Low-, medium- and high-dose steroids with or without aminocaproic acid in adult hematopoietic SCT patients with diffuse alveolar hemorrhage.
Rathi N K,Tanner A R,Dinh A,Dong W,Feng L,Ensor J,Wallace S K,Haque S A,Rondon G,Price K J,Popat U,Nates J L
Bone marrow transplantation
Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage (DAH) is a poorly understood complication of transplantation carrying a high mortality. Patients commonly deteriorate and require intensive care unit (ICU) admission. Treatment with high-dose steroids and aminocaproic acid (ACA) has been suggested. The current study examined 119 critically ill adult hematopoietic transplant patients treated for DAH. Patients were subdivided into low-, medium- and high-dose steroid groups with or without ACA. All groups had similar baseline characteristics and severity of illness scores. Primary objectives were 30, 60, 100 day, ICU and hospital mortality. Overall mortality (n=119) on day 100 was high at 85%. In the steroids and ACA cohort (n=82), there were no significant differences in 30, 60, 100, day, ICU and hospital mortality between the dosing groups. In the steroids only cohort (n=37), the low-dose steroid group had a lower ICU and hospital mortality (P=0.02). Adjunctive treatment with ACA did not produce differences in outcomes. In the multivariate analysis, medium- and high-dose steroids were associated with a higher ICU mortality (P=0.01) as compared with the low-dose group. Our data suggest that treatment strategies may need to be reanalyzed to avoid potentially unnecessary and potentially harmful therapies.
Changes in intensive care for allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients.
Lengliné E,Chevret S,Moreau A-S,Pène F,Blot F,Bourhis J-H,Buzyn A,Schlemmer B,Socié G,Azoulay E
Bone marrow transplantation
Intensive care unit (ICU) admission is associated with high mortality in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients. Whether mortality has decreased recently is unknown. The 497 adult allogeneic HSCT recipients admitted to three ICUs between 1997 and 2011 were evaluated retrospectively. Two hundred and nine patients admitted between 1997 and 2003 were compared with the 288 patients admitted from 2004 to 2011. Factors associated with 90-day mortality were identified. The recent cohort was characterized by older age, lower conditioning intensity, and greater use of peripheral blood or unrelated-donor graft. In the recent cohort, ICU was used more often for patients in hematological remission (67% vs 44%; P<0.0001) and without GVHD (73% vs 48%; P<0.0001) or invasive fungal infection (85% vs 73%; P=0.0003) despite a stable admission rate (21.7%). These changes were associated with significantly better 90-day survival (49% vs 31%). Independent predictors of hospital mortality were GVHD, mechanical ventilation (MV) and renal replacement therapy (RRT). Among patients who required MV or RRT, survival was 29% and 18%, respectively, but dropped to 18% and 6% in those with GVHD. The use of ICU admission has changed and translated into improved survival, but advanced life support in patients with GVHD usually provides no benefits.
Prognosis of neutropenic patients admitted to the intensive care unit.
Mokart D,Darmon M,Resche-Rigon M,Lemiale V,Pène F,Mayaux J,Rabbat A,Kouatchet A,Vincent F,Nyunga M,Bruneel F,Lebert C,Perez P,Renault A,Hamidfar R,Jourdain M,Meert A-P,Benoit D,Chevret S,Azoulay E
Intensive care medicine
PURPOSE:The prognosis of critically ill cancer patients has improved recently. Controversies remain as regard to the specific prognosis impact of neutropenia in critically ill cancer patients. The primary objective of this study was to assess hospital outcome of critically ill neutropenic cancer patients admitted into the ICU. The secondary objective was to assess risk factors for unfavorable outcome in this population of patients and specific impact of neutropenia. METHODS:We performed a post hoc analysis of a prospectively collected database. The study was carried out in 17 university or university-affiliated centers in France and Belgium. Neutropenia was defined as a neutrophil count lower than 500/mm(3). RESULTS:Among the 1,011 patients admitted into the ICU during the study period 289 were neutropenic at the time of admission. Overall, 131 patients died during their hospital stay (hospital mortality 45.3 %). Four variables were associated with a poor outcome, namely allogeneic transplantation (OR 3.83; 95 % CI 1.75-8.35), need for mechanical ventilation (MV) (OR 6.57; 95 % CI 3.51-12.32), microbiological documentation (OR 2.33; CI 1.27-4.26), and need for renal replacement therapy (OR 2.77; 95 % CI 1.34-5.74). Two variables were associated with hospital survival, namely age younger than 70 (OR 0.22; 95 % CI 0.1-0.52) and neutropenic enterocolitis (OR 0.37; 95 % CI 0.15-0.9). A case-control analysis was also performed with patients of the initial database; after adjustment, neutropenia was not associated with hospital mortality (OR 1.27; 95 % CI 0.86-1.89). CONCLUSION:Hospital survival was closely associated with younger age and neutropenic enterocolitis. Conversely, need for conventional MV, for renal replacement therapy, and allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) were associated with poor outcome.
Determinants of 6-month survival of critically ill patients with an active hematologic malignancy.
Richards Stephen,Wibrow Bradley,Anstey Matthew,Sidiqi Hasib,Chee Ashlyn,Ho Kwok M
Journal of critical care
PURPOSE:This study assessed the determinants of 6-month survival of critically ill patients with an active hematologic malignancy (HM). METHODS:All patients with an active HM defined by either receiving ongoing or due to receive antineoplastic therapy, admitted to 2 tertiary intensive care units between 2010 and 2015, were included in this retrospective cohort study. RESULTS:Of the 273 patients included in the study (median age, 63[interquartile range, 54-71] years; 40.7% female), 116 (42.5%; 95% confidence interval, 36.8-48.4) died in hospital. The 6-month mortality was 56.4% (95% confidence interval, 50.5-62.2). Mechanical ventilation, intensive care unit admission source, and the type of active HM were significantly associated with hospital mortality and 6-month survival, after adjusting for severity of acute illness. The type of active HM was the most important prognostic factor, with over a 10-fold difference in 6-month survival between HM with the best and worst prognosis. In addition, recent hematopoietic stem cell transplant (<30 days) was associated with a better 6-month survival. CONCLUSION:Differences in 6-month survival between critically ill patients with different types of active HM were substantial. Recent hematopoietic stem cell transplant, severity of illness, and use of mechanical ventilation were additional important determinants of 6-month survival in patients with an active HM.
Prognostic Index for Critically Ill Allogeneic Transplantation Patients.
Bayraktar Ulas D,Milton Denái R,Shpall Elizabeth J,Rondon Gabriela,Price Kristen J,Champlin Richard E,Nates Joseph L
Biology of blood and marrow transplantation : journal of the American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation
Outcomes of intensive care for allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (Allo-SCT) patients remain poor. Better selection of critically ill Allo-SCT patients for intensive care may alleviate costs to the patients, families, and the health care system. We aimed to develop a prognostic index tailored for critically ill Allo-SCT patients as traditional instruments are of limited value in this setting. Six hundred fifty-six Allo-SCT patients admitted to intensive care unit (ICU) at MD Anderson Cancer Center between 2001 and 2010 were divided into training and test sets. Of the 3 multivariable regression models built to predict hospital mortality in the training set, the model with the largest area under receiver operating curve (AUC) in the test set was selected as the prognostic index for intensive care after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (PICAT). The parameters included in the regression model with the highest AUC (.81) were time to ICU from hospital admission, lactate dehydrogenase, bilirubin, albumin, reason for ICU admission, prothrombin time-international normalized ratio, conditioning intensity, age, and comorbidity score. AUC for hospital mortality of PICAT (.80) was significantly larger than that of Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) (.61) and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) (.72) in all patients. Hospital mortality and median overall survival of patients with PICAT scores of 0 to 2 (n = 141), >2 to 4 (n = 242), and >4 (n = 182) were 34%, 69%, and 91%; and 7.59, .67, and .30 months, respectively. PICAT has good calibration and accuracy in predicting mortality for Allo-SCT patients requiring intensive care. Its AUC was significantly higher than APACHE II and SOFA scores and is also associated with overall survival.
End-of-Life Care Intensity in Patients Undergoing Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation: A Population-Level Analysis.
