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Infants of depressed mothers exhibit atypical frontal brain activity: a replication and extension of previous findings. Dawson G,Frey K,Panagiotides H,Osterling J,Hessl D Journal of child psychology and psychiatry, and allied disciplines The left frontal brain region is specialized for expression of positive emotions (e.g. joy) whereas the right frontal region is specialized for negative emotions (e.g. sadness). Depressed adults have been found to exhibit reduced left frontal electroencephalographic activity. In this study, baseline frontal and parietal EEG activity was measured in 13-15-month-old infants of depressed and nondepressed mothers who were of middle income with no other major psychiatric problems. Compared to infants of nondepressed mothers, infants of depressed mothers exhibited reduced left frontal EEG activity. Infants of mothers with major depression exhibited lower levels of left frontal EEG activity than those of mothers with subthreshold depression.
Brain responses for the subconscious recognition of faces. Hoshiyama Minoru,Kakigi Ryusuke,Watanabe Shoko,Miki Kensaku,Takeshima Yasuyuki Neuroscience research We investigated the event-related responses following subthreshold and suprathreshold stimulation with facial and non-facial figures using magnetoencephalography (MEG) and EEG recordings to clarify the physiological nature of subconscious perception. Event-related magnetic fields and potentials were recorded from the right hemisphere in eight healthy subjects. Three types of stimulus, i.e., facial image (Face), letters of the alphabet (Letters) and random patterns of dots (Dots), with different presentation periods, subthreshold (16 ms), intermediate (32 ms) and suprathreshold (48 ms) were visually presented in a random order. A psychological discrimination task using the same stimuli was also employed. Clear MEG and EEG responses were recorded for all the stimuli, but the amplitude of the responses was largest for Face and smallest for Dots even in the subthreshold stimulation. The equivalent current dipoles (ECDs) for Face were located around the fusiform gyrus, although the correlation coefficients for ECDs were low under subthreshold and intermediate conditions. The ECDs for Letters and Dots were not estimated with reliable correlation coefficients. The results from the psychological task correlated with the dominancy of face recognition. Face perception was processed differently in the subthreshold condition as well as suprathreshold condition. The subconscious recognition of face might be processed around the fusiform gyrus.
Hyperkinetic disorder in the ICD-10: EEG evidence for a definitional widening? Clarke A R,Barry R J,McCarthy R,Selikowitz M European child & adolescent psychiatry This study investigated EEG differences between children with Hyperkinetic Disorder (HKD), HKD sub-threshold attention deficit (HKDsub), and control children, in order to determine from an EEG perspective whether children with HKDsub represent a valid clinical disorder. Twenty-four boys were included in each of the three age-matched groups. The HKD group had greater total power and absolute delta and theta, more relative theta, and less relative alpha and beta than the control group. The HKDsub group had EEG profiles which were different from both control children and children with HKD, with the HKDsub group having EEG results generally between the HKD and control group. Additionally, a number of topographic differences were found in the frontal regions which suggest that the two HKD groups have independent EEG components. These results support the inclusion of a diagnostic category of attention deficit in future editions of the ICD. 10.1007/s00787-003-0315-5
An Electroencephalography Connectomic Profile of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. Toll Russell T,Wu Wei,Naparstek Sharon,Zhang Yu,Narayan Manjari,Patenaude Brian,De Los Angeles Carlo,Sarhadi Kasra,Anicetti Nicole,Longwell Parker,Shpigel Emmanuel,Wright Rachael,Newman Jennifer,Gonzalez Bryan,Hart Roland,Mann Silas,Abu-Amara Duna,Sarhadi Kamron,Cornelssen Carena,Marmar Charles,Etkin Amit The American journal of psychiatry OBJECTIVE:The authors sought to identify brain regions whose frequency-specific, orthogonalized resting-state EEG power envelope connectivity differs between combat veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and healthy combat-exposed veterans, and to determine the behavioral correlates of connectomic differences. METHODS:The authors first conducted a connectivity method validation study in healthy control subjects (N=36). They then conducted a two-site case-control study of veterans with and without PTSD who were deployed to Iraq and/or Afghanistan. Healthy individuals (N=95) and those meeting full or subthreshold criteria for PTSD (N=106) underwent 64-channel resting EEG (eyes open and closed), which was then source-localized and orthogonalized to mitigate effects of volume conduction. Correlation coefficients between band-limited source-space power envelopes of different regions of interest were then calculated and corrected for multiple comparisons. Post hoc correlations of connectomic abnormalities with clinical features and performance on cognitive tasks were conducted to investigate the relevance of the dysconnectivity findings. RESULTS:Seventy-four brain region connections were significantly reduced in PTSD (all in the eyes-open condition and predominantly using the theta carrier frequency). Underconnectivity of the orbital and anterior middle frontal gyri were most prominent. Performance differences in the digit span task mapped onto connectivity between 25 of the 74 brain region pairs, including within-network connections in the dorsal attention, frontoparietal control, and ventral attention networks. CONCLUSIONS:Robust PTSD-related abnormalities were evident in theta-band source-space orthogonalized power envelope connectivity, which furthermore related to cognitive deficits in these patients. These findings establish a clinically relevant connectomic profile of PTSD using a tool that facilitates the lower-cost clinical translation of network connectivity research. 10.1176/appi.ajp.2019.18080911