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Valorization potential of pine needle waste biomass: recent trends and future perspectives. Environmental science and pollution research international Pines play a significant role in forest biodiversity globally and generate huge forest litter. Dry pine needles due to low ignition temperature and high frictional force with the ground catch fire quickly. Annual forest fires in the northern states of India greatly impact the Indian economy besides causing huge loss to biodiversity, livelihood, and environment. Pine needles are also considered unfit for fodder consumption due to presence of tannins. Although the presence of softwood lignin in pine needles makes it difficult to degrade easily, the presence of holocellulose (68.5%) containing 45-51% cellulose makes this biomass a potential substrate to be used in pulp-making industries for low-grade paper sheets. The good fiber length of pine needles (1.3-1.4 mm) with a diameter of 30-32 μm, maybe considered important property for paper making. The use of pine needles in the pharmaceutical and food industries are due to the presence of secondary metabolites (α-pinene, β-pinene, caryophyllene etc.). The various other potential applications of pine needles are for producing bio-ethanol (yield, 3.98%; purity, 94%), biogas (yield, 23.1 L kg), smokeless briquettes (calorific value, 18.77 MJ kg), biochar (calorific value, 25.6 MJ kg), bio-composites (tensile strength, 21-60 MPa), and bio-pesticides. This paper comprehensively reviews the current applications of pine needles along with its future prospective applications that can have the dual advantage of providing employment opportunities to the people along with environmental protection. 10.1007/s11356-023-27440-0
Evaluation of bacterial and fungal communities during the fermentation of pine needle. FEMS microbiology letters To improve the quality and organoleptic properties of fermented pine needle, the physiological parameters and microbial communities must be explored. In this study, high-throughput sequencing was used to explore bacterial and fungal communities during the fermentation process of pine needle after adding starter culture of 0.8% activated dry yeast and Lactobacillus fermentum CECT5716 and Bifidobacterium Breve M-16 V. During the fermentation, the total flavonoid (from 0.049 to 111.404 mg/L) and polyphenol (from 19.412 to 183.399 mg/L) contents increased rapidly from 0 to 15 days. The total sugar increased from 0 to 3 days fermentation with a range from 3.359 mg/mL to 45.502 mg/mL in yeast fermentation stage, and reached the maximum value on day 3. The content of total acid (39.167 g/L) and amino acid nitrogen (1.185 g/L) gradually increased during the entire fermentation process and reached a maximum on day 7 of bacterial fermentation. Firmicutes and Proteobacteria phyla were the predominant bacteria in all time periods. At the genus level, well-known Lactobacillus was the most abundant bacterial strain on day 3, followed by Gluconobacter. The Acetobacter constituted more than 50% of the total bacterial abundance on day 1, but it decreased with the fermentation process. Exploration of fermented pine needle microbial community structure will expand the knowledge about their microbiota to manipulate the microbial community and improve their quality and organoleptic properties using different microbial recipes. 10.1093/femsle/fnad032