Johnston Emily E,Muffly Lori,Alvarez Elysia,Saynina Olga,Sanders Lee M,Bhatia Smita,Chamberlain Lisa J
Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
PURPOSE:Intensity of end-of-life care receives much attention in oncology because of concerns that high-intensity care is inconsistent with patient goals, leads to worse caregiver outcomes, and is expensive. Little is known about such care in those undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT), a population at high risk for morbidity and mortality. PATIENTS AND METHODS:We conducted a population-based analysis of patients who died between 2000 and 2013, within 1 year of undergoing an inpatient allogeneic HCT using California administrative data. Previously validated markers of intensity were examined and included: hospital death, intensive care unit (ICU) admission, and procedures such as intubation and cardiopulmonary resuscitation at end of life. Multivariable logistic regression models determined clinical and sociodemographic factors associated with: hospital death, a medically intense intervention (ICU admission, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, hemodialysis, intubation), and ≥ two intensity markers. RESULTS:Of the 2,135 patients in the study population, 377 were pediatric patients (age ≤ 21 years), 461 were young adults (age 22 to 39 years), and 1,297 were adults (age ≥ 40 years). The most common intensity markers were: hospital death (83%), ICU admission (49%), and intubation (45%). Medical intensity varied according to age, underlying diagnosis, and presence of comorbidities at time of HCT. Patients with higher-intensity end-of-life care included patients age 15 to 21 years and 30 to 59 years, patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia, and those with comorbidities at time of HCT. CONCLUSION:Patients dying within 1 year of inpatient allogeneic HCT are receiving medically intense end-of-life care with variations related to age, underlying diagnosis, and presence of comorbidities at time of HCT. Future studies need to determine if these patterns are consistent with patient and family goals.
Weight gain and supplemental O : Risk factors during the hematopoietic cell transplant admission in pediatric patients.
Rowan Courtney M,Nitu Mara E,Moser Elizabeth A S,Swigonski Nancy L,Renbarger Jamie L
Pediatric blood & cancer
BACKGROUND:Respiratory failure in the pediatric hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) recipient is the leading cause for admission to the intensive care unit and carries a high mortality rate. The objective of this study is to investigate the association of clinical risk factors with the development of respiratory failure in the pediatric allogeneic HCT recipient. PROCEDURES:This is a single-center, retrospective review of allogeneic pediatric HCT from 2008 to 2014. Multiple variables were examined. The primary outcome was respiratory failure. Percent weight gain was investigated at multiple time points. Bivariate and multivariate regression was used. RESULTS:Of the 87 allogeneic HCT recipients, 22 (25%) developed respiratory failure. Mortality for entire cohort was 13.8%. All who died were intubated prior to death. The group with respiratory failure had significantly higher percent weight gain increase at multiple time points: peak weight prior to discharge or intubation (P = 0.008), weight at discharge or intubation (P = .001), and weight at day 43 (median day for intubation) (P = 0.02). Odds ratio (OR) for respiratory failure increased with increasing percentage peak weight gain: 10% increase (3.1 [1.1, 9.0]), 15% increase (4.1 [1.5, 11.2]), and 20% (8.3 [2.4. 28.9]). Fifty percent of all patients required supplemental O . OR for respiratory failure in patients requiring more than 1 l supplemental O is 25.3 (6.5, 98.7). CONCLUSION:Percent weight gain and need for supplemental oxygen is highly associated with the development of respiratory failure in pediatric HCT recipients, representing predictors of acute respiratory failure in pediatric HCT. These data could be incorporated into an algorithm that should be developed, implemented, and validated in a prospective, multicenter fashion.
Palliative care of hematopoietic cell transplant recipients and families.
Tierney D Kathryn,Passaglia Judy,Jenkins Patricia
Seminars in oncology nursing
OBJECTIVES:To provide support for the early integration of palliative care into the care of hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) recipients and families with the goal of improving care. DATA SOURCES:Journal articles and on-line databases. CONCLUSION:Early integration of palliative care for HCT recipients at high risk for complex symptom clusters, non-relapse mortality, or relapse offers an opportunity to clarify goals of care, advanced care planning, and improving the quality of care for both recipients and families. IMPLICATIONS FOR NURSING PRACTICE:The palliative care service can support the HCT nurse in providing complex care to HCT recipients who are faced with significant side effects, toxicities, and complications of transplant.
Predictors of outcome in patients with hematologic malignancies admitted to the intensive care unit.
Al-Zubaidi Nassar,Shehada Emad,Alshabani Khaled,ZazaDitYafawi Jihane,Kingah Pascal,Soubani Ayman O
Hematology/oncology and stem cell therapy
PURPOSE:Several studies showed conflicting results about prognosis and predictors of outcome of critically ill patients with hematological malignancies (HM). The aim of this study is to determine the hospital outcome of critically ill patients with HM and the factors predicting the outcome. METHODS AND MATERIALS:All patients with HM admitted to MICU at a tertiary academic medical center were enrolled. Clinical data upon admission and during ICU stay were collected. Hospital, ICU, and 6 months outcomes were documented. RESULTS:There were 130 HM patients during the study period. Acute Leukemia was the most common malignancy (31.5%) followed by Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma (28.5%). About 12.5% patients had autologous HSCT and 51.5% had allogeneic HSCT. Sepsis was the most common ICU diagnosis (25.9%). ICU mortality and hospital mortality were 24.8% and 45.3%, respectively. Six months mortality (available on 80% of patients) was 56.7%. Hospital mortality was higher among mechanically ventilated patients (75%). Using multivariate analysis, only mechanical ventilation (OR of 19.0, CI: 3.1-117.4, P: 0.001) and allogeneic HSCT (OR of 10.9, CI: 1.8-66.9, P: 0.01) predicted hospital mortality. CONCLUSION:Overall hospital outcome of critically ill patients with HM is improving. However those who require mechanical ventilation or underwent allogeneic HSCT continue to have poor outcome.
Platelet number and graft function predict intensive care survival in allogeneic stem cell transplantation patients.
Turki Amin T,Lamm Wolfgang,Schmitt Christoph,Bayraktar Evren,Alashkar Ferras,Metzenmacher Martin,Wohlfarth Philipp,Beelen Dietrich W,Liebregts Tobias
Annals of hematology
Despite significant advances in the treatment of complications requiring intensive care unit (ICU) admission, ICU mortality remains high for patients after allogeneic stem cell transplantation. We evaluated the role of thrombocytopenia and poor graft function in allogeneic stem cell recipients receiving ICU treatments along with established prognostic ICU markers in order to identify patients at risk for severe complications. At ICU admission, clinical and laboratory data of 108 allogeneic stem cell transplanted ICU patients were collected and retrospectively analyzed. Platelet counts (≤ 50,000/μl, p < 0.0005), hemoglobin levels (≤ 8.5 mg/dl, p = 0.019), and leukocyte count (≤ 1500/μl, p = 0.025) along with sepsis (p = 0.002) and acute myeloid leukemia (p < 0.0005) correlated significantly with survival. Multivariate analysis confirmed thrombocytopenia (hazard ratio (HR) 2.79 (1.58-4.92, 95% confidence interval (CI)) and anemia (HR 1.82, 1.06-3.11, 95% CI) as independent mortality risk factors. Predominant ICU diagnoses were acute respiratory failure (75%), acute kidney injury (47%), and septic shock (30%). Acute graft versus host disease was diagnosed in 42% of patients, and 47% required vasopressors. Low platelet (≤ 50,000/μl) and poor graft function are independent prognostic factors for impaired survival in critically ill stem cell transplanted patients. The underlying pathophysiology of poor graft function is not fully understood and currently under investigation. High-risk patients may be identified and ICU treatments stratified according to allogeneic stem cell patients' individual risk profiles. In contrast to previous studies involving medical or surgical ICU patients, the fraction of thrombocytopenic patients was larger and low platelets were a better differentiating factor in multivariate analysis than any other parameter.
Treatment intensity and symptom burden in hospitalized adolescent and young adult hematopoietic cell transplant recipients at the end of life.
