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Traditional Chinese exercise potential role as prevention and adjuvant therapy in patients with COVID-19. Complementary therapies in clinical practice The epidemic situation of COVID-19 is a great public health emergency worldwide characterized by fastest spreading, widest infection range and the mostly difficult to prevent and control in recent years. According to medical experience, traditional Chinese exercises (TCE) have been applied for COVID-19 prevention, adjuvant treatment or rehabilitation, and achieved some curative effects. They can enhance the body immunity, improve the function of organs, especially cardiopulmonary function, promote physical and mental rehabilitation by adjusting the body, regulating the breath, regulating the mind. This paper aims to investigate the potential value of TCE for health preservation in the prevention and adjuvant treatment for COVID-19 according to an overview of application and analysis of existing evidence. On this basis, this review proposed the TCE plan by visiting clinical and practice experts, so as to provide some references for the prevention and treatment of COVID-19 with TCE in the world. 10.1016/j.ctcp.2021.101379
Heart, lungs, and muscle interplay in worsening activity-related breathlessness in advanced cardiopulmonary disease. Alberto Neder J,O'Donnell Denis E Current opinion in supportive and palliative care PURPOSE OF REVIEW:Activity-related breathlessness is a key determinant of poor quality of life in patients with advanced cardiorespiratory disease. Accordingly, palliative care has assumed a prominent role in their care. The severity of breathlessness depends on a complex combination of negative cardiopulmonary interactions and increased afferent stimulation from systemic sources. We review recent data exposing the seeds and consequences of these abnormalities in combined heart failure and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). RECENT FINDINGS:The drive to breathe increases ('excessive breathing') secondary to an enlarged dead space and hypoxemia (largely COPD-related) and heightened afferent stimuli, for example, sympathetic overexcitation, muscle ergorreceptor activation, and anaerobic metabolism (largely heart failure-related). Increased ventilatory drive might not be fully translated into the expected lung-chest wall displacement because of the mechanical derangements brought by COPD ('inappropriate breathing'). The latter abnormalities, in turn, negatively affect the central hemodynamics which are already compromised by heart failure. Physical activity then decreases, worsening muscle atrophy and dysfunction. SUMMARY:Beyond the imperative of optimal pharmacological treatment of each disease, strategies to lessen ventilation (e.g., walking aids, oxygen, opiates and anxiolytics, and cardiopulmonary rehabilitation) and improve mechanics (heliox, noninvasive ventilation, and inspiratory muscle training) might mitigate the burden of this devastating symptom in advanced heart failure-COPD. 10.1097/SPC.0000000000000516
Safety and feasibility of upper limb cardiopulmonary exercise test in Friedreich ataxia. Pane Chiara,Salzano Andrea,Trinchillo Assunta,Del Prete Claudia,Casali Carlo,Marcotulli Christian,Defazio Giovanni,Guardasole Vincenzo,Vastarella Rossella,Giallauria Francesco,Puorro Giorgia,Marsili Angela,De Michele Giovanna,Filla Alessandro,Cittadini Antonio,Saccà Francesco European journal of preventive cardiology AIMS:To explore the feasibility of upper limbs cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET) in Friedreich ataxia (FRDA) patients and to compare the results with sex, age, and body mass index (BMI) matched cohort of healthy controls (HC). METHODS AND RESULTS:Cardiopulmonary exercise test was performed using an upper limbs cycle ergometer on fasting subjects. Peak oxygen uptake (peak VO2) was recorded as the mean value of VO2 during a 20 s period at the maximal effort of the test at an appropriate respiratory exchange rate. The ventilatory anaerobic threshold (AT) was detected by the use of the V-slope method. We performed echocardiography with an ultrasound system equipped with a 2.5 MHz multifrequency transducer for complete M-mode, two-dimensional, Doppler, and Tissue Doppler Imaging analyses. We studied 55 FRDA and 54 healthy matched controls (HC). Peak VO2 showed a significant 31% reduction in FRDA patients compared to HC (15.2 ± 5.7 vs. 22.0 ± 6.1 mL/kg/min; P < 0.001). Peak workload was reduced by 41% in FRDA (42.9 ± 12.5 vs. 73.1 ± 21.2 W; P < 0.001). In FRDA patients, peak VO2 is inversely correlated with the Scale for Assessment and Rating of Ataxia score, disease duration, and 9HPT performance, and directly correlated with activities of daily living. The AT occurred at 48% of peak workload time in FRDA patients and at 85% in HC (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS:Upper limb CPET is useful in the assessment of exercise tolerance and a possible tool to determine the functional severity of the mitochondrial oxidative defect in patients with FRDA. The cardiopulmonary exercise test is an ideal functional endpoint for Phases II and III trials through a simple, non-invasive, and safe exercise test. 10.1093/eurjpc/zwaa134
