingredients for extending the shelf-life of food products. Hosseini Hamed,Jafari Seid Mahdi Advances in colloid and interface science The shelf-life of foods is affected by several aspects, mainly chemical and microbial events, resulting in a considerable decline in consumer's acceptance. There is an increasing interest to substitute synthetic preservatives with the plant-based bioactive ingredients which are safe and natural. However, full implementation of this replacement is postponed by some challenges associated with bioactive ingredients, including their low chemical stability, off-flavor, low solubility, and short-term effectiveness. Encapsulation could overcome these limitations. The present review explains current trends in applying natural encapsulated ingredients for food preservation based on a classified description including essential oils, plant extracts, phenolics, carotenoids, etc. and their application for extending food shelf-life mostly dealing with antimicrobial, ant-browning and antioxidant properties. Encapsulation techniques, especially nanoencapsulation, is a promising strategy to overcome their limitations. Moreover, better results are obtained using a combination of proteins and polysaccharides as wall materials than single polymers. The encapsulation method and type of encapsulants highly influences the releasing mechanism and physicochemical properties of bioactive ingredients. These factors together with optimizing the conditions of encapsulation process leads to a cost-effective and well encapsulated ingredient which is more efficient than its free form in shelf-life improvement. It has been shown that the well-designed encapsulation systems, finally, boost the shelf-life-promoting functions of the bioactive ingredients, mostly due to enhancing their solubility, homogeneity in food matrices and contact surface with deteriorative agents, and providing their prolonged presence over food storage and processing via increasing the thermal and processing stability of bioactive compounds, as well as controlling their release on food surfaces, or/and within food packages. To this end and given the numerous wall and bioactive core substances available, further studies are needed to evaluate the efficiency of many encapsulated forms of both conventional and novel bioactive ingredients in food shelf-life extending since the interactions and anti-spoiling behaviors of the ingredients in various encapsulation systems and foodstuffs are highly variable that should be optimized and characterized before any industrial application. 10.1016/j.cis.2020.102210
Facets of Nanotechnology as Seen in Food Processing, Packaging, and Preservation Industry. BioMed research international Nanotechnology has proven its competence in almost all possible fields we are aware of. However, today nanotechnology has evolved in true sense by contributing to a very large extent to the food industry. With the growing number of mouths to feed, production of food is not adequate. It has to be preserved in order to reach to the masses on a global scale. Nanotechnology made the idea a reality by increasing the shelf life of different kinds of food materials. It is not an entirely full-proof measure; however it has brought down the extent of wastage of food due to microbial infestation. Not only fresh food but also healthier food is being designed with the help of nano-delivery systems which act as a carrier for the food supplements. There are regulations to follow however as several of them pose serious threats to the wellbeing of the population. In coming days, newer modes of safeguarding food are going to be developed with the help of nanotechnology. In this paper, an overview has been given of the different methods of food processing, packaging, and preservation techniques and the role nanotechnology plays in the food processing, packaging, and preservation industry. 10.1155/2015/365672
Developing Nano-Delivery Systems for Agriculture and Food Applications with Nature-Derived Polymers. iScience The applications of nanotechnology are wide ranging, and developing functional nanomaterials for agri-food applications from nature-derived polymers is widely conceived as a sustainable approach that is safer for human and animal consumption. In light of this, this review focuses on the advances in the development of nano-delivery systems using nature-derived polymers for agri-food applications. The review opens with a section detailing the different types of nature-derived polymers currently being used in various applications in the agri-food industry with a special mention on microbial extracellular polymeric materials. The major applications of nano-delivery systems in the food sector, such as food fortification and food preservation, as well as in the agricultural sector for controlled release of agrochemicals using nature-derived polymers are discussed. The review ends with a perspective on the safety and public perception of nano-enabled foods with a concluding remark on future directions of incorporating nano-delivery systems for agri-food purposes. 10.1016/j.isci.2020.101055
Application of nanotechnology in food: processing, preservation, packaging and safety assessment. Heliyon Even though nanotechnology is extensively applied in agriculture, biochemistry, medicine and many other sectors, it is a developing field that conforms to new and more complex applications in food systems as compared to other technologies. It offers a viable strategy for integrating cutting-edge technology into a wide range of operations related to the production, development, fabrication, packaging, storage and distribution of food. The most fundamentally sophisticated technology in nano-based food science, nanoparticles deal with a wide range of nanostructured materials and nano methods, including nanofood, nanotubes, nanocomposites, nano packaging, nanocapsules, nanosensors, liposomes, nanoemulsions, polymeric nanoparticles and nanoencapsulation. This method is developed to increase food solubility and shelf life, availability of bioactive chemical, the protection of food constituents, nutritional supplementation, fortification and food or constituent delivery. Additionally, it serves as an antibacterial agent by generating reactive oxygen species (ROS) which cause bacterial DNA damage, protein denaturation and cell damage. Although the use of nanotechnology in food applications is advancing, there are certain negative or dangerous effects on health related to the toxicity and dangers of ingesting nanoparticles in food. The use of nanotechnology in the food industry, notably in processing, preservation and packaging, with its promising future, was addressed in this study. The toxicity of nanoparticles in food as well as its development in food safety assessments with certain areas of concern were also reviewed. 10.1016/j.heliyon.2022.e11795
Prospects of using nanotechnology for food preservation, safety, and security. Journal of food and drug analysis The rapid development of nanotechnology has transformed many domains of food science, especially those that involve the processing, packaging, storage, transportation, functionality, and other safety aspects of food. A wide range of nanostructured materials (NSMs), from inorganic metal, metal oxides, and their nanocomposites to nano-organic materials with bioactive agents, has been applied to the food industry. Despite the huge benefits nanotechnology has to offer, there are emerging concerns regarding the use of nanotechnology, as the accumulation of NSMs in human bodies and in the environment can cause several health and safety hazards. Therefore, safety and health concerns as well as regulatory policies must be considered while manufacturing, processing, intelligently and actively packaging, and consuming nano-processed food products. This review aims to provide a basic understanding regarding the applications of nanotechnology in the food packaging and processing industries and to identify the future prospects and potential risks associated with the use of NSMs. 10.1016/j.jfda.2018.06.011