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BVN008, Diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis combined vaccine has no effects on fertility and prenatal and postnatal developmental toxicity in female Sprague-Dawley rats. Reproductive toxicology (Elmsford, N.Y.) Tdap is an acronym for tetanus(T), diphtheria(D), and acellular pertussis(aP), and is a preventive vaccine that combines vaccines against three diseases. BVN008 is a Tdap vaccine designed to protect against three diseases: diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis. The lower-case "d" and "p" in Td and Tdap means these vaccines use smaller amounts of diphtheria and whooping cough. The lower doses are appropriate for adolescents and adults. The purpose of this study was to identify adverse effects in pregnant or lactating female Sprague-Dawley rats including maternal fertility and toxicity, and development of the embryos, fetus, and pups following intramuscular administration of BVN008. Two groups of 50 female Sprague-Dawley rats were administered four or five intramuscular injections of the vaccine (human dose of 0.5 mL at 4 and 2 weeks before pairing, on gestation day (GD) 8 and 15, and lactation day (LD) 7. A negative control group was administered 0.9% saline at the same dose four or five times. There were no adverse effects on fertility, reproductive performance, or maternal toxicity of the F0 females. There was no effect of developmental toxicity in F1 fetuses and pups including fetal body weight and morphology, postnatal growth, development, and behavior until weaning. Antibodies against tetanus, diphtheria, and pertussis were transferred to the F1 fetuses and F1 pups via placenta and milk. These results demonstrate that BVN008 had no detectable adverse effects in either the F0 female rats, the F1 fetuses or pups. 10.1016/j.reprotox.2024.108587
Prenatal tetanus-diphtheria-acellular pertussis vaccine effectiveness at preventing infant pertussis. Vaccine OBJECTIVE:To evaluate the effectiveness of the tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine containing five pertussis components (Tdap5; Adacel®, Sanofi) when given during pregnancy at preventing pertussis in infants less than 2 months of age. METHODS:The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), in collaboration with the Emerging Infections Program (EIP) Network, undertook a case-control study evaluating the effectiveness of Tdap vaccination in pregnancy against pertussis in infants less than 2 months of age based on data collected by the EIP Network from 2011 through 2014. The dataset from the CDC/EIP Network study was used to conduct this product-specific vaccine effectiveness analysis of Tdap5 vaccination in pregnancy to prevent disease in young infants. The main outcome of interest was vaccine effectiveness in infants whose pregnant parents were vaccinated with Tdap5 between 27 and 36 weeks' gestation, in accordance with the ideal timing for Tdap vaccination in pregnancy recommended by the US Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices. Odd ratios (ORs) and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using conditional logistic regression, and vaccine effectiveness was calculated as (1-OR) × 100 %. RESULTS:There were 160 infant pertussis cases and 302 matched controls included in this Tdap5-specific study. Tdap5 effectiveness in preventing pertussis in infants whose pregnant parents were vaccinated between 27 and 36 weeks' gestation was 92.5 % (95 % CI, 38.5 %-99.1 %). Effectiveness of Tdap5 against pertussis-related hospitalization in infants whose pregnant parents were vaccinated between 27 and 36 weeks' gestation could not be calculated due to lack of discordance among matched cases and controls. Vaccination of the parents after pregnancy or less than 14 days before delivery did not protect infants from pertussis. CONCLUSIONS:Tdap5 vaccination in pregnancy between 27 and 36 weeks' gestation is highly effective at protecting young infants from pertussis. STUDY REGISTRATION:ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT05040802. 10.1016/j.vaccine.2023.03.048