Metabolically healthy and unhealthy obesity: differential effects on myocardial function according to metabolic syndrome, rather than obesity.
Dobson R,Burgess M I,Sprung V S,Irwin A,Hamer M,Jones J,Daousi C,Adams V,Kemp G J,Shojaee-Moradie F,Umpleby M,Cuthbertson D J
International journal of obesity (2005)
BACKGROUND:The term 'metabolically healthy obese (MHO)' is distinguished using body mass index (BMI), yet BMI is a poor index of adiposity. Some epidemiological data suggest that MHO carries a lower risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) or mortality than being normal weight yet metabolically unhealthy. OBJECTIVES:We aimed to undertake a detailed phenotyping of individuals with MHO by using imaging techniques to examine ectopic fat (visceral and liver fat deposition) and myocardial function. We hypothesised that metabolically unhealthy individuals (irrespective of BMI) would have adverse levels of ectopic fat and myocardial dysfunction compared with MHO individuals. SUBJECTS:Individuals were categorised as non-obese or obese (BMI ⩾30 kg m(-2)) and as metabolically healthy or unhealthy according to the presence or absence of metabolic syndrome. METHODS:Sixty-seven individuals (mean±s.d.: age 49±11 years) underwent measurement of (i) visceral, subcutaneous and liver fat using magnetic resonance imaging and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy, (ii) components of metabolic syndrome, (iii) cardiorespiratory fitness and (iv) indices of systolic and diastolic function using tissue Doppler echocardiography. RESULTS:Cardiorespiratory fitness was similar between all groups; abdominal and visceral fat was highest in the obese groups. Compared with age- and BMI-matched metabolically healthy counterparts, the unhealthy (lean or obese) individuals had higher liver fat and decreased early diastolic strain rate, early diastolic tissue velocity and systolic strain indicative of subclinical systolic and diastolic dysfunction. The magnitude of dysfunction correlated with the number of components of metabolic syndrome but not with BMI or with the degree of ectopic (visceral or liver) fat deposition. CONCLUSIONS:Myocardial dysfunction appears to be related to poor metabolic health rather than simply BMI or fat mass. These data may partly explain the epidemiological evidence on CVD risk relating to the different obesity phenotypes.
Impact of Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome on Immunity.
Andersen Catherine J,Murphy Kelsey E,Fernandez Maria Luz
Advances in nutrition (Bethesda, Md.)
Obesity is associated with metabolic disturbances that cause tissue stress and dysfunction. Obese individuals are at a greater risk for chronic disease and often present with clinical parameters of metabolic syndrome (MetS), insulin resistance, and systemic markers of chronic low-grade inflammation. It has been well established that cells of the immune system play an important role in the pathogenesis of obesity- and MetS-related chronic diseases, as evidenced by leukocyte activation and dysfunction in metabolic tissues such as adipose tissue, liver, pancreas, and the vasculature. However, recent findings have highlighted the substantial impact that obesity and MetS parameters have on immunity and pathogen defense, including the disruption of lymphoid tissue integrity; alterations in leukocyte development, phenotypes, and activity; and the coordination of innate and adaptive immune responses. These changes are associated with an overall negative impact on chronic disease progression, immunity from infection, and vaccine efficacy. This review presents an overview of the impact that obesity and MetS parameters have on immune system function.
Potassium and Obesity/Metabolic Syndrome: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of the Epidemiological Evidence.
Cai Xianlei,Li Xueying,Fan Wenjie,Yu Wanqi,Wang Shan,Li Zhenhong,Scott Ethel Marian,Li Xiuyang
The objective of this study was to investigate the associations between potassium and obesity/metabolic syndrome. We identified eight relevant studies and applied meta-analysis, and nonlinear dose-response analysis to obtain the available evidence. The results of the pooled analysis and systematic review indicated that high potassium intake could not reduce the risk of obesity (pooled OR = 0.78; 95% CI: 0.61-1.01), while serum potassium and urinary sodium-to-potassium ratio was associated with obesity. Potassium intake was associated with metabolic syndrome (pooled OR = 0.75; 95% CI: 0.50-0.97). Nonlinear analysis also demonstrated a protective effect of adequate potassium intake on obesity and metabolic syndrome. Adequate intake of fruits and vegetables, which were the major sources of potassium, was highly recommended. However, additional pertinent studies are needed to examine the underlying mechanism.
Obesity and metabolic syndrome: pathological effects on the gastrointestinal tract.
Feakins Roger M
Obesity is an increasingly common problem worldwide and a risk factor for a variety of gastrointestinal (GI) diseases, both non-neoplastic (e.g. gastro-oesophageal reflux and Barrett's oesophagus) and neoplastic (e.g. oesophageal adenocarcinoma, colorectal carcinoma, and gallbladder cancer). Furthermore, obesity is associated with worse GI cancer outcomes. Body mass index is a commonly used measure of fat accumulation, although specific patterns such as abdominal/central obesity and visceral fat quantity sometimes predict disease risk more accurately. Metabolic syndrome (MS) is a related condition characterized by central adiposity and insulin resistance. The reasons for the associations with neoplasia are diverse. Established cancer-related conditions that have a higher prevalence in overweight subjects include Barrett's oesophagus and gallstones. Preneoplastic lesions such as colorectal adenoma, colorectal serrated lesions and pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia are also associated with obesity/MS. At the cellular level, adipocytes can release carcinogens such as adipokines, insulin-like growth factor, and vascular endothelial growth factor. Inflammatory cells constitute a further potential source of carcinogens; in obese subjects, their numbers are increased systemically and in adipose tissue. Animal studies have contributed additional information. For example, mice with a genetic predisposition to develop colorectal carcinoma given a high-fat diet have larger and more numerous intestinal adenomas than controls, and there may be demonstrably higher levels of mucosal oncogenic factors. The associations between obesity and GI disease are of variable strength, and the underlying mechanisms are incompletely understood, but it is clear that obesity and MS have a significant, potentially avoidable and often under-recognized impact on the population burden of GI disease.
Chronic exposure to air pollution particles increases the risk of obesity and metabolic syndrome: findings from a natural experiment in Beijing.
Wei Yongjie,Zhang Junfeng Jim,Li Zhigang,Gow Andrew,Chung Kian Fan,Hu Min,Sun Zhongsheng,Zeng Limin,Zhu Tong,Jia Guang,Li Xiaoqian,Duarte Marlyn,Tang Xiaoyan
FASEB journal : official publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Epidemiologic evidence suggests that air pollution is a risk factor for childhood obesity. Limited experimental data have shown that early-life exposure to ambient particles either increases susceptibility to diet-induced weight gain in adulthood or increases insulin resistance, adiposity, and inflammation. However, no data have directly supported a link between air pollution and non-diet-induced weight increases. In a rodent model, we found that breathing Beijing's highly polluted air resulted in weight gain and cardiorespiratory and metabolic dysfunction. Compared to those exposed to filtered air, pregnant rats exposed to unfiltered Beijing air were significantly heavier at the end of pregnancy. At 8 wk old, the offspring prenatally and postnatally exposed to unfiltered air were significantly heavier than those exposed to filtered air. In both rat dams and their offspring, after continuous exposure to unfiltered air we observed pronounced histologic evidence for both perivascular and peribronchial inflammation in the lungs, increased tissue and systemic oxidative stress, dyslipidemia, and an enhanced proinflammatory status of epididymal fat. Results suggest that TLR2/4-dependent inflammatory activation and lipid oxidation in the lung can spill over systemically, leading to metabolic dysfunction and weight gain.-Wei, Y., Zhang, J., Li, Z., Gow, A., Chung, K. F., Hu, M., Sun, Z., Zeng, L., Zhu, T., Jia, G., Li, X., Duarte, M., Tang, X. Chronic exposure to air pollution particles increases the risk of obesity and metabolic syndrome: findings from a natural experiment in Beijing.
Association of Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease with Metabolic Syndrome Independently of Central Obesity and Insulin Resistance.
Yang Kuen Cheh,Hung Hui-Fang,Lu Chia-Wen,Chang Hao-Hsiang,Lee Long-Teng,Huang Kuo-Chin
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is an emerging chronic liver disease that may lead to liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. We aimed to determine the association between the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and NAFLD severity using semi-quantitative ultrasonography (US). A total of 614 participants were recruited from the community. NAFLD was evaluated according to the ultrasonographic Fatty Liver Indicator (US-FLI), which is a semi-quantitative liver ultrasound score. Insulin resistance was estimated with the homeostasis model assessment index for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). NAFLD and MetS were found in 53.7 and 17.3% of the participants, respectively. Linear relationships were found between the severity of NAFLD and waist circumference, fasting glucose, HOMA-IR, triglycerides, HDL-C and blood pressure. After adjusting for confounding factors, i.e., body mass index and HOMA-IR, the odds ratios for MetS were 3.64 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.5-8.83) for those with mild NAFLD and 9.4 (95% CI: 3.54-24.98) for those with moderate-to-severe NAFLD compared to those without NAFLD. The combination of the HOMA-IR and US-FLI scores better differentiated MetS than the HOMA-IR alone. In addition to obesity, the severity of NAFLD and the HOMA-IR both play important roles in MetS. Whether NAFLD is a component of MetS warrants further research.
A small-molecule inhibitor of SHIP1 reverses age- and diet-associated obesity and metabolic syndrome.
Srivastava Neetu,Iyer Sonia,Sudan Raki,Youngs Christie,Engelman Robert W,Howard Kyle T,Russo Christopher M,Chisholm John D,Kerr William G
Low-grade chronic inflammation is a key etiological phenomenon responsible for the initiation and perpetuation of obesity and diabetes. Novel therapeutic approaches that can specifically target inflammatory pathways are needed to avert this looming epidemic of metabolic disorders. Genetic and chemical inhibition of SH2-containing inositol 5' phosphatase 1 (SHIP1) has been associated with systemic expansion of immunoregulatory cells that promote a lean-body state; however, SHIP1 function in immunometabolism has never been assessed. This led us to investigate the role of SHIP1 in metabolic disorders during excess caloric intake in mice. Using a small-molecule inhibitor of SHIP1 (SHIPi), here we show that SHIPi treatment in mice significantly reduces body weight and fat content, improves control of blood glucose and insulin sensitivity, and increases energy expenditure, despite continued consumption of a high-fat diet. Additionally, SHIPi reduces age-associated fat in mice. We found that SHIPi treatment reverses diet-associated obesity by attenuating inflammation in the visceral adipose tissue (VAT). SHIPi treatment increases IL-4-producing eosinophils in VAT and consequently increases both alternatively activated macrophages and myeloid-derived suppressor cells. In addition, SHIPi decreases the number of IFN-γ-producing T cells and NK cells in VAT. Thus, SHIPi represents an approach that permits control of obesity and diet-induced metabolic syndrome without apparent toxicity.
Treating Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome with Fecal Microbiota Transplantation.
