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Salmonella Typhimurium metabolism affects virulence in the host - A mini-review. Herrero-Fresno Ana,Olsen John Elmerdhahl Food microbiology Salmonella enterica remains an important food borne pathogen in all regions of the world with S. Typhimurium as one of the most frequent serovars causing food borne disease. Since the majority of human cases are caused by food of animal origin, there has been a high interest in understanding how S. Typhimurium interacts with the animal host, mostly focusing on factors that allow it to breach host barriers and to manipulate host cells to the benefit of itself. Up to recently, such studies have ignored the metabolic factors that allow the bacteria to multiply in the host, but this is changing rapidly, and we are now beginning to understand that virulence and metabolism in the host are closely linked. The current review highlights which metabolic factors that are essential for Salmonella Typhimurium growth in the intestine, in cultured epithelial and macrophage-like cell lines, at systemic sites during invasive salmonellosis, and during long term asymptomatic colonization of the host. It also points to the limitations in our current knowledge, most notably that most studies have been carried out with few well-characterized laboratory strains, that we do not know how much the in vivo metabolism differs between serotypes, and that most results are based on challenges in the mouse model of infection. It will be very important to realize whether the current understanding of Salmonella metabolism in the host is true for all serotypes and all possible hosts. 10.1016/j.fm.2017.04.016
Interaction between Salmonella and Schistosomiasis: A Review. PLoS pathogens The interaction between schistosomiasis and Salmonella is a particularly important issue in Africa, where dual infection by the parasite and the bacterium are likely common. In this review, the ways in which schistosomiasis affects human biology as it relates to Salmonella are described. Those who are infected by both organisms experience reduced immunological functioning, exhibit irreversible organ damage due to prolonged schistosomiasis infection, and become latent carriers of Salmonella enterica serotypes Typhi and Paratyphi and S. Typhimurium. The sequestration of the bacteria in the parasite leads to ineffective antibiotic treatment because the bacteria cannot be completely killed, and lingering infection may then lead to antimicrobial resistance. These manifestations are likely not just for those dually infected but also for those first infected with schistosomes and, later, Salmonella. More data are needed to better understand dual infection, particularly as it may impact treatment and prevention of schistosomiasis and Salmonella in sub-Saharan Africa. 10.1371/journal.ppat.1005928
Salmonella Vaccination in Pigs: A Review. Wales A D,Davies R H Zoonoses and public health The control of Salmonella enterica in pig production is necessary for both public and animal health. The persistent and frequently asymptomatic nature of porcine Salmonella infection and the organism's abilities to colonize other animal species and to survive in the environment mean that effective control generally requires multiple measures. Vaccination is one such measure, and the present review considers its role and its future, drawing on studies in pigs from the 1950s to the present day. Once established in the body as an intracellular infectious agent, Salmonella can evade humoral immunity, which goes some way to explaining the often disappointing performance of inactivated Salmonella vaccines. More recent approaches, using mucosal presentation of antigens, live vaccines and adjuvants to enhance cell-mediated immunity, have met with more success. Vaccination strategies that involve stimulating both passive immunity from the dam plus active immunity in offspring appear to be most efficacious, although either approach alone can yield significant control of Salmonella. Problems that remain include relatively poor control of Salmonella serovars that are dissimilar to the vaccine antigen mix, and difficulties in measuring and predicting the performance of candidate vaccines in ways that are highly relevant to their likely use in commercial production. 10.1111/zph.12256
Safety of bivalent live attenuated Salmonella vaccine and its protection against bacterial shedding and tissue invasion in layers challenged with Salmonella. Poultry science Nontyphoidal Salmonella infection was one of the predominant foodborne illnesses in humans. The medical burden and antimicrobial resistance of salmonellosis gained importance in public health and requested the poultry industry to seek effective measures to control the disease. The objective of this study was to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of a commercial bivalent live attenuated vaccine (AviPro Salmonella DUO) in specific-pathogen-free (SPF) chickens and field layers. It explored its safety and efficacy against medically important strains, Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) and S. Typhimurium (ST). The