Snaman J M,Talleur A C,Lu J,Levine D R,Kaye E C,Sykes A,Lu Z,Triplett B M,Baker J N
Bone marrow transplantation
Adolescent and young adult (AYA) oncology patients experience many physical and psychological symptoms at the end of life (EOL); however, data on these experiences for AYA patients who have undergone hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) remains sparse. We sought to investigate the characteristics of AYA patients aged 15-25 years who received allogeneic HCT and subsequently died while inpatient at our institution between the years 2008 and 2014. A standardized data extraction tool was used to collect information about patient demographics, treatment and symptoms. We found that during this time frame, 34 AYA patients had received HCT and died while inpatient at our institution, 23 (68%) of whom died because of treatment-related complications. Compared with non-HCT AYA oncology patients (n=35), patients who received HCT (n=34) were more likely to have died in the intensive care unit (71% vs 23%, P<0 .0001) and to have received mechanical ventilation (68% vs 17%, P<0.0001) or hemodialysis (53% vs 0%, P<0.0001) in the last 30 days of life. These findings demonstrate that AYA patients who receive allogeneic HCT receive intensive EOL treatment, suggesting that these patients may benefit from early integration of expert interdisciplinary services to prospectively assess and manage distressing symptoms.
Intensive care outcomes in adult hematopoietic stem cell transplantation patients.
Bayraktar Ulas D,Nates Joseph L
World journal of clinical oncology
Although outcomes of intensive care for patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) have improved in the last two decades, the short-term mortality still remains above 50% among allogeneic HSCT patients. Better selection of HSCT patients for intensive care, and consequently reduction of non-beneficial care, may reduce financial costs and alleviate patient suffering. We reviewed the studies on intensive care outcomes of patients undergoing HSCT published since 2000. The risk factors for intensive care unit (ICU) admission identified in this report were primarily patient and transplant related: HSCT type (autologous vs allogeneic), conditioning intensity, HLA mismatch, and graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). At the same time, most of the factors associated with ICU outcomes reported were related to the patients' functional status upon development of critical illness and interventions in ICU. Among the many possible interventions, the initiation of mechanical ventilation was the most consistently reported factor affecting ICU survival. As a consequence, our current ability to assess the benefit or futility of intensive care is limited. Until better ICU or hospital mortality prediction models are available, based on the available evidence, we recommend practitioners to base their ICU admission decisions on: Patient pre-transplant comorbidities, underlying disease status, GVHD diagnosis/grade, and patients' functional status at the time of critical illness.
Validation of a Pediatric Early Warning Score in Hospitalized Pediatric Oncology and Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant Patients.
Agulnik Asya,Forbes Peter W,Stenquist Nicole,Rodriguez-Galindo Carlos,Kleinman Monica
Pediatric critical care medicine : a journal of the Society of Critical Care Medicine and the World Federation of Pediatric Intensive and Critical Care Societies
OBJECTIVES:To evaluate the correlation of a Pediatric Early Warning Score with unplanned transfer to the PICU in hospitalized oncology and hematopoietic stem cell transplant patients. DESIGN:We performed a retrospective matched case-control study, comparing the highest documented Pediatric Early Warning Score within 24 hours prior to unplanned PICU transfers in hospitalized pediatric oncology and hematopoietic stem cell transplant patients between September 2011 and December 2013. Controls were patients who remained on the inpatient unit and were matched 2:1 using age, condition (oncology vs hematopoietic stem cell transplant), and length of hospital stay. Pediatric Early Warning Scores were documented by nursing staff at least every 4 hours as part of routine care. Need for transfer was determined by a PICU physician called to evaluate the patient. SETTING:A large tertiary/quaternary free-standing academic children's hospital. PATIENTS:One hundred ten hospitalized pediatric oncology patients (42 oncology, 68 hematopoietic stem cell transplant) requiring unplanned PICU transfer and 220 matched controls. INTERVENTIONS:None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS:Using the highest score in the 24 hours prior to transfer for cases and a matched time period for controls, the Pediatric Early Warning Score was highly correlated with the need for PICU transfer overall (area under the receiver operating characteristic = 0.96), and in the oncology and hematopoietic stem cell transplant groups individually (area under the receiver operating characteristic = 0.95 and 0.96, respectively). The difference in Pediatric Early Warning Score results between the cases and controls was noted as early as 24 hours prior to PICU admission. Seventeen patients died (15.4%). Patients with higher Pediatric Early Warning Scores prior to transfer had increased PICU mortality (p = 0.028) and length of stay (p = 0.004). CONCLUSIONS:We demonstrate that our institution's Pediatric Early Warning Score is highly correlated with the need for unplanned PICU transfer in hospitalized oncology and hematopoietic stem cell transplant patients. Furthermore, we found an association between higher scores and PICU mortality. This is the first validation of a Pediatric Early Warning Score specific to the pediatric oncology and hematopoietic stem cell transplant populations, and supports the use of Pediatric Early Warning Scores as a method of early identification of clinical deterioration in this high-risk population.
Prognostic factors and outcome of adult allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation patients admitted to intensive care unit during transplant hospitalization.
Michel Christian S,Teschner Daniel,Schmidtmann Irene,Theobald Matthias,Hauptrock Beate,Wagner-Drouet Eva M,Radsak Markus P
Patients undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation have a high morbidity and mortality, especially after admission to intensive care unit (ICU) during peri-transplant period. The objective of this study was to identify new clinical and biological parameters and validate prognostic scores associated with ICU, short-and long-term survival. Significant differences between ICU survivors and ICU non-survivors for the clinical parameters invasive mechanical ventilation, urine output, heart rate, mean arterial pressure, and amount of vasopressors have been measured. Among prognostic scores (SOFA, SAPSII, PICAT, APACHE II, APACHE IV) assessing severity of disease and predicting outcome of critically ill patients on ICU, the APACHE II score has shown most significant difference (p = 0.002) and the highest discriminative power (area under the ROC curve (AUC) 0.74). An elevated level of lactate at day of admission was associated with poor survival on ICU and the most significant independent parameter (p < 0.001). In our cohort kidney damage with low urine output has a highly relevant impact on ICU, short- and long-term overall survival. The APACHE II score was superior predicting ICU mortality compared to all other tested prognostic scores for patients on ICU during peri-transplant period.
Respiratory events in ward are associated with later intensive care unit (ICU) admission and hospital mortality in onco-hematology patients not admitted to ICU after a first request.
Doukhan Laure,Bisbal Magali,Chow-Chine Laurent,Sannini Antoine,Brun Jean Paul,Cambon Sylvie,Nguyen Duong Lam,Faucher Marion,Mokart Djamel
INTRODUCTION:Prognostic impact of delayed intensive care unit(ICU) admission in critically ill cancer patients remains debatable. We determined predictive factors for later ICU admission and mortality in cancer patients initially not admitted after their first ICU request. METHODS:All cancer patients referred for an emergency ICU admission between 1 January 2012 and 31 August 2013 were included. RESULTS:Totally, 246(54.8%) patients were immediately admitted. Among 203(45.2%) patients denied at the first request, 54(26.6%) were admitted later. A former ICU stay [OR: 2.75(1.12-6.75)], a request based on a clinical respiratory event[OR: 2.6(1.35-5.02)] and neutropenia[OR: 2.25(1.06-4.8)] were independently associated with later ICU admission. Survival of patients admitted immediately and later did not differ at ICU(78.5% and 70.4%, respectively; p = 0.2) or hospital(74% and 66%, respectively; p = 0.24) discharge. Hospital mortality of patients initially not admitted was 29.7% and independently associated with malignancy progression[OR: 3.15(1.6-6.19)], allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation[OR: 2.5(1.06-5.89)], a request based on a clinical respiratory event[OR: 2.36(1.22-4.56)] and severe sepsis[OR: 0.27(0.08-0.99)]. CONCLUSION:Compared with immediate ICU admission, later ICU admission was not associated with hospital mortality. Clinical respiratory events were independently associated with both later ICU admission and hospital mortality.
Defining Incidence and Risk Factors for Catheter-Associated Bloodstream Infections in an Outpatient Adult Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation Program.
