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Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A(H5N1) Clade Virus Infection in Domestic Dairy Cattle and Cats, United States, 2024. Emerging infectious diseases We report highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N1) virus in dairy cattle and cats in Kansas and Texas, United States, which reflects the continued spread of clade viruses that entered the country in late 2021. Infected cattle experienced nonspecific illness, reduced feed intake and rumination, and an abrupt drop in milk production, but fatal systemic influenza infection developed in domestic cats fed raw (unpasteurized) colostrum and milk from affected cows. Cow-to-cow transmission appears to have occurred because infections were observed in cattle on Michigan, Idaho, and Ohio farms where avian influenza virus-infected cows were transported. Although the US Food and Drug Administration has indicated the commercial milk supply remains safe, the detection of influenza virus in unpasteurized bovine milk is a concern because of potential cross-species transmission. Continued surveillance of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses in domestic production animals is needed to prevent cross-species and mammal-to-mammal transmission. 10.3201/eid3007.240508
Highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 virus infections of dairy cattle and livestock handlers in the United States of America. Virulence 10.1080/21505594.2024.2343931
Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) H5 Clade Virus Infection in Birds and Mammals. Animals : an open access journal from MDPI Avian influenza viruses (AIVs) are highly contagious respiratory viruses of birds, leading to significant morbidity and mortality globally and causing substantial economic losses to the poultry industry and agriculture. Since their first isolation in 2013-2014, the Asian-origin H5 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAI) of clade have undergone unprecedented evolution and reassortment of internal gene segments. In just a few years, it supplanted other AIV clades, and now it is widespread in the wild migratory waterfowl, spreading to Asia, Europe, Africa, and the Americas. Wild waterfowl, the natural reservoir of LPAIVs and generally more resistant to the disease, also manifested high morbidity and mortality with HPAIV clade This clade also caused overt clinical signs and mass mortality in a variety of avian and mammalian species never reported before, such as raptors, seabirds, sealions, foxes, and others. Most notably, the recent outbreaks in dairy cattle were associated with the emergence of a few critical mutations related to mammalian adaptation, raising concerns about the possibility of jumping species and acquisition of sustained human-to-human transmission. The main clinical signs and anatomopathological findings associated with clade virus infection in birds and non-human mammals are hereby summarized. 10.3390/ani14091372
Optimizing environmental viral surveillance: bovine serum albumin increases RT-qPCR sensitivity for high pathogenicity avian influenza H5Nx virus detection from dust samples. Microbiology spectrum IMPORTANCE:With the circulation of high pathogenicity avian influenza viruses having intensified considerably in recent years, the European Union is considering the vaccination of farmed birds. A prerequisite for this vaccination is the implementation of drastic surveillance protocols. Environmental sampling is a relevant alternative to animal sampling. However, environmental samples often contain inhibitory compounds in large enough quantities to inhibit RT-qPCR reactions. As bovine serum albumin is a molecule used in many fields to overcome this inhibitory effect, we tested its use on dust samples from poultry farms in areas heavily affected by HPAIV epizootics. Our results show that its use significantly increases the sensitivity of the method. 10.1128/spectrum.03055-23
Editorial: Concerns as Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) Virus of the H5N1 Subtype is Identified in Dairy Cows and Other Mammals. Medical science monitor : international medical journal of experimental and clinical research Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus subtypes have been increasingly identified in poultry and wild birds since 2021. Between 2020-2023, 26 countries have reported that the H5N1 virus had infected more than 48 mammalian species. On 1 April 2024, a public health alert was issued in Texas when the first confirmed case of human infection with the H5N1 influenza virus was reported in a dairy worker. Cases of H5N1, clade in dairy cows have been reported in several states in the US but were unexpected, even though H5N1 was previously identified in mammalian species, including cats, dogs, bears, foxes, tigers, coyotes, goats, and seals. On 29 April 2024, almost one month after the first reported cases of H5N1 infection in dairy cows, measures were to be implemented by the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) to prevent the progression of H5N1 viral transmission. This editorial summarizes what is currently known about the epidemiology, transmission, and surveillance of the HPAI virus of the H5N1 subtype in birds, mammals, and dairy cows, and why there are concerns regarding transmission to humans. 10.12659/MSM.945315