Marotz Clarisse A,Zarrinpar Amir
The Yale journal of biology and medicine
The worldwide prevalence of metabolic syndrome, which includes obesity and its associated diseases, is rising rapidly. The human gut microbiome is recognized as an independent environmental modulator of host metabolic health and disease. Research in animal models has demonstrated that the gut microbiome has the functional capacity to induce or relieve metabolic syndrome. One way to modify the human gut microbiome is by transplanting fecal matter, which contains an abundance of live microorganisms, from a healthy individual to a diseased one in the hopes of alleviating illness. Here we review recent evidence suggesting efficacy of fecal microbiota transplant (FMT) in animal models and humans for the treatment of obesity and its associated metabolic disorders.
Metabolic syndrome, obesity, and the risk of cancer development.
Bitzur Rafael,Brenner Ronen,Maor Elad,Antebi Maayan,Ziv-Baran Tomer,Segev Shlomo,Sidi Yechezkel,Kivity Shaye
European journal of internal medicine
BACKGROUND:Metabolic syndrome and its components are severe global health issues that are increasing in frequency as the prevalence of obesity increases. Various studies have established a correlation between metabolic syndrome and diseases including, diabetes mellitus, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, cirrhosis, and cardiovascular disease. In recent years, correlations have also been detected between obesity and metabolic syndrome and the prevalence of certain types of cancer. The current study examines whether obesity and metabolic syndrome components are risk factors for cancer among the adult population in Israel. METHODS:A cohort study analysis was performed of 24,987 initially healthy men and women who underwent yearly medical assessments at the Institute for Medical Screening in the Sheba Medical Center. Data from the Institute for Medical Screening database was correlated with that from the Israel Cancer Center in the Ministry of Health updated to December 2013. The correlation between metabolic syndrome, obesity, and the overall risk of cancer as well as the risks of specific types of cancer were examined. RESULTS:Of 20,444 subjects for whom complete data were available, 1535 were diagnosed with cancer during the mean follow-up time of 104.3months. In a multi-variant analysis, no significant correlation was found between metabolic syndrome or obesity and the incidence of cancer. When the data were stratified by gender and cancer type, however, a significant association between metabolic syndrome and breast cancer in women was observed (P=0.03, HR=1.67, 95% CI=1.05-2.67). CONCLUSION:Metabolic syndrome correlates with higher than expected breast cancer incidence in women.
The effects of metabolic syndrome, obesity, and the gut microbiome on load-induced osteoarthritis.
Guss J D,Ziemian S N,Luna M,Sandoval T N,Holyoak D T,Guisado G G,Roubert S,Callahan R L,Brito I L,van der Meulen M C H,Goldring S R,Hernandez C J
Osteoarthritis and cartilage
OBJECTIVE:Metabolic syndrome is characterized by obesity, hyperglycemia, hypertension, insulin resistance, and dyslipidemia. Metabolic syndrome is associated with osteoarthritis (OA), but it is unclear if the association is attributable to increased mechanical loading on joints caused by obesity or other aspects of metabolic syndrome. Here we examined the effects of altered metabolism, obesity, and the gut microbiome on load-induced OA. DESIGN:Cartilage damage was induced through cyclic compressive loading in four groups of adult male mice: Toll-like receptor-5 deficient (TLR5KO) mice that develop metabolic syndrome due to alterations in the gut microbiome, TLR5KO mice submitted to chronic antibiotics to prevent metabolic syndrome (TLR5KOΔMicrobiota), C57BL/6J mice fed a high fat diet to cause obesity (HFD), and untreated C57BL/6J mice (WT). Loading was applied for 2 weeks (n = 10-11/group) or 6 weeks (n = 10-11/group). RESULTS:After 2 weeks of loading, cartilage damage (OARSI score) was not different among groups. After 6 weeks of loading, HFD mice had increased load-induced cartilage damage, while TLR5KO mice had cartilage damage comparable to WT mice. TLR5KOΔMicrobiota mice had less cartilage damage than other groups. HFD mice had elevated serum inflammatory markers. Each group had a distinct gut microbiome composition. CONCLUSIONS:Severe obesity increased load-induced cartilage damage, while milder changes in adiposity/metabolic syndrome seen in TLR5KO mice did not. Furthermore, the effects of systemic inflammation/obesity on cartilage damage depend on the duration of mechanical loading. Lastly, reduced cartilage damage in the TLR5KOΔMicrobiota mice suggests that the gut microbiome may influence cartilage pathology.
Small dense LDL cholesterol is associated with metabolic syndrome traits independently of obesity and inflammation.
Fan Jiahua,Liu Yangqing,Yin Songping,Chen Nixuan,Bai Xinxiu,Ke Qiuyi,Shen Jia,Xia Min
Nutrition & metabolism
BACKGROUND:Small dense LDL cholesterol (sdLDL-c) has been established to be highly associated with metabolic disorder. However, the relationship between circulating sdLDL-c and the presence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) has not been fully established. METHODS:A total of 1065 Chinese males (45.07 ± 11.08 years old) without diabetes and general obesity was recruited into a population-based, cross-sectional study. The MetS was defined based on the updated National Cholesterol Education Program/ Adult Treatment Panel III criteria for Asian Americans. Serum sdLDL-c concentration was measured by a homogeneous assay method and its relationship with MetS and its traits was investigated. RESULTS:Serum sdLDL-c concentrations increased gradually with increasing numbers of MetS components ( < 0.001) and the proportion of patients with MetS increased gradually with increasing sdLDL-c levels ( for trend< 0.001). For the second, third, and fourth sdLDL-c quartiles versus the first, the OR (95% CI) for MetS were 4.47(2.41,8.28), 5.47(2.97,10.07) and 8.39(4.58,15.38) ( < 0.001 for trend) after multivariate adjustment. The stratified analysis conducted according to LDL-c levels showed that the OR between serum sdLDL-c levels and MetS was greater in those LDL-c levels lower than 3.3 mmol/L (OR = 22.97; 95% CI, 7.64-69.09) than in those LDL-c levels higher than 3.3 mmol/L (OR = 17.49; 95% CI, 4.43-68.98). Mediation analysis showed sdLDL-c mediated 38.6% of the association of waist circumference with triglycerides, while the association between sdLDL-c and MetS components did not mediate by hsCRP. CONCLUSIONS:This study found that high sdLDL-c concentrations were associated with the presence of MetS independently of central obesity and inflammation.
A Genetic Score of Predisposition to Low-Grade Inflammation Associated with Obesity May Contribute to Discern Population at Risk for Metabolic Syndrome.
Galmés Sebastià,Cifre Margalida,Palou Andreu,Oliver Paula,Serra Francisca
Omega-3 rich diets have been shown to improve inflammatory status. However, in an ex vivo system of human blood cells, the efficacy of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) modulating lipid metabolism and cytokine response is attenuated in overweight subjects and shows high inter-individual variability. This suggests that obesity may be exerting a synergistic effect with genetic background disturbing the anti-inflammatory potential of omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). In the present work, a genetic score aiming to explore the risk associated to low grade inflammation and obesity (LGI-Ob) has been elaborated and assessed as a tool to contribute to discern population at risk for metabolic syndrome. Pro-inflammatory gene expression and cytokine production as a response to omega-3 were associated with LGI-Ob score; and lower anti-inflammatory effect of PUFA was observed in subjects with a high genetic score. Furthermore, overweight/obese individuals showed positive correlation of both plasma C-Reactive Protein and triglyceride/HDLc-index with LGI-Ob; and high LGI-Ob score was associated with greater hypertension ( = 0.047), Type 2 diabetes ( = 0.026), and metabolic risk ( = 0.021). The study shows that genetic variation can influence inflammation and omega-3 response, and that the LGI-Ob score could be a useful tool to classify subjects at inflammatory risk and more prone to suffer metabolic syndrome and associated metabolic disturbances.
Obesity, Metabolic Syndrome and the Risk of Microvascular Complications in Patients with Diabetes mellitus.
Katsiki Niki,Anagnostis Panagiotis,Kotsa Kalliopi,Goulis Dimitrios G,Mikhailidis Dimitri P
Current pharmaceutical design
BACKGROUND:Obesity frequently co-exists with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), leading to the socalled "diabesity epidemic". The metabolic syndrome (MetS), a cluster of central obesity, hypertension, dysglycemia, insulin resistance and/or atherogenic dyslipidemia, as well as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), a hepatic manifestation of MetS, has been associated with increased cardiovascular disease (CVD), T2DM and chronic kidney disease (CKD) incidence. However, the association between obesity, MetS (including NAFLD) and diabetic microvascular complications is less evident. METHODS:The present narrative review discusses the associations of obesity, MetS and NAFLD with diabetic kidney disease (DKD), diabetic retinopathy (DR) and diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) as well as cardiac autonomic neuropathy (CAN). The available data on the effects of lifestyle measures and bariatric surgery on these diabetic complications are also briefly discussed. RESULTS:Overall, both obesity and MetS have been related to DKD, DR and DPN, although conflicting results exist. Links between NAFLD and diabetic microvascular complications have also been reported but data are still limited. Lifestyle intervention and bariatric surgery may prevent the development and/or progression of these microvascular complications but more evidence is needed. CONCLUSION:Clinicians should be aware of the frequent co-existence of MetS and/or NAFLD in T2DM patients to prevent or treat these metabolic disorders, thus potentially minimizing the risk for both CVD and diabetic microvascular complications.
Time-Restricted Feeding Prevents Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome in Mice Lacking a Circadian Clock.
Chaix Amandine,Lin Terry,Le Hiep D,Chang Max W,Panda Satchidananda
Increased susceptibility of circadian clock mutant mice to metabolic diseases has led to the idea that a molecular clock is necessary for metabolic homeostasis. However, these mice often lack a normal feeding-fasting cycle. We tested whether time-restricted feeding (TRF) could prevent obesity and metabolic syndrome in whole-body Cry1;Cry2 and in liver-specific Bmal1 and Rev-erbα/β knockout mice. When provided access to food ad libitum, these mice rapidly gained weight and showed genotype-specific metabolic defects. However, when fed the same diet under TRF (food access restricted to 10 hr during the dark phase) they were protected from excessive weight gain and metabolic diseases. Transcriptome and metabolome analyses showed that TRF reduced the accumulation of hepatic lipids and enhanced cellular defenses against metabolic stress. These results suggest that the circadian clock maintains metabolic homeostasis by sustaining daily rhythms in feeding and fasting and by maintaining balance between nutrient and cellular stress responses.
Metabolic syndrome and risk of breast cancer mortality by menopause, obesity, and subtype.