McDonald Marissa K,Culos Kathryn A,Gatwood Katie S,Prow Caleb,Chen Heidi,Savani Bipin N,Byrne Michael,Kassim Adetola A,Engelhardt Brian G,Jagasia Madan,Satyanarayana Gowri
Biology of blood and marrow transplantation : journal of the American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation
Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) patients are at an increased risk of developing central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs) due to prolonged periods of myelosuppression, immunosuppression, and indwelling catheter days. CLABSIs are among the most serious complications in HCT recipients and can lead to prolonged hospitalizations, intensive care unit admissions, lengthy antimicrobial therapies, and increased mortality. There is a lack of data regarding the incidence and risk factors associated with the development of CLABSIs in the HCT population undergoing outpatient transplantation. This was a single-center, retrospective analysis of adult patients who underwent allogeneic HCT between July 2012 and July 2016 in an outpatient transplant unit at a tertiary academic medical center. The primary outcome was the cumulative incidence of CLABSIs from the date of central line placement through the first 100 days post-transplantation. Secondary outcomes included risk factors for CLABSI, number of hospitalizations due to CLABSI, mortality rate at 6 months post-transplantation, and the cumulative incidence, speciation, and presence of multidrug resistance in identified microorganisms. Three hundred fifty-nine patients underwent allogeneic HCT at Vanderbilt University Medical Center and 352 were included for analysis. The cumulative incidence of CLABSIs was 9%, with the majority occurring within the first 30 days post HCT (67%). The use of a matched unrelated donor (MUD) and/or haploidentical donor (odds ratio, 3.993; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.329 to 12.001; P = .0136) and use of an ablative conditioning regimen (odds ratio, 2.394; 95% CI, 1.052 to 5.446; P = .0374) were independently associated with development of a CLABSI on multivariate analysis. The most common organism implicated in CLABSI was Staphylococcus epidermidis (34%). Patients who developed a CLABSI had an almost 5 times higher risk of mortality at 6 months post-transplantation compared with patients who did not develop a CLABSI (hazard ratio, 4.932; 95% CI, 2.463 to 9.878; P < .001). There is a low incidence of CLABSIs in patients undergoing HCT in the outpatient setting. Patients who underwent HCT using a MUD or haploidentical donor and received ablative conditioning were at higher risk for developing CLABSIs. Overall mortality at 6 months post-transplantation was higher in patients who developed a CLABSI. Additional prospective studies are needed to confirm these observations.
The use of comprehensive geriatric assessment in older patients before allologeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: A cross-sectional study.
Rodrigues Morgani,de Souza Polianna Mara Rodrigues,de Oliveira Muniz Koch Ludmila,Hamerschlak Nelson
Journal of geriatric oncology
OBJECTIVES:To evaluate the results of the comprehensive geriatric assessment (CGA) before allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell (HSCT) transplantation in patients aged 60 years and over. METHODS:We evaluated all consecutive patients undergoing CGA before HSCT between September 2011 and July 2018 in a private hospital in Brazil. We also evaluated the Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation-Specific Comorbidity Index (HCT-SCI) and the Disease Risk Index (DRI). RESULTS:During the study period, 61 patients were referred for transplant evaluation. After exclusions, we analyzed 40 patients, with a mean age of 67.6 years (60-76). The CGA detected vulnerability and frailty in 43% and 18.9% respectively according to the Fried Frailty Phenotype score; limitations across the domain of function and disability with handgrip test alterations in 65.8%. However, 36 (90%) were independent for instrumental activities of daily living (IADL). Cognitive and depression domain have shown abnormal with the clock test in 44.4%, and loss of memory complains in 37.5%. But the mini-mental test was normal in 89%. Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) was normal in 82.5%. 30% were considered at risk for malnutrition. Half of the patients (50%) had a high Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation Comorbidity Index (HCT-CI) score. 32.5% needed ICU admission. The overall survival and non-relapse mortality at 2 years were 41.8% and 38.7% respectively. CONCLUSION:The CGA was feasible in detecting the patients' vulnerabilities in our population. More studies, multicentric and with a larger number of patients, are needed to evaluate the role of CGA in this context of allo-HCT in our population.
Critically ill allogenic HSCT patients in the intensive care unit: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prognostic factors of mortality.
Saillard Colombe,Darmon Michael,Bisbal Magali,Sannini Antoine,Chow-Chine Laurent,Faucher Marion,Lengline Etienne,Vey Norbert,Blaise Didier,Azoulay Elie,Mokart Djamel,
Bone marrow transplantation
Outcome of patients undergoing allogenic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) has improved. To investigate if this improvement can be transposed to the ICU setting, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess short-term mortality of critically ill allo-HSCT patients admitted to the ICU and to identify prognostic factors of mortality. Public-domain electronic databases, including Medline via PubMed and the Cochrane Library were searched. All full-text articles written-English studies published from 2006 to 2016, including allo-HSCT adults transferred to the ICU were included. Eighteen studies were selected, including 2342 patients. Overall estimated ICU mortality was 51.7%. Prognostic factors associated with an increased ICU mortality were mechanical ventilation (OR = 12.2, 95% CI = 6.2-23.7), vasopressors (OR = 6.3, 95% CI = 3.6-11.1), renal replacement therapy (OR = 4.2, 95% CI = 2.8-6.2), ICU admission for acute respiratory failure (OR = 2.2, 95% CI = 1.1-4.4), acute kidney injury (OR = 2.2, 95% CI = 1.3-4), and acute graft-versus-host disease (OR = 1.6, 95% CI = 1.1-2.3). Factors associated with an increased ICU survival were a single-organ failure (OR = 0.2, 95% CI = 0.1-0.4), neurological failure (OR = 0.4, 95% CI = 0.2-0.8), and reduced-intensity conditioning regimens (OR = 0.7, 95% CI = 0.5-0.9). Septic shock, underlying malignancy, disease status, donor, and graft source did not impact prognosis. Outcome has improved, supporting the usefulness of ICU management. Organ failures at ICU admission, organ support requirement, and GVHD are the main prognostic factors.
Potential drug-drug interactions and nephrotoxicity in hematopoietic stem cell transplant adult recipients during bone marrow transplantation unit stay.
Sanchez Lydia,Bacle Astrid,Lamy Thierry,Le Corre Pascal
Cancer chemotherapy and pharmacology
PURPOSE:Studies have documented potential drug-drug interactions (pDDIs) occurring in cancer patients mainly with solid malignancies, either in the ambulatory or hospital settings. While hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) patients during their bone marrow transplantation unit (BMTU) stay have rather complex medical regimens combining chemotherapy, anti-infectious agents, immunosuppressive agents, and supportive-care drugs, studies on potential DDIs are lacking. Our objective was to evaluate the prevalence and the density of pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic potential DDIs, and the evolution of the renal function in hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) adult recipients during their BMTU stay. METHODS:Retrospective study in 31 adult patients consecutively admitted to the BMTU. RESULTS:Prevalence of pharmacokinetic interactions was ten times lower than the pharmacodynamic interactions. The contraindications were rare, and only of pharmacokinetic origin. The main drugs involved in pharmacokinetic DDIs were ciclosporine, methotrexate, esomeprazole, tramadol, and vincristine. The median number of potential nephrotoxicity-related DDIs per patient was 7 and the median number of days during which nephrotoxicity-related DDIs potentially occurred was 77 days per patient. The decrease in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) throughout the BMTU stay (mean decrease of 13 ml/min) was correlated with the number of days of potential nephrotoxic drug interactions. CONCLUSIONS:Potential DDIs in HCST patients in BMTU were quite common. The DDIs from pharmacokinetic origin were less frequent, but of higher grade, than those of pharmacodynamic origin. The decrease in GFR suggests that the density of potential nephrotoxic drug interactions may be an issue to be considered in these patients.
Outcome of Recipients of Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplants Who Require Intensive Care Unit Support: A Single Institution Experience.
