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Loss of phospholipase PLAAT3 causes a mixed lipodystrophic and neurological syndrome due to impaired PPARγ signaling. Nature genetics Phospholipase A/acyltransferase 3 (PLAAT3) is a phospholipid-modifying enzyme predominantly expressed in neural and white adipose tissue (WAT). It is a potential drug target for metabolic syndrome, as Plaat3 deficiency in mice protects against diet-induced obesity. We identified seven patients from four unrelated consanguineous families, with homozygous loss-of-function variants in PLAAT3, who presented with a lipodystrophy syndrome with loss of fat varying from partial to generalized and associated with metabolic complications, as well as variable neurological features including demyelinating neuropathy and intellectual disability. Multi-omics analysis of mouse Plaat3 and patient-derived WAT showed enrichment of arachidonic acid-containing membrane phospholipids and a strong decrease in the signaling of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ), the master regulator of adipocyte differentiation. Accordingly, CRISPR-Cas9-mediated PLAAT3 inactivation in human adipose stem cells induced insulin resistance, altered adipocyte differentiation with decreased lipid droplet formation and reduced the expression of adipogenic and mature adipocyte markers, including PPARγ. These findings establish PLAAT3 deficiency as a hereditary lipodystrophy syndrome with neurological manifestations, caused by a PPARγ-dependent defect in WAT differentiation and function. 10.1038/s41588-023-01535-3
PGE inhibits TIL expansion by disrupting IL-2 signalling and mitochondrial function. Nature Expansion of antigen-experienced CD8 T cells is critical for the success of tumour-infiltrating lymphocyte (TIL)-adoptive cell therapy (ACT) in patients with cancer. Interleukin-2 (IL-2) acts as a key regulator of CD8 cytotoxic T lymphocyte functions by promoting expansion and cytotoxic capability. Therefore, it is essential to comprehend mechanistic barriers to IL-2 sensing in the tumour microenvironment to implement strategies to reinvigorate IL-2 responsiveness and T cell antitumour responses. Here we report that prostaglandin E2 (PGE), a known negative regulator of immune response in the tumour microenvironment, is present at high concentrations in tumour tissue from patients and leads to impaired IL-2 sensing in human CD8 TILs via the PGE receptors EP2 and EP4. Mechanistically, PGE inhibits IL-2 sensing in TILs by downregulating the IL-2Rγ chain, resulting in defective assembly of IL-2Rβ-IL2Rγ membrane dimers. This results in impaired IL-2-mTOR adaptation and PGC1α transcriptional repression, causing oxidative stress and ferroptotic cell death in tumour-reactive TILs. Inhibition of PGE signalling to EP2 and EP4 during TIL expansion for ACT resulted in increased IL-2 sensing, leading to enhanced proliferation of tumour-reactive TILs and enhanced tumour control once the cells were transferred in vivo. Our study reveals fundamental features that underlie impairment of human TILs mediated by PGE in the tumour microenvironment. These findings have therapeutic implications for cancer immunotherapy and cell therapy, and enable the development of targeted strategies to enhance IL-2 sensing and amplify the IL-2 response in TILs, thereby promoting the expansion of effector T cells with enhanced therapeutic potential. 10.1038/s41586-024-07352-w