Dibaba Daniel T,Ogunsina Kemi,Braithwaite Dejana,Akinyemiju Tomi
Breast cancer research and treatment
PURPOSE:To investigate the association between metabolic syndrome (MetS) and risk of breast cancer mortality by menopausal status, obesity, and subtype. METHODS:Data from 94,555 women free of cancer at baseline in the National Institute of Health-American Association of Retired Persons Diet and Health Study cohort (NIH-AARP) were used to investigate the prospective associations of baseline MetS and components with risk of breast cancer mortality using Cox proportional hazard regression models adjusted for baseline behavioral and demographic covariates. RESULTS:During a mean follow-up duration of 14 years, 607 women in the cohort died of breast cancer. Overall, MetS was associated with a 73% increased risk of breast cancer mortality (HR 1.73; 95% CI 1.09-2.75); the association remained significant among post-menopausal women overall (HR 2.07, 95% CI 1.32, 3.25), and among those with overweight/obesity (HR 1.15, 95% CI 0.81, 1.64). MetS was associated with increased risk of breast cancer mortality for ER+/PR+ (HR 1.28, 95% CI 0.52, 3.16) and lower risk for ER-/PR- (HR 0.44, 95% CI 0.11, 1.75) subtypes; however, the associations were not statistically significant. Of the individual MetS components, high waist circumference (HR 1.32, 95% CI 1.03, 1.70), high cholesterol (HR 1.24, 95% CI 1.05, 1.46), and hypertension (HR 1.24, 95% CI 1.05, 1.46) were independently associated with increased risk of breast cancer mortality. CONCLUSIONS:MetS was associated with increased risk of breast cancer mortality, especially among post-menopausal women. Further studies with larger sample sizes are needed to definitively determine the extent to which these associations vary by breast cancer subtype.
Moderation Effect of Handgrip Strength on the Associations of Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome With Fatty Liver in Adolescents.
Journal of clinical densitometry : the official journal of the International Society for Clinical Densitometry
INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND:This study aimed to evaluate the effect of handgrip strength on the associations of body mass index and metabolic syndrome with an indicator of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in adolescents. METHODOLOGY:In data of 1690 adolescents aged 10-18 yr from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2014-2016, alanine amino-transferase levels, age, sex, bodyweight-, sex-, and age-standardized handgrip strength, age- and sex-specific body mass index Z-scores, and metabolic syndrome severity scores were assessed. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease was defined based on alanine amino-transferase levels (boys ≥52U/L, girls ≥44U/L) in adolescents who were overweight. Moderation analysis via the PROCESS procedure was performed. RESULTS:The prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease was 1.5% among all adolescents and 6.7% among those who were overweight. In all adolescents and adolescents who were overweight, age- and sex-specific body mass index Z-scores and metabolic syndrome scores had positive associations with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease after adjusting for bodyweight-, sex-, and age-standardized handgrip strength. Bodyweight-, sex-, and age-standardized handgrip strength had an inverse association with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease after adjusting for metabolic syndrome scores, and this association became nonsignificant after adjusting for age- and sex-specific body mass index Z-scores. There were positive associations between age- and sex-specific body mass index Z-scores and alanine amino-transferase levels when bodyweight-, sex-, and age-standardized handgrip strength values were ≤-0.13 in overweight adolescents and ≤0.74 in all adolescents, whereas these associations were nonsignificant or negative above those cut-off values. These cut-off values of bodyweight-, sex-, and age-standardized handgrip strength for the relationship between metabolic syndrome scores and alanine amino-transferase levels were -0.15 in overweight adolescents and 0.55 in all adolescents. CONCLUSIONS:A higher bodyweight-, sex-, and age-standardized handgrip strength may attenuate the risk of obesity and metabolic syndrome for an indicator of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in adolescents.
Visceral obesity, but not central obesity, is associated with cardiac remodeling in subjects with suspected metabolic syndrome.
Cho D-H,Kim M-N,Joo H J,Shim W J,Lim D-S,Park S-M
Nutrition, metabolism, and cardiovascular diseases : NMCD
BACKGROUND AND AIMS:Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a cluster of multiple risk factors including central obesity that may lead to cardiac damage and cardiovascular events. We investigated whether visceral obesity induces cardiac structural and functional remodeling independently from central obesity and other risk factors in subjects with suspected MetS. METHODS AND RESULTS:We studied 229 participants with suspected MetS. Visceral fat area (VFA) was measured by bioelectrical impedance analysis. Left ventricular (LV) mass index, early diastolic velocity of mitral annulus (e'), and LV global longitudinal strain (GLS) were measured by echocardiography. Subjects were categorized into high and low VFA group (VFA and VFA). MetS was more prevalent in the VFA than in the VFA (p = 0.004). The VFA had a higher waist circumference (WC) than the VFA (p < 0.001). LV mass index was higher, but e' and GLS were lower in the VFA than in VFA (all p < 0.05). VFA was well correlated with blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, triglyceride, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and adiponectin (all p < 0.05). VFA was correlated to LV mass index, e', and GLS (all p < 0.05) and was independently associated with GLS after adjustment for other risk factors, including WC (p = 0.005). CONCLUSIONS:Visceral obesity assessed by VFA was well correlated with parameters of MetS. Visceral obesity, but not central obesity measured by WC, was independently associated with structural and functional cardiac remodeling in subjects with suspected MetS. It suggests that visceral obesity should be considered as an important risk factor for cardiac damage in dysmetabolic subjects. TRIAL REGISTRATION:NCT02077530 (date of registration: November 1, 2013).
Performance of neck circumference to predict obesity and metabolic syndrome among adult Saudis: a cross-sectional study.
Alzeidan Rasmieh,Fayed Amel,Hersi Ahmed S,Elmorshedy Hala
BACKGROUND:Neck circumference (NC) is a novel simple and stable body measurement, a growing body of evidence indicates its validity to diagnose obesity and metabolic syndrome (MetS). Because the cutoff value of NC is gender and ethnic-specific; we conducted the current study to explore the performance of NC to predict general obesity, central obesity, and MetS among adult Saudis of both genders. METHODS:This is a cross-sectional study which included 3063 adult Saudis (1156 males and 1907 females) with a mean age of 38.6 ± 14.1 years. Anthropometric measurements and blood pressure were assessed by a standardized methodology. Blood tests including fasting lipid panel, blood glucose, fasting blood glucose and hemoglobin A1c (HBA1c) were measured for all participants. We identified the MetS based on Adult Treatment Panel III (ATPIII definition). Data were analyzed using SPSS®19 (PASW statistics data document 19); NC was compared to relevant anthropometric measures to predict obesity and MetS using Receiver Operator Characteristic (ROC) analyses. The cutoff value of NC which possessed good discriminating power between obese and non-obese patients was estimated by Youden index, and we estimated the adjusted Odds Ratio (OR) to delineate the association between NC and the outcome variables by multiple logistic regression analysis. RESULTS:ROC analyses demonstrated good performance of NC for general obesity, central obesity and MetS; as a predictor of obesity in non-diabetics, Area Under the Curve (AUC) ranged from 0.77-0.86. In MetS, AUC was 0.77 and 0.82 for males and females respectively. The best cutoff values of the NC to predict obesity were ≥ 37.5 cm for males versus ≥32.5 cm for females. The results of adjusted logistic regression analysis adjusted for age and waist height ratio, revealed a consistent positive association between NC, general obesity, MetS, and central obesity: ORs were 4.26, 3.03, 1.45 for males versus 4.65, 3.66, and1.47 for females respectively. CONCLUSION:NC stands out as an independent predictor of obesity and the MetS. Its stability, easiness of application, low cost and the cultural acceptance, justify its use as a screening tool for general and central obesity as well as MetS among Saudis under community settings, and as an additional routine measurement for health professionals.
Plasma cholinesterase is associated with Chinese adolescent overweight or obesity and metabolic syndrome prediction.
Han Yanshuo,Ma Yanan,Liu Yang,Zhao Zhongyi,Zhen Shihan,Yang Xuelian,Xu Zhiyong,Wen Deliang
Diabetes, metabolic syndrome and obesity : targets and therapy
To determine the plasma concentrations of butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), also known as pseudocholinesterase, in different weight categories of adolescents, and to explore the possible association between plasma BChE and overweight (OW), obesity, and metabolic syndrome (MetS) in Chinese adolescents. This cross-sectional study included 1,236 Chinese adolescents (194 obese [OB], 188 OW, 732 normal weight [NW], and 122 underweight [UW]). The biochemical variables and anthropometric variables of the study participants were evaluated. Plasma BChE level was measured by DGKC method. OB was associated with a higher prevalence of upper strata plasma BChE levels when compared with the BChE levels in UW, NW, and OW group. A logistic regression analysis showed that plasma BChE was positively associated with the OB group when compared with the NW group. Boys in the OW group, but not the OB group, had a significantly higher prevalence of upper stratum of BChE levels. Plasma triglyceride, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, and ApoB levels were positively associated with the upper stratum of BChE levels when compared with lower stratum. MetS and most of its components were more prevalent among subjects with upper stratum rather than lower stratum BChE levels. Receiver operating characteristic curves for plasma BChE in subjects with MetS indicated that the AUC was 0.80 (95%CI:0.70-0.90,<0.001) and 0.89 (95%CI:0.82-0.95,<0.001) in girls and boys, respectively. After adjusting for age, the multivariate-adjusted odds ratio for MetS in the upper stratum of BChE levels was 8.73 (95%CI: 3.49-21.84) in the boys cohorts and also in the girls cohorts (OR=1.71, 95%CI: 1.35-21.70). This study confirmed an association between BChE levels and weight status in Chinese adolescents, and demonstrated that the upper strata of plasma BChE levels were associated with being OW, and even more highly associated with obesity. Plasma BChE levels were positively associated with MetS and its components and could be useful for identifying adolescents with MetS.
High TSH Level within Normal Range Is Associated with Obesity, Dyslipidemia, Hypertension, Inflammation, Hypercoagulability, and the Metabolic Syndrome: A Novel Cardiometabolic Marker.
Chang Yi-Cheng,Hua Shih-Che,Chang Chia-Hsuin,Kao Wei-Yi,Lee Hsiao-Lin,Chuang Lee-Ming,Huang Yen-Tsung,Lai Mei-Shu
Journal of clinical medicine
(1) Background: Overt and subclinical hypothyroidism has been associated with increased cardiometabolic risks. Here we further explore whether thyroid function within normal range is associated with cardiometabolic risk factors in a large population-based study. (2) Methods: We screened 24,765 adults participating in health examinations in Taiwan. Participants were grouped according to high-sensitive thyroid-stimulating hormone (hsTSH) level as: <50th percentile (0.47-1.48 mIU/L, the reference group), 50-60th percentile (1.49-1.68 mIU/L), 60-70th percentile (1.69-1.94 mIU/L), 70-80th percentile (1.95-2.3 mIU/L), 80-90th percentile (2.31-2.93 mIU/L), and >90th percentile (>2.93 mIU/L). Cardiometabolic traits of each percentile were compared with the reference group. (3) Results: Elevated hsTSH levels within normal range were dose-dependently associated with increased body mass index, body fat percentage, waist circumferences, blood pressure, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), fasting insulin, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), high homeostasis model of assessment of beta-cell (HOMA-β), triglycerides, total cholesterols, fibrinogen, and uric acids (-for-trend <0.001), but not with fasting glucose levels. The association remained significant after adjustment of age, sex, and lifestyle. As compared to the reference group, subjects with the highest hsTSH percentile had significantly increased risk of being overweight (adjusted odds ratio (adjOR): 1.35), increased body fat (adjOR: 1.29), central obesity (adjOR: 1.36), elevated blood pressure (adjOR: 1.26), high HbA1c (adjOR: 1.20), hyperinsulinemia (adjOR: 1.75), increased HOMA-IR (adjOR: 1.45), increased HOMA-β (adjOR: 1.40), hypertriglyceridemia (adjOR: 1.60), hypercholesterolemia (adjOR: 1.25), elevated hsCRP (adjOR: 1.34), increased fibrinogen (adjOR: 1.45), hyperuricemia (adjOR: 1.47), and metabolic syndrome (adjOR: 1.42), but significant risk of low fasting glucose (adjOR: 0.89). Mediation analysis indicates that insulin resistance mediates the majority of the association between thyroid hormone status and the metabolic syndrome. (4) Conclusion: Elevated hsTSH within the normal range is a cardiometabolic risk marker associated with central obesity, insulin resistance, elevated blood pressure, dyslipidemia, hyperuricemia, inflammation, and hypercoagulability.