Cardio-Oncology rehabilitation- challenges and opportunities to improve cardiovascular outcomes in cancer patients and survivors. Sase Kazuhiro,Kida Keisuke,Furukawa Yutaka Journal of cardiology While the number of cancer patients is increasing with the arrival of the super-aging society, the age-adjusted mortality rate of cancer decreases due to medical advances, and the number of cancer survivors is growing rapidly. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is one of the most important causes of death among cancer survivors. In recent years, the number of cancer patients with CVD risk factors has increased. Also, the emergence of new drugs has led to the emergence of a new condition called cancer treatment-related cardiovascular disease (CTRCD). Cardio-oncology (onco-cardiology) is a new multidisciplinary field with the common goal of completing cancer treatment and improving the prognosis of cancer patients and survivors, including the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of CTRCD. Cardio-oncology rehabilitation (CORE) is a new concept that aims to reduce the risk of CVD and improve cardiopulmonary fitness in cancer survivors by providing exercise prescriptions and cardiac rehabilitation in addition to so-called cancer rehabilitation during and after cancer treatment. This review provides an overview of the theoretical background, feasibility, challenges, and opportunities of CORE, including a series of recent white papers and scientific statements released by the American Heart Association. 10.1016/j.jjcc.2020.07.014
High-intensity interval training in cardiac rehabilitation: a multi-centre randomized controlled trial. European journal of preventive cardiology BACKGROUND:There is a lack of international consensus regarding the prescription of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) for people with coronary artery disease (CAD) attending cardiac rehabilitation (CR). AIMS:To assess the clinical effectiveness and safety of low-volume HIIT compared with moderate-intensity steady-state (MISS) exercise training for people with CAD. METHODS AND RESULTS:We conducted a multi-centre RCT, recruiting 382 patients from 6 outpatient CR centres. Participants were randomized to twice-weekly HIIT (n = 187) or MISS (n = 195) for 8 weeks. HIIT consisted of 10 × 1 min intervals of vigorous exercise (>85% maximum capacity) interspersed with 1 min periods of recovery. MISS was 20-40 min of moderate-intensity continuous exercise (60-80% maximum capacity). The primary outcome was the change in cardiorespiratory fitness [peak oxygen uptake (VO2 peak)] at 8 week follow-up. Secondary outcomes included cardiovascular disease risk markers, cardiac structure and function, adverse events, and health-related quality of life. At 8 weeks, VO2peak improved more with HIIT (2.37 mL.kg-1.min-1; SD, 3.11) compared with MISS (1.32 mL.kg-1.min-1; SD, 2.66). After adjusting for age, sex, and study site, the difference between arms was 1.04 mL.kg-1.min-1 (95% CI, 0.38 to 1.69; P = 0.002). Only one serious adverse event was possibly related to HIIT. CONCLUSIONS:In stable CAD, low-volume HIIT improved cardiorespiratory fitness more than MISS by a clinically meaningful margin. Low-volume HIIT is a safe, well-tolerated, and clinically effective intervention that produces short-term improvement in cardiorespiratory fitness. It should be considered by all CR programmes as an adjunct or alternative to MISS. TRIAL REGISTRATION:ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02784873. https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02784873. 10.1093/eurjpc/zwad039
Organizational aspects of pulmonary rehabilitation in chronic respiratory diseases. Respirology (Carlton, Vic.) Adult patients with chronic respiratory diseases may suffer from multiple physical (pulmonary and extra-pulmonary), emotional and social features which necessitate a comprehensive, interdisciplinary rehabilitation programme. To date, pulmonary rehabilitation programmes show a lot of variation in setting, content, frequency and duration. Future projects should strive for a standard set of assessment measures to identify patients eligible for pulmonary rehabilitation, taking disease complexity into consideration, which should result in referral to an appropriate rehabilitation setting. Local circumstances may complicate this crucial endeavour. 10.1111/resp.13512