Galindo-Becerra Samantha,Labastida-Mercado Nancy,Rosales-Padrón Jaime,García-Chavez Jessica,Soto-Vega Elena,Rivadeneyra-Espinoza Liliana,León-Peña Andres A,Fernández-Lara Danitza,Dominguez-Cid Monica,Anthon-Méndez Javier,Arizpe-Bravo Daniel,Ruiz-Delgado Guillermo J,Ruiz-Argüelles Guillermo J
Admission to the intensive care unit (ICU) of a patient who has been grafted with hematopoietic stem cells is a serious event, but the role of the ICU in this setting remains controversial. Data were analyzed from patients who underwent autologous or allogeneic bone marrow transplantation at the Centro de Hematología y Medicina Interna de Puebla, México, between May 1993 and October 2014. In total, 339 patients were grafted: 150 autografts and 189 allografts; 68 of the grafted patients (20%) were admitted to the ICU after transplantation: 27% of the allografted and 11% of the autografted patients (p = 0.2). Two of 17 autografted patients (12%) and 5 of 51 allografted patients (10%) survived. All patients who required insertion of an endotracheal tube died, whereas 7 of 11 patients without invasive mechanical ventilation survived (p = 0.001). Only 10% of the grafted patients survived their stay in the ICU; this figure is lower than those reported from other centers and may reflect several facts, varying from the quality of the ICU support to ICU admission criteria to the initial management of all the grafts in an outpatient setting, which could somehow delay the arrival of patients to the hospital.
The intensive care management process in patients with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and factors affecting their prognosis.
Boyacı Nazlıhan,Aygencel Gulbin,Turkoglu Melda,Yegin Zeynep Arzu,Acar Kadir,Sucak Gulsan Turkoz
Hematology (Amsterdam, Netherlands)
OBJECTIVES:Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) recipients may require further management in intensive care unit (ICU). The ICU outcome of the HSCT recipients is claimed to have improved significantly over the last two decades. Our aim was to investigate the ICU outcome of the HSCT recipients who required management in ICU, together with the factors that are likely to affect the results. MATERIALS AND METHODS:We retrospectively investigated the ICU outcome of 48 adults (≥18 years of age) who received HSCT in the bone marrow transplant unit of our hospital and required admission to ICU between 01 January 2007 and 31 December 2010. The data were retrieved from the databases of the adult bone marrow transplantation unit and the ICU. RESULTS:Sixty-one percent of the patients were male with a median age of 39 years (28-46.75) in the study cohort. Leukemia (54%) and lymphoma (27%) were the leading underlying disorders. The type of HSCT was autologous in 14.6% and allogeneic in 85.4% of the patients. The reason for admission to ICU was acute respiratory failure in 85.5% of the HSCT recipients and 75% had sepsis/septic shock. The mean duration of ICU stay was 104.5 (48-168) hours. Sixty-nine percent of the patients died during their ICU stay while 31% survived. Besides the several statistically significant differences between the patients who survived or died in ICU in univariate analysis, baseline Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE II) score (odds ratio 1.38, 95% confidence interval: 1.06-1.79) and requirement of vasopressors in the ICU (odds ratio 72.29, 95% confidence interval:4.47-1169.91) were found to be independent risk factors for mortality in multivariate analysis. CONCLUSION:Baseline APACHE II score and requirement of vasopressors during ICU stay were the most significant independent risk factors for mortality in HSCT recipients who required ICU management in our center.
Intensive Care Utilization for Hematopoietic Cell Transplant Recipients.
Jenkins Patricia,Johnston Laura J,Pickham David,Chang Beverly,Rizk Norman,Tierney D Kathryn
Biology of blood and marrow transplantation : journal of the American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation
Blood and marrow transplantation (BMT) is a potentially curative therapy for a number of malignant and nonmalignant diseases. Multiple variables, including age, comorbid conditions, disease, disease stage, prior therapies, degree of donor-recipient matching, type of transplantation, and dose intensity of the preparative regimen, affect both morbidity and mortality. Despite tremendous gains in supportive care, BMT remains a high-risk medical therapy. A critically ill BMT recipient may require transfer to an intensive care unit (ICU) and the specialized medical and nursing care that can be provided, such as mechanical ventilation and vasopressor support. Mortality for BMT recipients requiring care in an ICU is high. This paper will describe the experience of the Stanford Blood and Marrow Transplant Program in developing and implementing guidelines to maximize the benefit of intensive care for critically ill BMT recipients.
Prognosis of Allogeneic Haematopoietic Stem Cell Recipients Admitted to the Intensive Care Unit: A Retrospective, Single-Centre Study.
Lindgaard Sidsel Christy,Nielsen Jonas,Lindmark Anders,Sengeløv Henrik
BACKGROUND:Allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is a procedure with inherent complications and intensive care may be necessary. We evaluated the short- and long-term outcomes of the HSCT recipients requiring admission to the intensive care unit (ICU). METHODS:We retrospectively examined the outcome of 54 adult haematological HSCT recipients admitted to the ICU at the University Hospital Rigshospitalet between January 2007 and March 2012. RESULTS:The overall in-ICU, in-hospital, 6-month and 1-year mortality rates were 46.3, 75.9, 79.6 and 86.5%, respectively. Mechanical ventilation had a statistically significant effect on in-ICU (p = 0.02), 6-month (p = 0.049) and 1-year (p = 0.014) mortality. Renal replacement therapy also had a statistically significant effect on in-hospital (p = 0.038) and 6-month (p = 0.026) mortality. Short ICU admissions, i.e. <10 days, had a statistically significant positive effect on in-hospital, 6-month and 1-year mortality (all p < 0.001). The SAPS II, APACHE II and SOFA scoring systems grossly underestimated the actual in-hospital mortality observed for these patients. CONCLUSION:The poor prognosis of critically ill HSCT recipients admitted to the ICU was confirmed in our study. Mechanical ventilation, renal replacement therapy and an ICU admission of ≥10 days were each risk factors for mortality in the first year after ICU admission.
Predictors of short-term and long-term mortality in critically ill patients admitted to the intensive care unit following allogeneic stem cell transplantation.
van der Heiden P L J,Arbous M S,van Beers E J,van den Bergh W M,le Cessie S,Demandt A M P,Eefting M,Hess C,Kusadasi N,Marijt W A F,van Mook W N K A,Müller M C A,Tuinman P R,van Vliet M,van Westerloo D J,Blijlevens N M A,
Bone marrow transplantation
Historically, the mortality of patients admitted to the ICU after allogeneic stem cell transplantation (alloSCT) is high. Advancements in transplantation procedures, infectious monitoring and supportive care may have improved the outcome. This study aimed to determine short-term and long-term mortality after ICU admission of patients after alloSCT and to identify prognostic clinical and transplantation-related determinants present at ICU admission for long-term outcome. A multicenter cohort study was performed to determine 30-day and 1-year mortality within 2 years following alloSCT. A total of 251 patients were included. The 30-day and 1-year mortality was 55% and 80%, respectively. Platelet count <25 × 10/L (OR: 2.26, CI: 1.02-5.01) and serum bilirubin >19 μmol/L (OR: 2.47 CI: 1.08-5.65) at admission, other donor than a HLA-matched-related or HLA-matched-unrelated donor (OR: 4.59, CI: 1.49-14.1) and vasoactive medication within 24 h (OR: 2.35, CI: 1.28-4.31) were associated with increased 30-day mortality. Other donor than a HLA-matched-related or HLA-matched-unrelated donor (OR: 1.9, CI: 1.13-3.19), serum bilirubin >77 (OR: 2.05, CI: 1.28-3.30) and vasoactive medication within 24 h (OR: 1.65, CI: 1.12-2.43) were associated with increased 1-year mortality. Neutropenia was associated with decreased 30-day and 1-year mortality (OR: 0.29, CI: 0.14-0.59 and OR: 0.70, CI: 0.48-0.98). Myeloablative conditioning and T cell-depleted transplantation were not associated with increased mortality.
[Transfer of allogeneic stem cell transplant recipients to the intensive care unit: Guidelines from the Francophone society of marrow transplantation and cellular therapy (SFGM-TC)].
Moreau Anne-Sophie,Bourhis Jean-Henri,Contentin Nathalie,Couturier Marie-Anne,Delage Jeremy,Dumesnil Cécile,Gandemer Virginie,Hichri Yosr,Jost Edgar,Platon Laura,Jourdain Mercé,Pène Frédéric,Yakoub-Agha Ibrahim
Bulletin du cancer
Transferring a patient undergoing an allogeneic stem cell transplantation to the intensive care unit (ICU) is always a challenging situation on a medical and psychological point of view for the patient and his relatives as well as for the medical staff. Despite the progress in hematology and intensive care during the last decade, the prognosis of these patients admitted to the ICU remains poor and mortality is around 50 %. The harmonization working party of the SFGM-TC assembled hematologists and intensive care specialist in order to improve conditions and modalities of the transfer of a patient after allogeneic stem cell transplantation to the ICU. We propose a structured medical form comprising all essential information necessary for optimal medical care on ICU.