Women with Metabolic Syndrome and General Obesity Are at a Higher Risk for Significant Hyperuricemia Compared to Men.
Kim In Young,Han Kyung-Do,Kim Da Hye,Eun Yeonghee,Cha Hoon-Suk,Koh Eun-Mi,Lee Jaejoon,Kim Hyungjin
Journal of clinical medicine
Hyperuricemia is an emerging potential biomarker for metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its complications. This study aimed to investigate the risk factors of hyperuricemia, particularly, the association of hyperuricemia with MetS and general obesity according to sex. We performed multivariate logistic regression analyses using the 2016 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data. Hyperuricemia was defined by a serum uric acid level ≥7.0 mg/dL for men and ≥6.0 mg/dL for women. General obesity was based on a body mass index (BMI) ≥25 kg/m. Among a total of 5591 Korean adult participants, 685 (12.3%) individuals had hyperuricemia. Hyperuricemia was significantly associated with MetS in men (odds ratio (OR): 2.38, 95% CI: 1.84-3.08) and in women (OR: 4.15, 95% CI: 2.75-6.28) after adjustments. General obesity was also independently related to hyperuricemia in both sexes (OR: 2.17, 95% CI: 1.76-2.68 in men, OR: 3.80, 95% CI: 2.82-5.12 in women). In subgroup analyses, the presence of concomitant MetS and general obesity posed a strikingly higher risk for hyperuricemia among women (OR: 7.24, 95% CI: 4.56-11.50) when compared to men (OR: 2.90, 95% CI: 2.12-3.96). More attention should be paid to the increased risk of hyperuricemia for females with both MetS and general obesity.
Utility of obesity and metabolic dyslipidemia (a non-insulin based determinate of the metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance) in predicting arterial stiffness.
Aroor Annayya R,Whaley-Connell Adam,Sowers James R
Journal of clinical hypertension (Greenwich, Conn.)
Increased arterial stiffening is not only a hallmark of the aging process but the consequence of many metabolic abnormalities such as insulin resistance (IR), obesity, and metabolic dyslipidemia. In patients with the cardiometabolic syndrome, arterial stiffening is consistently observed across all age groups. A core feature linking obesity and the metabolic syndrome to arterial stiffness has been IR. However, including other metabolic abnormalities such as metabolic dyslipidemia increases the risk prediction of arterial stiffness in a dose-dependent fashion. Chronic hyperinsulinemia also increases the activity of both the systemic and the local RAAS which contributes to the development of arterial stiffness. All of these relevant metabolic features that predict arterial stiffness are appropriately incorporated in the METS-IR used in the current study.
Impact of Fecal Microbiota Transplantation on Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome-A Systematic Review.
Zhang Zhengxiao,Mocanu Valentin,Cai Chenxi,Dang Jerry,Slater Linda,Deehan Edward C,Walter Jens,Madsen Karen L
Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is a gut microbial-modulation strategy that has been investigated for the treatment of a variety of human diseases, including obesity-associated metabolic disorders. This study appraises current literature and provides an overview of the effectiveness and limitations of FMT as a potential therapeutic strategy for obesity and metabolic syndrome (MS). Five electronic databases and two gray literature sources were searched up to 10 December 2018. All interventional and observational studies that contained information on the relevant population (adult patients with obesity and MS), intervention (receiving allogeneic FMT) and outcomes (metabolic parameters) were eligible. From 1096 unique citations, three randomized placebo-controlled studies (76 patients with obesity and MS, body mass index = 34.8 ± 4.1 kg/m, fasting plasma glucose = 5.8 ± 0.7 mmol/L) were included for review. Studies reported mixed results with regards to improvement in metabolic parameters. Two studies reported improved peripheral insulin sensitivity (rate of glucose disappearance, RD) at 6 weeks in patients receiving donor FMT versus patients receiving the placebo control. In addition, one study observed lower HbA1c levels in FMT patients at 6 weeks. No differences in fasting plasma glucose, hepatic insulin sensitivity, body mass index (BMI), or cholesterol markers were observed between two groups across all included studies. While promising, the influence of FMT on long-term clinical endpoints needs to be further explored. Future studies are also required to better understand the mechanisms through which changes in gut microbial ecology and engraftment of microbiota affect metabolic outcomes for patients with obesity and MS. In addition, further research is needed to better define the optimal fecal microbial preparation, dosing, and method of delivery.
Metabolic Syndrome Rather than Obesity Alone Is More Significant for Kidney Disease.
Bagasrawala Samir I,Sheth Harsh,Shah Hemal,Ansari Rais,Lakdawala Muffazal
INTRODUCTION:Obesity is associated with metabolic syndrome, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, and kidney disease. BMI may not be the ideal measure of obesity when used to assess its effect on kidney disease as it does not discriminate for age, sex, ethnicity, muscle, bone, or fat mass. OBJECTIVES:To assess the prevalence microalbuminuria and identify independent risk factors for development of kidney disease in the obese Indian population. METHODS:Age, weight, BMI, total body fat percentage, waist-to-hip ratio, hypertension, urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR), and HbA1c were collected from 568 obese patients, presenting for bariatric surgery. Multivariate binary logistic regression was used to identify independent risk factors for kidney disease. RESULTS:A total of 114 out of 568 (20.07%) obese patients had microalbuminuria (UACR range 30-283 μg/mg). HbA1C levels ≥ 6 (p = 0.01) and hypertension (p = 0.03) were the strongest independent variables for microalbuminuria. 14.67% with a BMI < 35 kg/m, 21.30% with a BMI 35-50 kg/m, and 19.44% with a BMI > 50 kg/m had microalbuminuria. Increasing BMI however was not statistically significant (p = 0.75). Total body fat percentage (p = 0.51), waist-to-hip ratio (p = 0.96), age (p = 0.30), sex (p = 0.38), and BMI (p = 0.75) were found to be statistically insignificant. CONCLUSIONS:Kidney disease afflicts 1/5th of the obese Indian patients studied. Diabetes and hypertension remained as the most significant risk factors, while age, weight, increasing BMI, waist-to-hip ratio, or increasing body fat were found to be statistically insignificant for development and progression of kidney disease.
Increased Obesity Awareness and Adherence to Healthy Lifestyle-Diet Reduce Metabolic Syndrome Risk in Overweight Children.
Bozbulut Rukiye,Ertaş-Öztürk Yasemin,Döğer Esra,Bideci Aysun,Köksal Eda
Journal of the American College of Nutrition
Obesity is a common epidemic issue in all over the world. In order to prevent obesity it is essential to know about obesity and its detrimental consequences. This study aimed to evaluate children's awareness about obesity and to determine the associations between level of awareness, healthy lifestyle, dietary habits and risk factors for metabolic syndrome. Two hundred and thirty-six overweight children (119 boys and 117 girls) aged 10-14 years were enrolled to the study. Anthropometric and biochemical measurements were taken and metabolic syndrome (MetS) definition were done according to the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) consensus and divided into two groups as MetS (+) and MetS (-). Obesity awareness scale (OBA) and Adapted Healthy Lifestyle-Diet Index for Turkey (HLD-TR) were performed. Among children, the prevalence of having MetS was found as 26.3%. Obesity awareness and HLD-TR index sores were lower in MetS (+) group than MetS (-) group. Metabolic syndrome related biochemical parameters and anthropometric measurements were associated with obesity awareness level of the children. The binary logistic regression model shows that a one-unit increase in the OBA index score increases the odd of not having MetS for 1.12 times after adjustments for age, gender, body mass index, and HLD-TR index score. Increased awareness about obesity among children will help to reduce the risk of metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes and atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases in the future.
Is there a link between progranulin, obesity, and parameters of the metabolic syndrome in children? Findings from a longitudinal intervention study.
Niklowitz Petra,Rothermel Juliane,Lass Nina,Barth Andre,Reinehr Thomas
BACKGROUND:The inflammatory cytokine progranulin has been proposed to play a role in obesity and its associated comorbidities such as insulin resistance. OBJECTIVE:In a longitudinal study, we analyzed the links between progranulin, parameters of fat mass, insulin resistance, and metabolic syndrome (MetS) in obese children. METHODS:We measured the following parameters in 88 obese children at baseline, at the end of a 1-year lifestyle intervention and 1-year later (=2 years after baseline): progranulin, bioactive leptin, body mass index-SD score (BMI-SDS), waist circumference, body fat based on skinfold measurements and bioimpedance analyses, lipids, transaminases, insulin resistance index homeostasis model assessment (HOMA), and blood pressure. As a control, we determined progranulin in 23 normal-weight children. RESULTS:The progranulin concentrations did not differ significantly (P = .795) between obese and normal-weight children. Progranulin concentrations decreased significantly during and after the lifestyle intervention in children with and without decrease of BMI-SDS. There was no relationship between progranulin concentrations and pubertal stage or gender. Progranulin was not significantly associated with insulin resistance HOMA, parameters of the MetS or transaminases both in cross-sectional and longitudinal multiple linear regression analyses adjusted to multiple confounders. Progranulin was significantly, negatively related to age (b-coefficient -1.24 ± .97, P = .012, r = .07). CONCLUSIONS:Our data do not support the hypothesis that progranulin is an important link between obesity, insulin resistance, and MetS in childhood.
Association between obesity phenotypes in adolescents and adult metabolic syndrome: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study.