Pulmonary Rehabilitation and Long-Term Physical Activity in the Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Patient. Gimeno-Santos Elena Archivos de bronconeumologia 10.1016/j.arbres.2019.05.006
Pulmonary Rehabilitation in 2021. Rochester Carolyn L,Spruit Martijn A,Holland Anne E JAMA 10.1001/jama.2021.6560
Exercise Training Modalities for People with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. Nolan Claire M,Rochester Carolyn L COPD Exercise training confers health benefits for people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). This article reviews the evidence for several exercise training modalities shown to be beneficial among individuals with COPD. These modalities include aerobic, resistance, nonlinear periodized, upper limb and balance training, as well as yoga, Tai Chi, inspiratory muscle training, whole body vibration training and neuromuscular electrical stimulation. The literature pertaining to each modality was critically reviewed, and information on the rationale, mechanism(s) of action (where known), benefits, and exercise prescription is described to facilitate easy implementation into clinical practice. 10.1080/15412555.2019.1637834
Pulmonary rehabilitation and physical interventions. European respiratory review : an official journal of the European Respiratory Society Pulmonary rehabilitation has established a status of evidence-based therapy for patients with symptomatic COPD in the stable phase and after acute exacerbations. Rehabilitation should have the possibility of including different disciplines and be offered in several formats and lines of healthcare. This review focusses on the cornerstone intervention, exercise training, and how training interventions can be adapted to the limitations of patients. These adaptations may lead to altered cardiovascular or muscular training effects and/or may improve movement efficiency. Optimising pharmacotherapy (not the focus of this review) and oxygen supplements, whole-body low- and high-intensity training or interval training, and resistance (or neuromuscular electrical stimulation) training are important training modalities for these patients in order to accommodate cardiovascular and ventilatory impairments. Inspiratory muscle training and whole-body vibration may also be worthwhile interventions in selected patients. Patients with stable but symptomatic COPD, those who have suffered exacerbations and patients waiting for or who have received lung volume reduction or lung transplantation are good candidates. The future surely holds promise to further personalise exercise training interventions and to tailor the format of rehabilitation to the individual patient's needs and preferences. 10.1183/16000617.0222-2022
An update on pulmonary rehabilitation techniques for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Wouters Emiel Fm,Posthuma Rein,Koopman Maud,Liu Wai-Yan,Sillen Maurice J,Hajian Bita,Sastry Manu,Spruit Martijn A,Franssen Frits M Expert review of respiratory medicine : Pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) is one of the core components in the management of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In order to achieve the maximal level of independence, autonomy, and functioning of the patient, targeted therapies and interventions based on the identification of physical, emotional and social traits need to be provided by a dedicated, interdisciplinary PR team.: The review discusses cardiopulmonary exercise testing in the selection of different modes of training modalities. Neuromuscular electrical stimulation as well as gait assessment and training are discussed as well as add-on therapies as oxygen, noninvasive ventilator support or endoscopic lung volume reduction in selected patients. The potentials of pulsed inhaled nitric oxide in patients with underlying pulmonary hypertension is explored as well as nutritional support. The impact of sleep quality on outcomes of PR is reviewed.: Individualized, comprehensive intervention based on thorough assessment of physical, emotional, and social traits in COPD patients forms a continuous challenge for health-care professionals and PR organizations in order to dynamically implement and adapt these strategies based on dynamic, more optimal understanding of underlying pathophysiological mechanisms. 10.1080/17476348.2020.1700796