Advance Directive Utilization Is Associated with Less Aggressive End-of-Life Care in Patients Undergoing Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation.
Cappell Kathryn,Sundaram Vandana,Park Annie,Shiraz Parveen,Gupta Ridhi,Jenkins Patricia,Periyakoil Vyjeyanthi S J,Muffly Lori
Biology of blood and marrow transplantation : journal of the American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation
Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) is associated with significant morbidity and mortality, making advance care planning (ACP) and management especially important in this patient population. A paucity of data exists on the utilization of ACP among allogeneic HCT recipients and the relationship between ACP and intensity of healthcare utilization in these patients. We performed a retrospective review of patients receiving allogeneic HCT at our institution from 2008 to 2015 who had subsequently died after HCT. Documentation and timing of advance directive (AD) completion were abstracted from the electronic medical record. Outcomes of interest included use of intensive care unit (ICU) level of care at any time point after HCT, within 30 days of death, and within 14 days of death; use of mechanical ventilation at any time after HCT; and location of death. Univariate logistic regression was performed to explore associations between AD completion and each outcome. Of the 1031 patients who received allogeneic HCT during the study period, 422 decedents (41%) were included in the analysis. Forty-four percent had AD documentation prior to death. Most patients (69%) indicated that if terminally ill, they did not wish to be subjected to life-prolonging treatment attempts. Race/ethnicity was significantly associated with AD documentation, with non-Hispanic white patients documenting ADs more frequently (51%) compared with Hispanic (22%) or Asian patients (35%; P = .0007). Patients with ADs were less likely to use the ICU during the transplant course (41% for patients with ADs versus 52% of patients without ADs; P = .03) and also were less likely to receive mechanical ventilation at any point after transplantation (21% versus 37%, P < .001). AD documentation was also associated with decreased ICU use at the end of life; relative to patients without ADs, patients with ADs were more likely to die at home or in hospital as opposed to in the ICU (odds ratio, .44; 95% confidence interval, .27 to .72). ACP remains underused in allogeneic HCT. Adoption of a systematic practice to standardize AD documentation as part of allogeneic HCT planning has the potential to significantly reduce ICU use and mechanical ventilation while improving quality of care at end of life in HCT recipients.
Allogeneic stem cell transplantation recipients requiring intensive care: time is of the essence.
Orvain Corentin,Beloncle Francois,Hamel Jean-Francois,Del Galy Aurélien Sutra,Thépot Sylvain,Mercier Mélanie,Kouatchet Achille,Farhi Jonathan,Francois Sylvie,Ifrah Norbert,Mercat Alain,Asfar Pierre,Hunault-Berger Mathilde,Tanguy-Schmidt Aline
Annals of hematology
The benefit of early admission of allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT) recipients to the intensive care unit (ICU) as soon as they develop organ injury is unknown. We performed a retrospective study on 92 patients admitted to the ICU to determine the impact of time from organ injury to ICU admission on outcome. The number of organ injuries prior to ICU admission was associated with an increased in-hospital mortality (OR 1.7, 95% CI 1-2.7, p = 0.04). Time between first organ injury and ICU admission was also associated with an increased in-hospital survival (OR 1.4, 95% CI 1.1-1.8, p = 0.02). A score combining these two covariates-the number of organ injuries/day (sum of days spent with each individual organ injury)-further improved the prediction of hospital survival. Patients with more organ injuries/day had significantly higher in-hospital mortality rate even after adjustment for refractory acute GVHD and the SOFA (OR 1.3, 95% CI 1-1.7, p = 0.02). Early ICU admission of allogeneic SCT recipients to the ICU as soon as they develop organ injury is associated with decreased in-hospital mortality.
Microbiologic Diagnostic Workup of Acute Respiratory Failure with Pulmonary Infiltrates after Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation: Findings in the Era of Molecular- and Biomarker-Based Assays.
Wohlfarth Philipp,Turki Amin T,Steinmann Joerg,Fiedler Melanie,Steckel Nina K,Beelen Dietrich W,Liebregts Tobias
Biology of blood and marrow transplantation : journal of the American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation
Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) recipients frequently develop acute respiratory failure (ARF) with pulmonary infiltrates. Molecular- and biomarker-based assays enhance pathogen detection, but data on their yield in this population are scarce. This was a retrospective single-center study of 156 consecutive HSCT recipients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) between May 2013 and July 2017. Findings from a microbiologic diagnostic workup using currently available methods on bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and blood samples from 66 patients (age, 58 years [range, 45 to 64]; HSCT to ICU, 176 days [range, 85 to 407]) with ARF and pulmonary infiltrates were analyzed. In 47 patients (71%) a causative pathogen was identified (fungal, n = 28; viral, n = 26; bacterial, n = 18). Polymicrobial findings involving several pathogen groups occurred in 20 patients (30%). Culture (12/16, 75%), galactomannan (13/15, 87%), and Aspergillus-PCR (8/9, 89%) from BAL but not serum galactomannan (6/14, 43%) helped to diagnose invasive aspergillosis (n = 16, 24%). Aspergillus-PCR detected azole resistance in 2 cases. Mucorales was found in 7 patients (11%; BAL culture, n = 6; Mucorales-PCR, n = 1). Patients with identified pathogens had higher Simplified Acute Physiology Score II scores (P = .049) and inferior ICU survival (6% versus 37%, P < .01), which largely related to the presence of an invasive fungal infection. Eight patients (12%) had 1 or more viruses with uncertain lung pathogenicity as the sole microbiologic finding. A diagnostic microbiologic workup incorporating molecular- and biomarker-based assays identified pathogens in most HSCT recipients with ARF and pulmonary infiltrates admitted to the ICU. Implications of polymicrobial infection and pathogen patterns in these patients warrant further investigation.
A reappraisal of ICU and long-term outcome of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation patients and reassessment of prognosis factors: results of a 5-year cohort study (2009-2013).
Platon L,Amigues L,Ceballos P,Fegueux N,Daubin D,Besnard N,Larcher R,Landreau L,Agostini C,Machado S,Jonquet O,Klouche K
Bone marrow transplantation
Epidemiology and prognosis of complications related to allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients requiring admission to intensive care unit (ICU) have not been reassessed precisely in the past few years. We performed a retrospective single-center study on 318 consecutive HSCT patients (2009-2013), analyzing outcome and factors prognostic of ICU admission. Among these patients, 73 were admitted to the ICU. In all, 32 patients (40.3%) died in ICU, 46 at hospital discharge (63%) and 61 (83.6%) 1 year later. Survivors had a significantly lower sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) score, serum lactate and bilirubin upon ICU admission. Catecholamine support, mechanical ventilation (MV) and/or renal replacement therapy during ICU stay, a delayed organ support and an active graft versus host disease (GvHD) significantly worsen the outcome. By multivariate analysis, the worsening of SOFA score from days 1 to 3, the need for MV and the occurrence of an active GvHD were predictive of mortality. In conclusion, the incidence of HSCT-related complications requiring an admission to an ICU was at 22%, with an ICU mortality rate of 44%, and 84% 1 year later. A degradation of SOFA score at day 3 of ICU, need of MV and occurrence of an active GvHD are main predictive factors of mortality.
Critically ill allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation patients in the intensive care unit: reappraisal of actual prognosis.
Saillard C,Blaise D,Mokart D
Bone marrow transplantation
The outcome of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) patients has significantly improved over the past decade. Still, a significant number of patients require intensive care unit (ICU) management because of life-threatening complications. Literature from the 1990s reported extremely poor prognosis for critically ill allo-HSCT patients requiring ICU management. Recent data justify the use of ICU resources in hematologic patients. Yet, allo-HSCT remains an independent variable associated with mortality. However, outcomes in allo-HSCT patients have improved over time and many classic determinants of mortality have become irrelevant. The main actual prognostic factors are the need for mechanical ventilation, the presence of GvHD and the number of organ failures at ICU admission. Recently, the development of reduced-intensity conditioning regimens, early ICU admission and the increased use of noninvasive ventilation, combined with time effect and general advances in hematology, in allo-HSCT procedures and in ICU management have contributed to improve general outcome. A rational policy of ICU admission triage in these patients is very hard to define, as each decision for ICU admission is a case-by-case decision at patient bedside. The collaboration between hematologists and intensivists is crucial in this context.