Asghari Golaleh,Hosseinpanah Farhad,Serahati Sara,Haghi Shadi,Azizi Fereidoun
The British journal of nutrition
Obesity phenotypes can be regarded as an indicator of CVD risk factors. The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of adolescents with different obesity phenotypes and the role of obesity phenotypes in prediction of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) in adults. For this population-based cohort study, 2159 adolescents aged 11-18 years were included. Subjects were divided into four obesity phenotype groups: metabolically healthy normal weight (MHNW), metabolically healthy obese (MHO), metabolically unhealthy normal weight (MUNW) and metabolically unhealthy obese (MUO). Cox proportional hazard modelling was used to estimate the incidence of the MetS in adults after a median follow-up of 11·3 years. The incidence rate of the MetS in early adulthood was 111·6 (95 % CI 98·7, 126·3) per 10 000 person-years, with higher values in boys (210·1 (95 % CI 183·0, 241·3)), compared with girls (39·7 (95 % CI 30·2, 52·1)). In the age- and adult BMI-adjusted model, the hazard ratio of the MetS in adulthood for boys was 3·33 (95 % CI 2·08, 5·32) among MUO phenotype followed less than 6 years, 1·71 (95 % CI 1·01, 2·90) among MHO, and 2·52 (95 % CI 1·72, 3·68) among MUNW. All associations were attenuated in girls except for MUO phenotype followed less than 6 years (5·72 (95 % CI 2·14, 15·3)). In conclusion, MUNW and MHO phenotypes in boys, but not in girls, and MUO phenotype in both sexes with less than 6 years of follow-up increased the risk of adult MetS compared with MHNW. It seems that lack of obesity at least in boys does not protect them from MetS development in adulthood.
Evaluation of alterations in serum immunoglobulin concentrations in components of metabolic syndrome, obesity, diabetes, and dyslipidemia.
Lin Dee,Bridgeman Mary Barna,Brunetti Luigi
BMC cardiovascular disorders
PURPOSE:Serum immunoglobulins (Igs) play a critical role in modulating the immune response by neutralizing pathogens, although little is known about the effect of Igs in development of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). Elevated serum Immunoglobulin A (IgA) concentrations have been identified in previous studies in populations with obesity and hypertriglyceridemia, whereas variable concentrations of Immunoglobulin M (IgM) have been observed in the setting of dyslipidemia. METHODS:In this cross-sectional study, investigators examined the association of serum Ig concentrations with components of metabolic syndrome, including obesity, diabetes, and dyslipidemia. All consecutive adult patients aged 18 years or older discharged from two academic teaching hospitals with serum Immunoglobulin G (IgG) concentration measured during their admission were evaluated, with a total of 1809 individuals included and stratified into two groups: those with and those without dyslipidemia. RESULTS:Mean IgG concentration in individuals with and without dyslipidemia was 997 ± 485 mg/dL and 1144 ± 677 mg/dL, respectively (P < 0.0001). After controlling for confounders in the generalized linear model (GLM), the least square mean IgG concentration in individuals with and without dyslipidemia was 1095 and 1239 mg/dL, respectively (P < 0.0001). The mean IgA and IgM concentrations were not significantly different in individuals with and without dyslipidemia both before and after adjusting covariates. After controlling for confounding variables, all three serum Ig concentrations were not significantly different in individuals with and without diabetes. CONCLUSION:Dyslipidemia was associated with a lower mean serum IgG concentration. No association with any serum Ig was indentified in individuals with diabetes. Exploration of the association between alterations in serum Igs and metabolic syndrome and the role of alterations of Ig concentrations in disease progression represents an important step in identification of appropriate targeted treatment options for reducing cardiovascular risk.
Comparison of Various Abdominal Obesity Measures for Predicting Metabolic Syndrome, Diabetes, Nephropathy, and Dyslipidemia.
Khan Sikandar Hayat,Shahid Rahat,Fazal Nadeem,Ijaz Aamir
Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons--Pakistan : JCPSP
OBJECTIVE:To evaluate abdominal volume index (AVI), body roundness index (BRI), body adiposity index (BAI), a body shape index (ABSI) and conicity index (C-Index) for differences in subjects with or without metabolic syndrome, diabetes, nephropathy, and dyslipidemia; and secondly, to evaluate the diagnostic performance through measuring area under curve (AUC) by ROC curve analysis for new and conventional obesity measures in diagnosing metabolic syndrome. STUDY DESIGN:Cross-sectional analytical study. PLACE AND DURATION OF STUDY:PNS Hafeez Hospital, Islamabad, from January 2016 to December 2018. METHODOLOGY:Baseline anthropometric measures including BMI, WHpR, WHtR, AVI, BRI, BAI, ABSI and C-Index were measured for 232 subjects along with measurement of various biochemical parameters. Differences among subjects with and without metabolic syndrome, diabetes, nephropathy, and groups based upon insulin resistance were noted. ROC curve analysis was utilised to measure AUC for all anthropometric measures for diagnosing metabolic syndrome. RESULTS:Pearson's correlation between obesity measures and lipid indices suggested highest correlation for AVI for most lipid indices followed by WHpR and WHtR. Mean AUC for obesity measures were greater than 0.80 for WHtR and AVI, followed by other parameters. The least AUC i.e. 0.320, was observed for ABSI. The differences between various anthropometric measures for groups based upon metabolic syndrome, diabetes, nephropathy, and insulin resistance remain variable indicating that each anthropometric index may depict a different aspect of the metabolic risk. CONCLUSION:WHtR and AVI showed the highest AUC to diagnose metabolic syndrome and were better associated with metabolic diseases.
Pulmonary Circulation in Obesity, Diabetes, and Metabolic Syndrome.
Khaing Phue,Pandit Pooja,Awsare Bharat,Summer Ross
Obesity, diabetes mellitus, and the metabolic syndrome are important risk factors for the development of cardiovascular disease, with significant impact on human morbidity and mortality. Several decades of research have accumulated considerable knowledge about the mechanisms by which metabolic conditions precipitate systemic cardiovascular diseases. In short, these mechanisms are thought to involve changes in the external environment of vascular cells, which are mediated by the pro-inflammatory effects of adipokines, free fatty acids, and hyperglycemia. Thus, it has been hypothesized that the pulmonary circulation, witnessing similar insults as the systemic circulation, may be equally vulnerable to the development of vascular disease. Accordingly, recent attention has focused on exploring the mechanistic and epidemiological relationships among obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome, and pulmonary vascular diseases. In this article, we discuss in detail the preclinical evidence showing a modest but perceivable impact of metabolic disorders on the pulmonary circulation. In addition, we review the existing epidemiological studies examining the relationship among cardiovascular risk factors and pulmonary vascular diseases, using the acute respiratory distress syndrome and pulmonary arterial hypertension as examples. We conclude by discussing areas of limitations in the field and by suggesting future directions for investigation, including the notion that the pulmonary circulation may, in fact, be a resilient entity in the setting of some metabolic perturbations. © 2020 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 10:297-316, 2020.
Vitamin D deficiency is associated with metabolic syndrome in Tunisian children with obesity.
Yahyaoui Salem,Jmal Lobna,Sammoud Azza,Abdenebi Monia,Jmal Aouatef,Boukthir Samir
La Tunisie medicale
BACKGROUND:A negative association between serum vitamin D levels and obesity has been reported by several studies. Data on vitamin D status in Tunisian obese children and its relationship with metabolic syndrome remain rare. AIM:We aimed to study the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in Tunisian obese children and to examine the correlation between vitamin D levels and metabolic syndrome. METHODS:Thirty obese children matched to 30 non-overweight volunteer controls by age, gender and pubertal stage were included in a prospective study. Anthropometric parameters and blood pressure were measured. Vitamin D level, fasting glucose and lipid profile were performed in all subjects. RESULTS:Vitamin D deficiency was more common in obese children (94% vs 80 %, p=0.002). Vitamin D level was negatively correlated with BMI (p= 0.001, r= -0.51). Six obese children were diagnosed with metabolic syndrome. Vitamin D levels were negatively correlated with waist circumference (p=0.019, r=-0.13), systolic Blood pressure (p=0.04, r=-0.26), triglyceride level (p=0.025, r= -0.3), insulin (p=0.01, r=-0.34) and HOMA-IR (p=0.035, r=-0.29). CONCLUSIONS:despite the sunny climate, the deficiency in vitalmine D is common in Tunisia. Vitamin D levels are inversely correlated with BMI and the risk of metabolic syndrome.
Metabolic syndrome and metabolically healthy status in adults with overweight or obesity, expressing no desire to lose weight.
Kim Juhyeun,Hartzema Abraham G
Obesity research & clinical practice
AIM:To examine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and metabolically healthy status (MHS) in adults with excess weight, who express no desire to lose weight (DLW). METHODS:We used the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2011-2016) to conduct a cross-sectional analysis of 4509 adults with excess weight. The prevalence of MetS and MHS was estimated by a DLW status. The prevalence ratios (PRs) were estimated, adjusting for demographic characteristics, to compare the prevalence of MetS and MHS between those with and without a DLW. RESULTS:Among adults who were overweight, the crude prevalence of MetS was 28.9% (95% CI 23.7, 34.1) in the no-DLW group and 36.0% (95% CI 31.9, 40.0) in the DLW group (adjusted PR 0.88; 95% CI 0.70, 1.11). Among adults with obesity, the crude prevalence of MetS was 60.0% (95% CI 52.3, 67.6) in the no-DLW group and 63.2% (95% CI 60.0, 66.4) in the DLW group (adjusted PR 1.00; 95% CI 0.88, 1.14). Among adults who were overweight, the prevalence of MHS was 17.5% (95% CI 13.4, 22.2) in the no-DLW group, and 9.5% (95% CI 7.6, 11.6) in the DLW group (adjusted PR 1.27; 95% CI 0.96, 1.69). Nearly all adults with obesity had at least one component of MetS regardless of DSW status. CONCLUSIONS:One in four overweight adults and three in five obese adults without a DLW had MetS in the U.S. A majority of adults who were overweight or obese without a DSW had at least one component of MetS.
Metabolic Syndrome in Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Association with Genetic Markers of Obesity and Inflammation.
Dragasevic Sanja,Stankovic Biljana,Kotur Nikola,Sokic-Milutinovic Aleksandra,Milovanovic Tamara,Lukic Snezana,Milosavljevic Tomica,Srzentic Drazilov Sanja,Klaassen Kristel,Pavlovic Sonja,Popovic Dragan
Metabolic syndrome and related disorders
This study analyzed poorly understood relationship of two overlapping conditions: metabolic syndrome (MeS) and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), both associated with inflammation in the visceral adipose tissue. Newly diagnosed 104 IBD patients, of which 50 Crohn's disease (CD) and 54 ulcerative colitis (UC), and 45 non-IBD controls were examined for MeS-related obesity and lipid markers. Th-17 immune genes , , and mRNAs were measured in intestinal mucosa by qRT-PCR. Subjects were genotyped for obesity-associated variant rs9939609 by polymerase chain reaction-amplification refractory mutation system. CD was associated with MeS ( = 0.01), while both CD and UC were associated with central obesity ( = 10, = 0.002, respectively) and low levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol ( = 5 × 10, = 6 × 10, respectively). IBD lipid profile was characterized by decreased total and HDL cholesterol, while low-density lipoprotein cholesterol was reduced only in CD. Negative correlations were found between total cholesterol and CD activity index ( = 0.005), waist circumference and as well as mRNA levels in inflamed CD colon ( = 0.003, = 0.001, respectively). Carriers of rs9939609 AA genotype showed increased risk of CD (OR 2.6, = 0.01). MeS, central obesity, and dyslipidemia could be important for IBD pathogenesis. This could influence therapeutic approaches and prevention strategies in high-risk groups.
