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Link between methyl nutrients and the DNA methylation process in the course of selected diseases in adults. Łoboś Paulina,Regulska-Ilow Bożena Roczniki Panstwowego Zakladu Higieny DNA methylation is a reversible epigenetic modification that plays a crucial role in transcriptional gene silencing. Both excessive (hypermethylation) and reduced DNA methylation (hypomethylation) can contribute to the disturbance of the proper course of many important processes in the human body. The aim of the study was to discuss the relationship between methyl nutrients and the DNA methylation process in the course of selected diseases in adults. Methyl nutrients include folates (vitamin B9), riboflavin (vitamin B2), cobalamin (vitamin B12), pyridoxine (vitamin B6) and choline (vitamin B4), as well as methionine and betaine. These substances play the role of both substrates and cofactors in transformations related to one-carbon metabolism. The deficiency of methyl nutrients in the body can lead to disturbances in SAM synthesis, which is the primary donor of methyl groups in the DNA methylation process. However, the mechanism explaining the discussed relationship has not been fully explained so far. Both the concentration in the body and the intake of folate and vitamin B12 in the diet can, to some extent, have an effect on the level of DNA methylation in healthy people. In comparison, data on the effect of excessive intake of vitamin B12 in the diet on the risk of cancer development are inconsistent. An adequate betaine and choline intake in the diet might not only affect the overall improvement of the DNA methylation profile, but, to some extent, also reduce the risk of cancer, the effect of which can depend on the content of folic acid in the body. Research results on the effect of supplementation of methyl nutrients on the DNA methylation process are inconclusive. It is therefore necessary to conduct further research in this area to draw clear conclusions. 10.32394/rpzh.2021.0157
Effects of maternal methyl donor intake during pregnancy on ileum methylation and function in an intrauterine growth restriction pig model. Journal of animal science and biotechnology BACKGROUND:Intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) affects intestinal growth, morphology, and function, which leads to poor growth performance and high mortality. The present study explored whether maternal dietary methyl donor (MET) supplementation alleviates IUGR and enhances offspring's growth performance by improving intestinal growth, function, and DNA methylation of the ileum in a porcine IUGR model. METHODS:Forty multiparous sows were allocated to the control or MET diet groups from mating until delivery. After farrowing, 8 pairs of IUGR and normal birth weight piglets from 8 litters were selected for sampling before suckling colostrum. RESULTS:The results showed that maternal MET supplementation tended to decrease the IUGR incidence and increased the average weaning weight of piglets. Moreover, maternal MET supplementation significantly reduced the plasma concentrations of isoleucine, cysteine, urea, and total amino acids in sows and newborn piglets. It also increased lactase and sucrase activity in the jejunum of newborn piglets. MET addition resulted in lower ileal methionine synthase activity and increased betaine homocysteine S-methyltransferase activity in the ileum of newborn piglets. DNA methylation analysis of the ileum showed that MET supplementation increased the methylation level of DNA CpG sites in the ileum of newborn piglets. Down-regulated differentially methylated genes were enriched in folic acid binding, insulin receptor signaling pathway, and endothelial cell proliferation. In contrast, up-regulated methylated genes were enriched in growth hormone receptor signaling pathway and nitric oxide biosynthetic process. CONCLUSIONS:Maternal MET supplementation can reduce the incidence of IUGR and increase the weaning litter weight of piglets, which may be associated with better intestinal function and methylation status. 10.1186/s40104-023-00970-w
Mechanism of action and the uses betaine in pig production. Journal of animal physiology and animal nutrition Betaine, the trimethyl derivative of glycine, is a good methyl group donor, and an important component in pig production. However, betaine has not been extensively studied in this field. Therefore, in this study, we reviewed the effects of betaine in pig production performance, meat quality and reproductive performance, as well as its mechanisms, to provide a theoretical basis for the optimal use and development of this compound. 10.1111/jpn.13633
Impact of Methyl-Donor Micronutrient Supplementation on DNA Methylation Patterns: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of in vitro, Animal, and Human Studies. Lifestyle genomics BACKGROUND:DNA methylation patterns are directly associated with diverse metabolic disorders. The status of methyl-donor micronutrients has been associated with DNA methylation levels, and altered ingestion of folate, choline, betaine, B vitamins and methionine may impact genes both globally and at the level of promoter regions. Despite this, the role of methyl-donor micronutrient supplementation on DNA methylation profiles is currently unclear. OBJECTIVES:The aims of this systematic review and meta-analysis were to identify and synthesize the evidence about methyl-donor nutrient supplementation on DNA methylation. METHODS:A systematic literature search was performed in Medline, Embase, Scopus, and Web of Science databases with a combination of terms related to DNA methylation assessment, supplementation, and methyl-donor nutrients. Studies (in vitro, animal models, or human clinical trials) were included if DNA methylation levels after any kind of methyl-donor micronutrient supplementation or treatment was investigated. Studies were assessed for bias using Revised Cochrane risk-of-bias tool for randomized trials, risk-of-bias in Non-randomized Studies of Interventions or Systematic Review Centre for Laboratory Animal Experimentation tools. Data were extracted from studies measuring DNA methylation levels in any sample or tissue, following any kind of methyl-donor micronutrient supplementation or treatment. Separate random-effects meta-analyses were performed for animal model studies and human clinical trials that examined the effects of folic acid supplementation on DNA methylation. RESULTS:Fifty-seven studies were included in this systematic review: 18 human clinical trials, 35 in animal model, and 4 in vitro studies. Concerning overall risk of bias, most of the studies were classified as "high risk" or "some concerns." Meta-analysis with meta-regression from studies in animal models showed that folic acid dose significantly affected DNA methylation and that high and very high doses showed increases in DNA methylation when compared to low doses. However, meta-analysis of human clinical trials showed that folic acid supplementation did not promote significant changes in DNA methylation when compared to placebo. CONCLUSION:Folic acid supplementation may change global DNA methylation levels in animals supplemented with high, as compared to low, doses. Heterogeneity in studies and supplementation protocols make it difficult to establish clinical recommendations. However, these effects, even if small, might be of clinical importance in the management of patients with diseases related to DNA hypomethylation. 10.1159/000533193
Maternal methyl donor supplementation: A potential therapy for metabolic disorder in offspring. The Journal of nutritional biochemistry The prevalences of diabetes mellitus and obesity are increasing yearly and has become a serious social burden. In addition to genetic factors, environmental factors in early life development are critical in influencing the prevalence of metabolic disorders in offspring. A growing body of evidence suggests the critical role of early methyl donor intervention in offspring health. Emerging studies have shown that methyl donors can influence offspring metabolism through epigenetic modifications and changing metabolism-related genes. In this review, we focus on the role of folic acid, betaine, vitamin B12, methionine, and choline in protecting against metabolic disorders in offspring. To address the current evidence on the potential role of maternal methyl donors, we summarize clinical studies as well as experimental animal models that support the impact of maternal methyl donors on offspring metabolism and discuss the mechanisms of action that may bring about these positive effects. Given the worldwide prevalence of metabolic disorders, these findings could be utilized in clinical practice, in which methyl donor supplementation in the early life years may reverse metabolic disorders in offspring and block the harmful intergenerational effect. 10.1016/j.jnutbio.2023.109533