Characteristics and Outcome of Patients After Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation Treated With Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation for Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome.
Wohlfarth Philipp,Beutel Gernot,Lebiedz Pia,Stemmler Hans-Joachim,Staudinger Thomas,Schmidt Matthieu,Kochanek Matthias,Liebregts Tobias,Taccone Fabio Silvio,Azoulay Elie,Demoule Alexandre,Kluge Stefan,Svalebjørg Morten,Lueck Catherina,Tischer Johanna,Combes Alain,Böll Boris,Rabitsch Werner,Schellongowski Peter, ,
Critical care medicine
OBJECTIVES:The acute respiratory distress syndrome is a frequent condition following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation may serve as rescue therapy in refractory acute respiratory distress syndrome but has not been assessed in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation recipients. DESIGN:Multicenter, retrospective, observational study. SETTING:ICUs in 12 European tertiary care centers (Austria, Germany, France, and Belgium). PATIENTS:All allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation recipients treated with venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for acute respiratory distress syndrome between 2010 and 2015. INTERVENTIONS:None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS:Thirty-seven patients, nine of whom underwent noninvasive ventilation at the time of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation initiation, were analyzed. ICU admission occurred at a median of 146 (interquartile range, 27-321) days after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. The main reason for acute respiratory distress syndrome was pneumonia in 81% of patients. All but one patient undergoing noninvasive ventilation at extracorporeal membrane oxygenation initiation had to be intubated thereafter. Overall, seven patients (19%) survived to hospital discharge and were alive and in remission of their hematologic disease after a follow-up of 18 (range, 5-30) months. Only one of 24 patients (4%) initiated on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation within 240 days after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation survived compared to six of 13 (46%) of those treated thereafter (p < 0.01). Fourteen patients (38%) experienced bleeding events, of which six (16%) were associated with fatal outcomes. CONCLUSIONS:Discouraging survival rates in patients treated early after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation do not support the use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for acute respiratory distress syndrome in this group. On the contrary, long-term allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation recipients otherwise eligible for full-code ICU management may be potential candidates for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation therapy in case of severe acute respiratory distress syndrome failing conventional measures.
Long-term outcomes in patients treated in the intensive care unit after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.
Nakamura Makoto,Fujii Nobuharu,Shimizu Kazuyoshi,Ikegawa Shuntaro,Seike Keisuke,Inomata Tomoko,Sando Yasuhisa,Fujii Keiko,Nishimori Hisakazu,Matsuoka Ken-Ichi,Morimatsu Hiroshi,Maeda Yoshinobu
International journal of hematology
The number of patients who are successfully discharged from the intensive care unit (ICU) after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) remains limited. Most previous studies have evaluated short-term outcomes using ICU mortality; there have been comparatively fewer reports of long-term outcomes. We retrospectively analyzed 39 HSCT patients admitted to the ICU for the first time between April 2008 and July 2014. Performance status was evaluated in four long-term survivors in July 2016. Median age at ICU admission was 54 years (range 30-68). In total, 33 patients (70.2%) required mechanical ventilation and 31 patients (66%) required dialysis. The median OS from first ICU admission was 41 days (95% confidence interval [CI]: 22-64) and the 1-year survival rate was 12.8% (95% CI 4.7-25.2). No statistically significant factors were associated with short-term outcomes. Among long-term outcomes, a second or subsequent HSCT and neutropenia at ICU admission were significant risk factors. Four of 10 ICU survivors have survived with good performance status for a median of 1994 (1203-2633) days. Our results suggest that the number of prior transplants and neutropenia at ICU admission may influence OS.
Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant in Facilities Without Intensive Care Units in Japan.
Kamio Tadashi,Sanui Masamitsu,Horikita Sho,Fujii Tatsuya,Kawagishi Toshiomi,Lefor Alan K
Experimental and clinical transplantation : official journal of the Middle East Society for Organ Transplantation
OBJECTIVES:Substantial numbers of patients after hematopoietic stem cell transplant need critical care. In Japan, however, data regarding the availability of an intensive care unit and intensivists at hospitals performing hematopoietic stem cell transplant are lacking. We aimed to investigate this issue using data from the 2014 Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation in Japan Annual Report of Nationwide Survey. MATERIALS AND METHODS:We examined whether hospitals have intensive care unit facilities and whether these hospitals are authorized by the Japanese Society of Intensive Care Medicine to provide intensivist training. The number of hematopoietic cell transplantations at each hospital was collected from the Transplant Registry Unified Management Program by the Japanese Data Center for Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation. RESULTS:Among 236 hospitals that perform hematopoietic stem cell transplants, 106 hospitals did not have intensive care units certified by the Japanese Society of Intensive Care Medicine. In patients who receive hematopoietic stem cell transplants with the highest mortality rate, 947 allogeneic transplants were performed at hospitals without this certification and 73 were performed at hospitals without intensive care units. CONCLUSIONS:We found that a considerable number of hematopoietic stem cell transplants are performed at hospitals with insufficient availability of critical care facilities or physicians.
Admission factors associated with hospital mortality in patients with haematological malignancy admitted to UK adult, general critical care units: a secondary analysis of the ICNARC Case Mix Programme Database.
Hampshire Peter A,Welch Catherine A,McCrossan Lawrence A,Francis Katharine,Harrison David A
Critical care (London, England)
INTRODUCTION:Patients with haematological malignancy admitted to intensive care have a high mortality. Adverse prognostic factors include the number of organ failures, invasive mechanical ventilation and previous bone marrow transplantation. Severity-of-illness scores may underestimate the mortality of critically ill patients with haematological malignancy. This study investigates the relationship between admission characteristics and outcome in patients with haematological malignancies admitted to intensive care units (ICUs) in England, Wales and Northern Ireland, and assesses the performance of three severity-of-illness scores in this population. METHODS:A secondary analysis of the Intensive Care National Audit and Research Centre (ICNARC) Case Mix Programme Database was conducted on admissions to 178 adult, general ICUs in England, Wales and Northern Ireland between 1995 and 2007. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with hospital mortality. The Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II score, Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS) II and ICNARC score were evaluated for discrimination (the ability to distinguish survivors from nonsurvivors); and the APACHE II, SAPS II and ICNARC mortality probabilities were evaluated for calibration (the accuracy of the estimated probability of survival). RESULTS:There were 7,689 eligible admissions. ICU mortality was 43.1% (3,312 deaths) and acute hospital mortality was 59.2% (4,239 deaths). ICU and hospital mortality increased with the number of organ failures on admission. Admission factors associated with an increased risk of death were bone marrow transplant, Hodgkin's lymphoma, severe sepsis, age, length of hospital stay prior to intensive care admission, tachycardia, low systolic blood pressure, tachypnoea, low Glasgow Coma Score, sedation, PaO2:FiO2, acidaemia, alkalaemia, oliguria, hyponatraemia, hypernatraemia, low haematocrit, and uraemia. The ICNARC model had the best discrimination of the three scores analysed, as assessed by the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.78, but all scores were poorly calibrated. APACHE II had the highest accuracy at predicting hospital mortality, with a standardised mortality ratio of 1.01. SAPS II and the ICNARC score both underestimated hospital mortality. CONCLUSIONS:Increased hospital mortality is associated with the length of hospital stay prior to ICU admission and with severe sepsis, suggesting that, if appropriate, such patients should be treated aggressively with early ICU admission. A low haematocrit was associated with higher mortality and this relationship requires further investigation. The severity-of-illness scores assessed in this study had reasonable discriminative power, but none showed good calibration.
Outcomes and prognostic factors in patients with haematological malignancy admitted to a specialist cancer intensive care unit: a 5 yr study.