Effect of the herbal medicines in obesity and metabolic syndrome: A systematic review and meta-analysis of clinical trials.
Payab Moloud,Hasani-Ranjbar Shirin,Shahbal Nazila,Qorbani Mostafa,Aletaha Azadeh,Haghi-Aminjan Hamed,Soltani Akbar,Khatami Fatemeh,Nikfar Shekoufeh,Hassani Shokoufeh,Abdollahi Mohammad,Larijani Bagher
Phytotherapy research : PTR
Obesity is a medical situation in which excess body fat has gathered because of imbalance between energy intake and energy expenditure. In spite of the fact that the variety of studies are available for obesity treatment and management, its "globesity" still remains a big challenge all over the world. The current systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the efficacy, safety, and mechanisms of effective herbal medicines in the management and treatment of obesity and metabolic syndrome in human. We systematically searched all relevant clinical trials via Web of Science, Scopus, PubMed, and the Cochrane database to assess the effects of raw or refined products derived from plants or parts of plants on obesity and metabolic syndrome in overweight and obesity adult subjects. All studies conducted by the end of May 2019 were considered in the systematic review. Data were extracted independently by two experts. The quality assessment was assessed using Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials checklist. The main outcomes were anthropometric indices and metabolic syndrome components. Pooled effect of herbal medicines on obesity and metabolic syndrome were presented as standardized mean difference (SMD) and 95% confidence interval (CI). A total of 279 relevant clinical trials were included. Herbals containing green tea, Phaseolus vulgaris, Garcinia cambogia, Nigella sativa, puerh tea, Irvingia gabonensis, and Caralluma fimbriata and their active ingredients were found to be effective in the management of obesity and metabolic syndrome. In addition, C. fimbriata, flaxseed, spinach, and fenugreek were able to reduce appetite. Meta-analysis showed that intake of green tea resulted in a significant improvement in weight ([SMD]: -0.75 [-1.18, -0.319]), body mass index ([SMD]: -1.2 [-1.82, -0.57]), waist circumference ([SMD]: -1.71 [-2.66, -0.77]), hip circumference ([SMD]: -0.42 [-1.02, -0.19]), and total cholesterol, ([SMD]: -0.43 [-0.77, -0.09]). In addition, the intake of P. vulgaris and N. sativa resulted in a significant improvement in weight ([SMD]: -0.88, 95 % CI: [-1.13, -0.63]) and triglyceride ([SMD]: -1.67, 95 % CI: [-2.54, -0.79]), respectively. High quality trials are still needed to firmly establish the clinical efficacy of the plants in obesity and metabolic syndrome.
Does tea extract supplementation benefit metabolic syndrome and obesity? A systematic review and meta-analysis.
Li Xiumin,Wang Wen,Hou Liming,Wu Huanghui,Wu Yongjie,Xu Rong,Xiao Yuan,Wang Xiaoming
Clinical nutrition (Edinburgh, Scotland)
BACKGROUND:Given the global epidemic of obesity, numerous strategies have been employed in the management of metabolic syndrome (MS) in this population. A meta-analysis was designed in the present investigation to evaluate the benefits of tea extract (TE) supplementation in MS in obesity. METHODS:We conducted searches of published literature in MEDLINE, PsycINFO, Scopus, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) databases from inception in 1985 to May 2017. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) which studied TE consumption in obesity with MS were analyzed. Results were summarized using weighted mean differences (WMDs), standardized mean differences (SMDs) or odds ratio (OR) by suitable effect model. RESULTS:Sixteen eligible randomized controlled trials, including 1090 subjects were identified. Benefits were demonstrated on reduction of Body Mass Index (BMI) (SMD, -0.27; 95% CI, -0.40 to -0.15, P < 0.0001) and blood glucose (SMD, -0.22; 95% CI, -0.34 to -0.10, P = 0.0003), and increasing high-density lipoprotein (HDL) (SMD, 0.18; 95% CI, 0.01 to 0.35, P = 0.03). Limited benefits without significance were observed on blood pressure and other anthropometric, cholesterol, and biochemistry outcomes. All-cause adverse events were minimal (0.99; 95% CI: 0.55, 1.77, P = 0.97). CONCLUSIONS:This meta-analysis suggests that consumption of TE supplementation in the obese with MS has beneficial effects on improvement of lipid and glucose metabolism, as well as in the facilitation of weight loss.
Impact of Time-Restricted Feeding and Dawn-to-Sunset Fasting on Circadian Rhythm, Obesity, Metabolic Syndrome, and Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.
Mindikoglu Ayse L,Opekun Antone R,Gagan Sood K,Devaraj Sridevi
Gastroenterology research and practice
Obesity now affects millions of people and places them at risk of developing metabolic syndrome, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and even hepatocellular carcinoma. This rapidly emerging epidemic has led to a search for cost-effective methods to prevent the metabolic syndrome and NAFLD as well as the progression of NAFLD to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. In murine models, time-restricted feeding resets the hepatic circadian clock and enhances transcription of key metabolic regulators of glucose and lipid homeostasis. Studies of the effect of dawn-to-sunset Ramadan fasting, which is akin to time-restricted feeding model, have also identified significant improvement in body mass index, serum lipid profiles, and oxidative stress parameters. Based on the findings of studies conducted on human subjects, dawn-to-sunset fasting has the potential to be a cost-effective intervention for obesity, metabolic syndrome, and NAFLD.
The Renin Angiotensin Aldosterone System in Obesity and Hypertension: Roles in the Cardiorenal Metabolic Syndrome.
Cabandugama Peminda K,Gardner Michael J,Sowers James R
The Medical clinics of North America
In the United States, more than 50 million people have blood pressure at or above 120/80 mm Hg. All components of cardiorenal metabolic syndrome (CRS) are linked to metabolic abnormalities and obesity. A major driver for CRS is obesity. Current estimates show that many of those with hypertension and CRS show some degree of systemic and cardiovascular insulin resistance. Several pathophysiologic factors participate in the link between hypertension and CRS. This article updates recent literature with a focus on the function of insulin resistance, obesity, and renin angiotensin aldosterone system-mediated oxidative stress on endothelial dysfunction and the pathogenesis of hypertension.
Alterations in Multiple Lifestyle Factors in Subjects with the Metabolic Syndrome Independently of Obesity.
Roos Vendela,Elmståhl Sölve,Ingelsson Erik,Sundström Johan,Ärnlöv Johan,Lind Lars
Metabolic syndrome and related disorders
BACKGROUND:Many lifestyle factors have been associated with the metabolic syndrome (MetS). However, most of these studies have not considered the potential impact of obesity and have often only investigated one lifestyle factor at the time. We aimed to investigate the interplay between body mass index (BMI) and MetS with respect to multiple lifestyle factors. METHODS:BMI and MetS [National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP)/Adult Treatment Panel III criteria] were assessed in a sample of 18,880 subjects aged 45-75 years from the population-based EpiHealth study. Participants were categorized into six groups according to BMI category (normal weight/BMI <25 kg/m, overweight/BMI 25-30 kg/m, and obesity/BMI >30 kg/m) and MetS status (+/-, NCEP criteria). A wide range of lifestyle factors related to physical activity, smoking, alcohol, sleep quality, working conditions, quality of life and stress, and eating patterns were assessed using a questionnaire. RESULTS:Prevalent MetS (23% in the sample) was associated with less physical activity (P < 0.0001), more TV watching (P < 0.0001), more years of smoking (P < 0.0001), lower education level (P = 0.007), and experiencing a poor general quality of life (P < 0.0001). These lifestyle factors were all associated with MetS, independently of each other and independently of BMI. Similar results were generated when number of MetS components and presence/absence of individual MetS components were used as outcomes. CONCLUSIONS:This cross-sectional study identified alterations in a number of lifestyle factors associated with MetS independently of each other and independently of BMI. Future longitudinal studies are needed to assess causal and temporal relationships between lifestyle factors and MetS development.
Long-term interdisciplinary therapy decreases symptoms of binge eating disorder and prevalence of metabolic syndrome in adults with obesity.
Leite Paula Bresciani,Dâmaso Ana Raimunda,Poli Vanessa Schoenardie,Sanches Ricardo Badan,Silva Stephan Garcia Andrade,Fidalgo João Pedro Novo,Nascimento Maythe Amaral,de Oliveira Camila Aparecida Machado,Caranti Danielle Arisa
Nutrition research (New York, N.Y.)
Obesity-associated comorbidities greatly impact the quality and expectancy of life. Binge eating disorder (BED) is the most prevalent eating disorder and it is an important risk factor for obesity and metabolic syndrome (MetS). For these reasons, we aimed to assess the effect of an interdisciplinary therapy on the symptoms of BED and the prevalence of MetS in obese adults. It was hypothesized that the interdisciplinary therapy would decrease symptoms of BED and markers of MetS. Twenty-four volunteers (BMI 34.80±3.17 kg/m; 41.21±6.28 years old) completed a 32-week intervention. Biochemical characteristics, body composition, the degree of symptoms of binge eating, and macronutrients, and sodium consumption pre- and post-treatment were determined. The prevalence of MetS dropped from 75% to 45.8%, post-therapy. Among the markers of MetS, waist circumference and systolic blood pressure decreased significantly, whereas high-density lipoprotein levels increased. Fasting plasma glucose, diastolic blood pressure, and triglycerides did not change. Based on binge-eating scale (BES) scores, before therapy, 33.3% of volunteers were classified as moderate bingers, and after therapy all volunteers were classified as having no BED symptoms. No difference in the prevalence of MetS between individuals classified as normal or moderate bingers was observed, but we found a positive post-therapy correlation between the BES score and body fat, gynoid fat and trunk fat. Sodium, fat, and carbohydrate consumption decreased. Protein intake did not change. In conclusion, the interdisciplinary approach was efficient in reducing symptoms of BED and MetS prevalence in this population.
Obesity, metabolic syndrome and diabetic retinopathy: Beyond hyperglycemia.