results demonstrated that ten vaccine doses in SPF chickens and regular doses in commercial layers showed desirable safety without affecting chicken health. Vaccinated layers demonstrated lower flock mortality and higher egg production performance than the unvaccinated layers during the raising and egg production periods. Additionally, no visceral colonization and egg contaminations were detected. Cloacal shedding of vaccine strains was noted, but the colonization of Salmonella disappeared within four weeks of the last vaccination. Regarding vaccine efficacy, one dose significantly reduced Salmonella cloacal shedding (P = 0.037 for SE and P = 0.027 for ST) and viable cell counts (P = 0.003 for SE and ST) on day 7 post the challenges. Significantly low Salmonella loads of cloacal samples on day 14 after the challenges were also determined in the vaccinated group (P = 0.006 for SE; P = 0.041 for ST). Triple immunizations effectively prevented layers from the cloacal shedding on either day 7 or day 14 post Salmonella challenges. Total viable counts of SE and ST in tissues of vaccinated layers were also reduced on day 14 after the challenges (P = 0.026 for SE; P = 0.002 for ST). To conclude, one dose of vaccine exhibited inhibitory effects on Salmonella shedding and tissue invasions in young layers. Following the regimen of triple vaccinations, Salmonella shedding was completely inhibited, and tissue invasions were significantly reduced. Incorporating this vaccine into a comprehensive Salmonella control program is promising to protect layers from the risks of contaminating the flocks and egg products. 10.1016/j.psj.2022.101943
Salmonella risk to consumers via pork is related to the Salmonella prevalence in pig feed. Rönnqvist M,Välttilä V,Ranta J,Tuominen P Food microbiology Pigs are an important source of human infections with Salmonella, one of the most common causes of sporadic gastrointestinal infections and foodborne outbreaks in the European region. Feed has been estimated to be a significant source of Salmonella in piggeries in countries of a low Salmonella prevalence. To estimate Salmonella risk to consumers via the pork production chain, including feed production, a quantitative risk assessment model was constructed. The Salmonella prevalence in feeds and in animals was estimated to be generally low in Finland, but the relative importance of feed as a source of Salmonella in pigs was estimated as potentially high. Discontinuation of the present strict Salmonella control could increase the risk of Salmonella in slaughter pigs and consequent infections in consumers. The increased use of low risk and controlled feed ingredients could result in a consistently lower residual contamination in pigs and help the tracing and control of the sources of infections. 10.1016/j.fm.2017.03.017
Salmonella in chicken meat, eggs and humans; Adelaide, South Australia, 2008. Fearnley Emily,Raupach Jane,Lagala Fil,Cameron Scott International journal of food microbiology Varieties of Salmonella enterica are the second most commonly notified causes of gastroenteritis in Australia. Outbreaks of Salmonella infection are commonly linked to food, particularly foods containing chicken meat and eggs. A number of European countries have introduced interventions based on Salmonella surveillance systems in the food industry and these have led to subsequent decreases in notification rates in humans. A descriptive case-series of human Salmonella infections notified in metropolitan Adelaide, South Australia, was conducted in 2008. Human Salmonella serotypes identified were then compared to serotypes identified from a retail chicken and egg survey conducted over the same time period in Adelaide. Ninety-four human cases of salmonellosis were included in the study. Thirty-one serotypes were identified and 61.7% of these were Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium). In the week prior to illness, 62.8% of participants reported eating chicken and 47.9% reported eating eggs. Salmonella was identified in 38.8% of retail chicken samples; S. Infantis and S. Typhimurium phage type 135a were most commonly identified. No egg contents were found to contain Salmonella, but the pathogen was isolated on 3.5% of egg external surface samples. Eleven serotypes were common to both chicken and human samples, two serotypes were common to eggs and humans, and one serotype (S. Infantis) was common to all three sources. Serotypes of Salmonella isolated from chicken and egg samples included serotypes that were also isolated from humans, in cases included in this study, and in outbreaks previously investigated within Australia. Poultry meat and eggs are potential sources of introducing a defined range of human pathogens into South Australian kitchens. Ongoing systematic surveillance of animals and their food products, at farm and retail level for Salmonella could provide more definitive evidence of links between food sources and human infections; and also allow accurate measurement of interventions taken to reduce rates of Salmonella isolations in animal-based foods. 10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2011.02.004