Bird G T,Farquhar-Smith P,Wigmore T,Potter M,Gruber P C
British journal of anaesthesia
BACKGROUND:Long-held assumptions of poor prognoses for patients with haematological malignancies (HM) have meant that clinicians have been reluctant to admit them to the intensive care unit (ICU). We aimed to evaluate ICU, in-hospital, and 6 month mortality and to identify predictors for in-hospital mortality. METHODS:A cohort study in a specialist cancer ICU of adult HM patients admitted over 5 yr. Data acquired included: patient characteristics, haematological diagnosis, haematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT), reason for ICU admission, and APACHE II scores. Laboratory values, organ failures, and level of organ support were recorded on ICU admission. Predictors for in-hospital mortality were evaluated using uni- and multivariate analysis. RESULTS:Of 199 patients, median age was 58 yr [inter-quartile range (IQR) 46-66], 51.7% were emergency admissions, 42.2% post-HSCT, 51.9% required mechanical ventilation, median APACHE II was 21 (IQR 16-25), and median organ failure numbered 2 (IQR 1-4). ICU, in-hospital, and 6 month mortalities were 33.7%, 45.7%, and 59.3%, respectively. Univariate analysis revealed bilirubin >32 µmol litre(-1), mechanical ventilation, ≥2 organ failures, renal replacement therapy, vasopressor support (all P<0.001), graft-vs-host disease (P=0.007), APACHE II score (P=0.02), platelets ≤20×10(9) litre(-1) (P=0.03), and proven invasive fungal infection (P=0.04) were associated with in-hospital mortality. Multivariate analysis revealed that ≥2 organ failures [odds ratio (OR) 5.62; 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 2.30-13.70] and mechanical ventilation (OR 3.03; 95% CI, 1.33-6.90) were independently associated with in-hospital mortality. CONCLUSIONS:Mortality was lower than in previous studies. Mechanical ventilation and ≥2 organ failures were independently associated with in-hospital mortality. 'Traditional' variables such as neutropenia, transplantation status, and APACHE II score no longer appear to be predictive.
Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation after reduced intensity conditioning regimen: Outcomes of patients admitted to intensive care unit.
Mokart Djamel,Granata Angela,Crocchiolo Roberto,Sannini Antoine,Chow-Chine Laurent,Brun Jean-Paul,Bisbal Magali,Faucher Marion,Faucher Catherine,Blache Jean-Louis,Castagna Luca,Fürst Sabine,Blaise Didier
Journal of critical care
PURPOSE:The prognosis of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) is still poor. Overall, when these patients receive reduced intensity conditioning (RIC) regimens, the survival is better. To date, no study has specifically evaluated the outcome of RIC allogeneic HSCT admitted to the ICU. METHODS:We realized a retrospective study of 102 patients admitted to the ICU among a cohort of 601 consecutive patients receiving RIC regimens. The primary objective of the study was to assess in-ICU and inhospital mortality rates. RESULTS:The ICU mortality was 39.2%, and the hospital mortality was 59.8%. The median overall survival of ICU patients was 8.2 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 5.7-10.6) vs 75 (95% CI, 63-87) in non-ICU patients (P < .0001). During hospital stay, an ICU admission for neurologic dysfunction was independently associated with hospital survival (P = .012). The use of invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV; P = .011), Simplified Acute Physiology Score II (P = .003), and longer time between diagnosis of malignancy and HSCT (P = .012) were associated with hospital mortality. The overall survival of the ICU survivors was significantly lower than that of non-ICU patients (hazard ratio, 3.61 [95% CI, 2.18-4.59]; P < .001). The median survival of ICU survivors was 9 months (95% CI, 4-14) vs 75 (95% CI, 63-87) in non-ICU patients (P < .0001). Noninvasive ventilation (NIV) was successful (not followed by IMV in 61% of cases [25/41 NIV patients]), and failure of NIV was not associated with hospital mortality in patients treated with subsequent IMV. CONCLUSION:From our study, short-term survival rates of ICU patients receiving RIC regimens justify a broad ICU admission policy. The use of IMV is associated with hospital mortality, whereas the use of NIV is frequently successful. Long-term outcome remains poor after ICU discharge.
Improved short- and long-term outcome of allogeneic stem cell recipients admitted to the intensive care unit: a retrospective longitudinal analysis of 942 patients.
Lueck Catherina,Stadler Michael,Koenecke Christian,Hoeper Marius M,Dammann Elke,Schneider Andrea,Kielstein Jan T,Ganser Arnold,Eder Matthias,Beutel Gernot
Intensive care medicine
PURPOSE:Intensive care unit (ICU) admission of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients is associated with relatively poor outcome. Since longitudinal data on this topic remains scarce, we analyzed reasons for ICU admission as well as short- and long-term outcome of critically ill HSCT recipients. METHODS:A total of 942 consecutive adult patients were transplanted at Hannover Medical School from 2000 to 2013. Of those, 330 patients were at least admitted once to the ICU and included in this retrospective study. To analyze time-dependent improvements, we separately compared patient characteristics as well as reasons and outcome of ICU admission for the periods 2000-2006 and 2007-2013. RESULTS:The main reasons for ICU admission were acute respiratory failure (ARF) in 35%, severe sepsis/septic shock in 23%, and cardiac problems in 18%. ICU admission was clearly associated with shortened survival (p < 0.001), but survival of ICU patients after hospital discharge reached 44% up to 5 years and was comparable to that of non-ICU HSCT patients. When ICU admission periods were compared, patients were older (48 vs. 52 years; p < 0.005) and the percentage of ARF as leading cause for ICU admission decreased from 43% in the first to 30% in the second period. Over time ICU and hospital survival improved from 44 to 60% (p < 0.01) and from 26 to 43% (p < 0.01), respectively. The 1- and 3-year survival rate after ICU admission increased significantly from 14 to 32% and from 11 to 23% (p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS:Besides ARF and septic shock, cardiac events were especially a major reason for ICU admission. Both short- and long-term survival of critically ill HSCT patients has improved significantly in recent years, and survival of HSCT recipients discharged from hospital is not significantly affected by a former ICU stay.
Risk factors for ICU admission and ICU survival after allogeneic hematopoietic SCT.
Benz R,Schanz U,Maggiorini M,Seebach J D,Stussi G
Bone marrow transplantation
A considerable number of patients undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic SCT (HSCT) develop post-transplant complications requiring intensive care unit (ICU) treatment. Whereas the indications and the outcome of ICU admission are well known, the risk factors leading to ICU admission are less well understood. We performed a retrospective single-center study on 250 consecutive HSCT patients analyzing the indications, risk factors and outcome of ICU admission. Of these 250 patients, 33 (13%) were admitted to the ICU. The most common indications for admission to the ICU were pulmonary complications (11, 33%), sepsis (8, 24%), neurological disorders (6, 18%) and cardiovascular problems (2, 6%). Acute GvHD and HLA mismatch were the only significant risk factors for ICU admission in multivariate analysis. Among patients admitted to the ICU, the number of organ failures correlated negatively with survival. Twenty-one (64%) patients died during the ICU stay and the 6-month mortality was 85% (27 out of 33). SAPS II score underestimated the mortality rate. In conclusion, acute GvHD and HLA mismatch were identified as risk factors for ICU admission following allogeneic HSCT. Both, short- and long-term survival of patients admitted to the ICU remains dismal and depends on the number of organ failures.
Short- and long-term outcomes of adult allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant patients admitted to the intensive care unit in the peritransplant period.
Mayer Sebastian,Pastores Stephen M,Riedel Elyn,Maloy Molly,Jakubowski Ann A
Leukemia & lymphoma
Survival of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (aHSCT) recipients in the intensive care unit (ICU) has been poor. We retrospectively analyzed the short- and long-term outcomes of aHSCT patients admitted to the ICU over a 12-year period. Of 1235 adult patients who had aHSCT between 2002 and 2013, 161 (13%) were admitted to the ICU. The impact of clinical parameters was assessed and outcomes were compared for the periods 2002-2007 and 2008-2013. The ICU, in-hospital, 1- and 5-year survival rates were 64.6%, 46%, 33% and 20%, respectively. Mechanical ventilation and vasopressor use predicted for worse hospital- and overall survival (OS). After 2008, the requirement for mechanical ventilation and vasopressors, and the diagnosis of sepsis were reduced. While hospital mortality decreased from 69% to 44%, long-term survival (LTS) remained unchanged. Late deaths, due to causes not associated with the ICU such as relapse and graft-versus-host disease, increased. As thresholds for transplant are lowered, improvements in ICU outcomes for aHSCT recipients may be limited.