Mbata Osinakachukwu,Abo El-Magd Nada Fawzy,El-Remessy Azza Bahram
World journal of diabetes
Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is the most feared ocular manifestation of diabetes. DR is characterized by progressive retinal damage that may eventually result in blindness. Clinically, this blindness is caused by progressive damage to the retinal microvasculature, which leads to ischemia, retinal swelling, and neovascularization. Retinopathy is associated with both type 1 and type 2 diabetes, with DR being the leading cause of new onset blindness in United States adults. Despite this strong association with diabetes, it must be noted that the development of retinopathy lesions is multifactorial and may occur in individuals without an established history of diabetes. Metabolic syndrome is a multifactorial condition of central obesity, hypertriglyceridemia, dyslipidemia, hypertension, fasting hyperglycemia, and insulin resistance. Although several studies examined the individual components observed in the metabolic syndrome in relation to the development of DR, there is conflicting data as to the association of the metabolic syndrome with the development of retinopathy lesions in non-diabetic subjects. This review will summarize the current literature on the evidence of the metabolic syndrome on retinopathy in subjects with and without an established history of diabetes. This review will also discuss some of the mechanisms through which metabolic syndrome can contribute to the development of retinopathy.
Obesity-associated metabolic syndrome spontaneously induces infiltration of pro-inflammatory macrophage in synovium and promotes osteoarthritis.
Sun Antonia RuJia,Panchal Sunil K,Friis Thor,Sekar Sunderajhan,Crawford Ross,Brown Lindsay,Xiao Yin,Prasadam Indira
OBJECTIVES:Epidemiological and experimental studies have established obesity to be an important risk factor for osteoarthritis (OA), however, the mechanisms underlying this link remains largely unknown. Here, we studied local inflammatory responses in metabolic-OA. METHODS:Wistar rats were fed with control diet (CD) and high-carbohydrate, high-fat diet (HCHF) for period of 8 and 16 weeks. After euthanasia, the knees were examined to assess the articular cartilage changes and inflammation in synovial membrane. Further IHC was conducted to determine the macrophage-polarization status of the synovium. In addition, CD and HCHF synovial fluid was co-cultured with bone marrow-derived macrophages to assess the effect of synovial fluid inflammation on macrophage polarisation. RESULTS:Our study showed that, obesity induced by a high-carbohydrate, high-fat (HCHF) diet is associated with spontaneous and local inflammation of the synovial membranes in rats even before the cartilage degradation. This was followed by increased synovitis and increased macrophage infiltration into the synovium and a predominant elevation of pro-inflammatory M1 macrophages. In addition, bone marrow derived macrophages, cultured with synovial fluid collected from the knees of obese rats exhibited a pro-inflammatory M1 macrophage phenotype. CONCLUSION:Our study demonstrate a strong association between obesity and a dynamic immune response locally within synovial tissues. Furthermore, we have also identified synovial resident macrophages to play a vital role in the inflammation caused by the HCHF diet. Therefore, future therapeutic strategies targeted at the synovial macrophage phenotype may be the key to break the link between obesity and OA.
Serum Alanine Aminotransferase Trends and Their Relationship with Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome in United States Adolescents, 1999-2014.
Fermin Cyrelle R,Lee Arthur M,Filipp Stephanie L,Gurka Matthew J,DeBoer Mark D
Metabolic syndrome and related disorders
INTRODUCTION:Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), characterized by hepatocyte dysfunction, fat accumulation, and fibrosis, is the most common cause of chronic liver disease in children. Elevated levels of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) are used clinically to identify potential liver dysfunction. Our goal was to assess for changes in the national prevalence of elevated ALT over time and potential relationship to trends in the metabolic syndrome (MetS) severity and elevated body mass index (BMI). MATERIALS AND METHODS:We studied 5411 non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, and Hispanic adolescents aged 12-19 with complete MetS Z-score and ALT data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2014. Elevated ALT levels were defined by two different cutoffs: one for both sexes (30 U/L) and another that was sex specific (22 U/L girls; 25 U/L boys). MetS severity was assessed using a sex- and race-/ethnicity-specific MetS Z-score. RESULTS:We did not find a statistically significant linear increase in either mean ALT or the prevalence of elevated ALT differed over time. As expected, ALT levels were significantly correlated with BMI Z-score and MetS Z-score (P < 0.0001). Over time, BMI Z-scores increased and MetS severity Z-score decreased. CONCLUSION:Prevalence of elevated ALT did not exhibit a linear change between 1999 and 2014 in U.S. adolescents, potentially due to divergent trends regarding BMI and MetS severity. Continued vigilance in monitoring BMI and ALT levels is advised for the U.S. adolescent population. MetS Z-score could act as an additional tool to monitor risk of elevated ALT and subsequent development of NAFLD.
Inverse Associations between a Locally Validated Mediterranean Diet Index, Overweight/Obesity, and Metabolic Syndrome in Chilean Adults.
Echeverría Guadalupe,McGee Emma E,Urquiaga Inés,Jiménez Paulina,D'Acuña Sonia,Villarroel Luis,Velasco Nicolás,Leighton Federico,Rigotti Attilio
Obesity and metabolic syndrome (MetS) are key risk factors for chronic disease. Dietary patterns are critical in the incidence and persistence of obesity and MetS, yet there is few data linking diet to obesity and MetS in Chile. Our objective was to use a locally validated diet index to evaluate adherence to a Mediterranean dietary pattern and its correlations with overweight/obesity (OW/O) and MetS prevalence in Chilean adults. We conducted a nationwide, cross-sectional online survey of Chilean adults with complete self-reported diet and body mass index data ( = 24,882). A subsample of 4348 users (17.5%) had valid MetS data. An inverse association was observed between adherence to Mediterranean diet and OW/O and MetS prevalence. As diet quality decreased from healthy, to moderately-healthy, to unhealthy, prevalence increased from 44.8, 51.1, to 60.9% for OW/O and from 13.4, 18.5, to 28.9% for MetS (-values < 0.001). Adjusted odds ratios for OW/O and MetS were significantly higher in moderately-healthy (OR = 1.58 and 1.54) and unhealthy (OR = 2.20 and 2.49, respectively) diet groups in comparison to the healthy diet group. This study represents the first report on the relationship between Mediterranean diet and chronic disease risk in Chile. It suggests that the Mediterranean diet may be applied to manage chronic disease risk beyond the Mediterranean basin.
Gender-related association between uric acid, homocysteine, γ-glutamyltransferase, inflammatory biomarkers and metabolic syndrome in subjects affected by obesity.
Vigna Luisella,Vassalle Cristina,Tirelli Amedea Silvia,Gori Francesca,Tomaino Laura,Sabatino Laura,Bamonti Fabrizia
Biomarkers in medicine
AIM:Evaluation of gender-related differences in uric acid (UA), homocysteine and inflammatory biomarkers as metabolic syndrome (MetS) determinants. PATIENTS & METHODS:Anthropometric and routine data were obtained from 825 obese subjects (591 F, mean age 54 ± 14 years). RESULTS:Hyperuricemia was 24% in both genders. Waist circumference, creatinine, triglycerides, C-reactive protein and γ-glutamyltransferase were identified as UA-independent determinants in females and creatinine and insulin in males. Hyperuricemia increased MetS risk in both genders (2.8-fold and 1.5-fold in males and females). CONCLUSION:UA and γ-glutamyltransferase positively relate to MetS in both genders, although inflammatory abnormalities are closer related to UA and MetS in females. These differences in gender physiology may account for epidemiologic gender disparities and help to develop gender-targeted clinical strategies.
Induced and controlled dietary ketosis as a regulator of obesity and metabolic syndrome pathologies.
Gibas Madeline K,Gibas Kelly J
Diabetes & metabolic syndrome
A worsening epidemic of diabetes and its precursor, metabolic syndrome (MetS) is engulfing America. A healthy individual, with proper glucose regulation has an ability to switch between burning fat and carbohydrates. It has been suggested that signaling errors within this homeostatic system, characterized by impaired switching of substrate oxidation from glucose to fat in response to insulin, can contribute to the etiology of metabolic syndrome and occurs before the development of type II diabetes. Glucose regulation with restored insulin sensitivity facilitated through clinically regulated, benign dietary ketosis (BDK), may significantly reduce, regulate and reverse the adverse pathologies common to MetS and obesity. The study assessed if prolonged maintenance of induced and controlled physiological, dietary ketosis, would reverse pathological processes induced by MetS including a reduction in fasting triglycerides, BMI (body mass index) and body fat mass (BFM), weight, a significant decrease and/or normalization of hemoglobin A1c (HgA1c) and an increase in resting metabolic rate (RMR) and blood ketones. A group of 30 adults, previously diagnosed with MetS by their primary care physician, were randomly prescribed to one of three groups: a sustained ketogenic diet with no exercise, standard American diet (SAD) with no exercise or SAD with 3-5 days per week of exercise (30 min.). The results demonstrated that the change over time from week 0 to week 10 was significant (p=0.001) in the ketogenic group for weight, body fat percentage, BMI, HgA1c and ketones. All variables for the ketogenic group out-performed those of the exercise and non-exercise groups, with five of the seven demonstrating statistical significance.
New Therapeutic Approaches in Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome Associated with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.
Saleem Fatima,Rizvi Syed W
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a pathophysiological disorder affecting reproductive and metabolic indices. PCOS is commonly associated with a high prevalence of insulin resistance and obesity; this association carries an increased risk of developing metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and cardiovascular disease. Guidelines recommend lifestyle modification, metformin, hormonal contraceptives (HCs), and bariatric surgery as the main treatment options in obese patients with PCOS. Studies are being conducted to test the efficacy of existing treatment options as well as to discover new therapies. This review focuses on the most recent advances in this regard and highlights new hypotheses and emerging studies to give a picture of the latest therapeutic trends in the treatment of obese patients with PCOS. In this respect, much attention is given to the role of inositols, the mediators of insulin action. A deficiency of d-chiro-inositol containing inositol-phospho-glycans may be the basis of insulin resistance frequently seen in PCOS patients. Moreover, evidence suggests the use of statins in obese women with PCOS, but guidelines call for further research. Adiponectin, quercetin, vitamin D, and anti-obesity drugs have also been studied and seem to have a useful role in the treatment of obesity and metabolic syndrome in PCOS. Many trials have been conducted on the use of non-pharmacological therapies. Therapies including resveratrol, acupuncture, and berberine have favorable effects in overweight PCOS patients. However, more research is needed to reveal the clinical complexity of PCOS and develop more effective treatment options.
Metabolic effect of obesity on polycystic ovary syndrome in adolescents: a meta-analysis.