Pulmonary Rehabilitation in the Management of Chronic Lung Disease. Cornelison Sharon D,Pascual Rodolfo M The Medical clinics of North America Pulmonary rehabilitation is a core component of management of patients with chronic lung disease that have exercise or functional limitations. Causes of these limitations are manifold but include loss of skeletal muscle mass, power and endurance, diminished respiratory capacity owing to respiratory muscle weakness, inefficient gas exchange, and increased work of breathing, and impaired cardiovascular functioning. Besides physical limitations, patients with chronic lung disease have high rates of depression and anxiety leading to social isolation and increased health care use. Pulmonary rehabilitation uses a comprehensive and holistic approach that has been shown to ameliorate most effects of chronic lung disease. 10.1016/j.mcna.2018.12.015
Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Patients Admitted to the Intensive Care Unit. Martí Joan Daniel,McWilliams David,Gimeno-Santos Elena Seminars in respiratory and critical care medicine Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a progressive lung condition that affects a person's ability to exercise and undertake normal physical function due to breathlessness, poor physical fitness, and muscle fatigue. Patients with COPD often experience exacerbations due to pulmonary infections, which result in worsening of their symptoms, more loss of function, and often require hospital treatment or in severe cases admission to intensive care units. Recovery from such exacerbations is often slow, and some patients never fully return to their previous level of activity. This can lead to permanent disability and premature death.Physical therapists play a key role in the respiratory management and rehabilitation of patients admitted to intensive care following acute exacerbation of COPD. This article discusses the key considerations for respiratory management of patients requiring invasive mechanical ventilation, providing an evidence-based summary of commonly used interventions. It will also explore the evidence to support the introduction of early and structured programs of rehabilitation to support recovery in both the short and the long term, as well as active mobilization, which includes strategies to minimize or prevent physical loss through early retraining of both peripheral and respiratory muscles. 10.1055/s-0040-1709139
Telerehabilitation for chronic respiratory disease. The Cochrane database of systematic reviews BACKGROUND:Pulmonary rehabilitation is a proven, effective intervention for people with chronic respiratory diseases including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), interstitial lung disease (ILD) and bronchiectasis. However, relatively few people attend or complete a program, due to factors including a lack of programs, issues associated with travel and transport, and other health issues. Traditionally, pulmonary rehabilitation is delivered in-person on an outpatient basis at a hospital or other healthcare facility (referred to as centre-based pulmonary rehabilitation). Newer, alternative modes of pulmonary rehabilitation delivery include home-based models and the use of telehealth. Telerehabilitation is the delivery of rehabilitation services at a distance, using information and communication technology. To date, there has not been a comprehensive assessment of the clinical efficacy or safety of telerehabilitation, or its ability to improve uptake and access to rehabilitation services, for people with chronic respiratory disease. OBJECTIVES:To determine the effectiveness and safety of telerehabilitation for people with chronic respiratory disease. SEARCH METHODS:We searched the Cochrane Airways Trials Register, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials; six databases including MEDLINE and Embase; and three trials registries, up to 30 November 2020. We checked reference lists of all included studies for additional references, and handsearched relevant respiratory journals and meeting abstracts. SELECTION CRITERIA:All randomised controlled trials and controlled clinical trials of telerehabilitation for the delivery of pulmonary rehabilitation were eligible for inclusion. The telerehabilitation intervention was required to include exercise training, with at least 50% of the rehabilitation intervention being delivered by telerehabilitation. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS:We used standard methods recommended by Cochrane. We assessed the risk of bias for all studies, and used the ROBINS-I tool to assess bias in non-randomised controlled clinical trials. We assessed the certainty of evidence with GRADE. Comparisons were telerehabilitation compared to traditional in-person (centre-based) pulmonary rehabilitation, and telerehabilitation compared to no rehabilitation. We analysed studies of telerehabilitation for maintenance rehabilitation separately from trials of telerehabilitation for initial primary pulmonary rehabilitation. MAIN RESULTS:We included a total of 15 studies (32 reports) with 1904 participants, using five different models of telerehabilitation. Almost all (99%) participants had chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Three studies were controlled clinical trials. For primary pulmonary rehabilitation, there was probably little or no difference between telerehabilitation and in-person pulmonary rehabilitation for exercise capacity measured as 6-Minute Walking Distance (6MWD) (mean difference (MD) 0.06 metres (m), 95% confidence interval (CI) -10.82 m to 10.94 m; 556 participants; four studies; moderate-certainty evidence). There may also be little or no difference for quality of life measured with the St George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) total score (MD -1.26, 95% CI -3.97 to 1.45; 274 participants; two studies; low-certainty evidence), or for breathlessness on the Chronic Respiratory Questionnaire (CRQ) dyspnoea domain score (MD 0.13, 95% CI -0.13 to 0.40; 426 participants; three studies; low-certainty evidence). Participants were more likely to complete a program of telerehabilitation, with a 93% completion rate (95% CI 90% to 96%), compared to a 70% completion rate for in-person rehabilitation. When compared to no rehabilitation control, trials of primary telerehabilitation may increase exercise capacity on 6MWD (MD 22.17 m, 95% CI -38.89 m to 83.23 m; 94 participants; two studies; low-certainty evidence) and may also increase 6MWD when delivered as maintenance rehabilitation (MD 78.1 m, 95% CI 49.6 m to 106.6 m; 209 participants; two studies; low-certainty evidence). No adverse effects of telerehabilitation were noted over and above any reported for in-person rehabilitation or no rehabilitation. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS:This review suggests that primary pulmonary rehabilitation, or maintenance rehabilitation, delivered via telerehabilitation for people with chronic respiratory disease achieves outcomes similar to those of traditional centre-based pulmonary rehabilitation, with no safety issues identified. However, the certainty of the evidence provided by this review is limited by the small number of studies, of varying telerehabilitation models, with relatively few participants. Future research should consider the clinical effect of telerehabilitation for individuals with chronic respiratory diseases other than COPD, the duration of benefit of telerehabilitation beyond the period of the intervention, and the economic cost of telerehabilitation. 10.1002/14651858.CD013040.pub2
Current developments and future directions in respiratory physiotherapy. European respiratory review : an official journal of the European Respiratory Society Respiratory physiotherapists have a key role within the integrated care continuum of patients with respiratory diseases. The current narrative review highlights the profession's diversity, summarises the current evidence and practice, and addresses future research directions in respiratory physiotherapy. Herein, we describe an overview of the areas that respiratory physiotherapists can act in the integrated care of patients with respiratory diseases based on the Harmonised Education in Respiratory Medicine for European Specialists syllabus. In addition, we highlight areas in which further evidence needs to be gathered to confirm the effectiveness of respiratory therapy techniques. Where appropriate, we made recommendations for clinical practice based on current international guidelines. 10.1183/16000617.0264-2020
Pulmonary rehabilitation, physical activity, respiratory failure and palliative respiratory care. Spruit Martijn A,Rochester Carolyn L,Pitta Fabio,Kenn Klaus,Schols Annemie M W J,Hart Nicholas,Wouters Emiel F M,Nava Stefano,Dreher Michael,Janssen Daisy J A,Johnson Miriam J,Curtis Randall J,Sastry Manuel,Franssen Frits M E Thorax The CIRO Academy in Horn (the Netherlands) organised a 2-day meeting to present and discuss the studies published in 2017 pertaining to key priority areas of respiratory and critical care medicine. This review summarises studies focussing on pulmonary rehabilitation and exercise training, physical activity, chronic respiratory failure and palliative respiratory care published in 2017. 10.1136/thoraxjnl-2018-212044