Li Li,Feng Qiong,Ye Ming,He Yaojuan,Yao Aling,Shi Kun
Journal of obstetrics and gynaecology : the journal of the Institute of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
This meta-analysis provides an updated and comprehensive estimate of the effects of obesity on metabolic disorders in adolescent polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Relevant articles consistent with the search terms published up to 31 January 2014 were retrieved from PubMed, EMBASE, PsycINFO and CENTRAL. Thirteen articles (16 independent studies) conformed to the inclusion criteria. The evaluated outcomes were the metabolic parameters of obese adolescents with PCOS (case group) relative to normal-weight adolescents with PCOS, or obese adolescents without PCOS. Compared with normal-weight adolescents with PCOS, the case group had significantly lower sex hormone-binding globulin and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and significantly higher triglycerides, leptin, fasting insulin, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and free testosterone levels. Relative to obese adolescents without PCOS, the case group had significantly higher fasting insulin, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, free testosterone levels and 2-h glucose during the oral glucose tolerance test. These results indicate that metabolic disorders in adolescent PCOS are worsened by concomitant obesity. This study highlights the importance of preventing obesity during the management of adolescent PCOS. Impact statement What is already known about this subject: Obesity and PCOS share many of the same metabolic disorders, for example, hyperandrogenism and hyperinsulinemia with subsequent insulin resistance. Knowledge regarding metabolic features in obese adolescents with PCOS is limited, and there is concern whether obesity and PCOS are related. What do the results of this study add: Relative to PCOS adolescents of normal weight, obese adolescents with PCOS (the case group) had significantly lower SHBG and HDL-C, and significantly higher triglycerides, leptin, fasting insulin, LDL-C and free testosterone levels. The results indicate that metabolic disorders in adolescent PCOS are worsened by concomitant obesity. What are the implications of these findings for clinical practice and/or further research: Obesity, metabolic disorders and PCOS in adolescents are associated. Obesity exacerbates metabolic disorders in adolescent PCOS. This study highlights the importance of preventing obesity during the management of adolescent PCOS. Therapeutic intervention combined with lifestyle modification may provide better treatment for adolescent PCOS. The aetiologies of PCOS combined with obesity in adolescents require further investigation.
Insulin resistance and the metabolic syndrome are related to the severity of steatosis in the pediatric population with obesity.
Ubiña-Aznar Esther,Tapia-Ceballos Leopoldo,Rosales-Zabal José Miguel,Porcel-Chacón Rocío,Poveda-Gómez Francisco,Lozano-Calero Carmen,Ortiz-Cuevas Carmen,Rivas-Ruiz Francisco,Sánchez Cantos Andrés,Navarro Jarabo José María
Revista espanola de enfermedades digestivas : organo oficial de la Sociedad Espanola de Patologia Digestiva
BACKGROUND:To determine the factors associated with an increased risk for severe steatosis (SS) and establish the Homeostatic Model Assessment-Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) as a screening tool. METHODS:A cross-sectional study was performed in obese children to assess the relationship between the metabolic syndrome (MetS) and glucose metabolism alterations (GMA) and the risk for severe steatosis. RESULTS:A total of 94 children (51 males) aged from six to 14 years were included. Thirteen children (14.8%) had severe steatosis (SS). The anthropometric variables associated with SS included body mass index (BMI) (SS 34.1 vs non-SS 29.7, p = 0.005), waist circumference (cm) (100 vs 92.5, p = 0.015) and hip circumference (cm) (108 vs 100, p = 0.018). The blood parameters included alanine aminotransferase (ALT) (UI/dl) (27 vs 21, p = 0.002), gamma-glutamil transpeptidase (GGT) (UI/dl) (16 vs 15, p = 0.017), fasting glycemia (mg/dl) (96 vs 88, p = 0.006), fasting insulin (UI/dl) (25 vs 15.3, p < 0.001) and HOMA-IR score (7.1 vs 3.7, p < 0.001). Eighteen children with MetS were found to be at an increased risk for severe steatosis (odds ratio [OR] 11.36, p < 0.001). After receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis, the best area under the curve (AUC) was obtained for HOMA-R of 0.862. The HOMA-R 4.9 cut-off value had a 100% sensitivity (CI 95%: 96.2-100) and 67.9% specificity (CI 95%: 57.1-78.7) for severe steatosis. CONCLUSIONS:The presence of MetS and glucose metabolism alterations are risk factors for severe steatosis. The 4.9 cut-off value for HOMA-IR may be a risk factor for severe steatosis in obese children.
Overweight or obesity in children aged 0 to 6 and the risk of adult metabolic syndrome: A systematic review and meta-analysis.
Kim Jieun,Lee Insook,Lim Sungwon
Journal of clinical nursing
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES:To identify an association between overweight or obesity in early childhood and metabolic syndrome in adults. BACKGROUND:Early childhood overweight or obesity is important because it can predict metabolic syndrome in adulthood. A longer period of overweight or obesity leads to the accumulation of more risk factors. However, there are insufficient and inconsistent studies on this issue. DESIGN:A systematic review and meta-analysis. METHODS:We followed the Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies in Epidemiology guideline, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane library and CINAHL electronic databases as well as reference lists of included studies were searched, without published date restriction. We used the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale to assess the quality of the observational studies in the systematic review, and the meta-analysis was performed using random-effects models. RESULTS:All of the included studies were published from 2008-2014, and the participants of this study were only Asians or Europeans. A total of 12 results from five studies were included in the meta-analysis. Overweight or obesity in early childhood was associated with a higher risk of adult metabolic syndrome compared with the controls. When confirmed in each age group (at birth, 0-2 and 2-6 years), there was a statistically significant difference before and after the age of 2 years. As a result of the meta-regression, when the age of the children increased, the effect size of adult metabolic syndrome for overweight or obesity also increased. CONCLUSIONS:The results confirm that the aetiology of metabolic syndrome includes long-term impacts from the early stage of life and indicate that early intervention for overweight or obesity is needed. RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE:these findings could help community and clinical health nurses recognize the risk of overweight or obesity in early life, and provide evidence to develop and implement the preventive intervention for early childhood.
Insulin resistance, serum uric acid and metabolic syndrome are linked to cardiovascular dysfunction in pediatric obesity.
Genoni Giulia,Menegon Veronica,Secco Gioel Gabrio,Sonzini Michela,Martelli Massimiliano,Castagno Matteo,Ricotti Roberta,Monzani Alice,Aronici Michele,Grossini Elena,Di Mario Carlo,Bona Gianni,Bellone Simonetta,Prodam Flavia
International journal of cardiology
INTRODUCTION:Childhood obesity is associated with cardiovascular abnormalities but little is known on the potential correlation between early cardiovascular and metabolic alterations. AIM:Aims of this study were 1) to evaluate early cardiovascular abnormalities in a large population of obese children and adolescents compared with a normal weight counterpart, 2) to investigate their potential association with insulin resistance (IR), serum uric acid (sUA) and metabolic syndrome (MetS). METHODS:This was a single-center case-control study. Eighty obese (OB) subjects (6-16years) and 20 normal weight (NW) matched controls were consecutively recruited. In the whole population we performed an anthropometric and a cardiovascular assessment. OB patients also underwent an OGTT and biochemical evaluations. RESULTS:OB children showed greater left atrial (LA) and ventricular (LV) dimensions and mass and higher carotid artery intima-media thickness (CIMT), compared with NW controls. The BMI z-score, waist circumference, IR and sUA were positively related with LA and LV dimensions and mass. OB subjects with MetS (46.3%) showed greater LA diameter (p=0.001) and LV area (p=0.01) and volume (p=0.04) compared with OB children without MetS. LA diameter and LV dimensions and mass were significantly dependent on the number of criteria for MetS. Mets, sUA and IR were significant predictors of left heart dimensions and mass in obese children. CONCLUSIONS:Obesity and MetS are associated with abnormal cardiovascular response during childhood. Hyperuricemia can be an early marker of cardiovascular dysfunction and the routine determination of circulating levels of sUA should be implemented during risk stratification among pediatric age.
Effectiveness of nationwide screening and lifestyle intervention for abdominal obesity and cardiometabolic risks in Japan: The metabolic syndrome and comprehensive lifestyle intervention study on nationwide database in Japan (MetS ACTION-J study).
Nakao Yoko M,Miyamoto Yoshihiro,Ueshima Kenji,Nakao Kazuhiro,Nakai Michikazu,Nishimura Kunihiro,Yasuno Shinji,Hosoda Kiminori,Ogawa Yoshihiro,Itoh Hiroshi,Ogawa Hisao,Kangawa Kenji,Nakao Kazuwa
BACKGROUND:Lifestyle interventions can substantially improve obesity and cardiometabolic risks. However, evidence of long-term benefits of national intervention is sparse. We aimed to evaluate the long-term effectiveness of a nationwide program for abdominal obesity. METHODS:A retrospective cohort study was performed using a longitudinal nationwide individual data in subjects aged 40-74 years who underwent checkups in fiscal year (FY) 2008. Lifestyle interventions were provided via interview in subjects with abdominal obesity and at least one cardiometabolic risk factor. Subjects who attended the lifestyle intervention (participants) were compared to those who did not attend (non-participants). Outcomes were waist circumferences (WC) and body mass index (BMI) reduction, reversal of metabolic syndrome (MetS), and changes in cardiometabolic risks. We used a three-step process with robust analytic approaches to account for selection bias that included traditional multivariate analysis, propensity-score matching and instrumental variable (IV) analyses. RESULTS:Of 19,969,722 subjects, 4,370,042 were eligible for analyses; 111,779 participants and 907,909 non-participants. A higher percentage of participants had ≥5% reductions in obesity profiles at year 3, compared to non-participants (WC, 21.4% vs 16.1%; BMI, 17.6% vs 13.6%; p<0.001 each). Participants also had higher reversal for MetS (adjusted odds ratio 1.31; 95% confidence interval: 1.29-1.33; p<0.001). Greater reductions in cardiometabolic risks were observed in participants. Those results were confirmed in analyses using a propensity score-matched cohort (n = 75,777, each) and IV analyses. Limitations of this work include the use of non-randomized national data in Japan to assess the effectiveness of the nationwide preventive program. CONCLUSIONS:In the nationwide lifestyle intervention for abdominal obesity, the at-risk population achieved significant reductions in WC, BMI, and cardiometabolic risks in 3 years. This study provides evidence that the nationwide program effectively achieved long-term improvement in abdominal obesity and cardiometabolic risks.
The relationship between obesity, glycemia and leptin level of type 2 diabetes mellitus patients with metabolic syndrome.
Marusyn Oksana V
Wiadomosci lekarskie (Warsaw, Poland : 1960)
OBJECTIVE:The aim of the study was to establish the relationship between obesity, glucose and leptin level of 2 type diabetes mellitus patients with metabolic syndrome. PATIENTS AND METHODS:Materials and methods: 79 male patients were examined. They were divided into 2 groups. The first group included 48 patients who took Metformin and the second one - 31 persons taking Metformin, Glimepiride of one-day functioning and Thiazolidinediones. The patients were examined to determine their waistline, body mass index (BMI), level of glucose, glycohemoglobin, and leptin. The investigation was conducted at the hospitalization runtime, in 14 days, in 6 months and in 12 months. RESULTS:Results: It was determined that after 12 months of therapy glycemia levels went significantly down, so the number of patients with glycemia level up to 7.0 mole per litre increased to 69.44% in the first group and to 55.56% in the second groupю It is also shown that positive dynamics in reducing glycohemoglobin levels has been achieved. These indices correlated clearly with the triglycerides level which decreased significantly from 1,53±0,17 mole per litre to 1,06±0,56 mole per litre in the first group of patients, but TG levels increased from 1,29±0,19 mole per litre to 1,49±0,30 mole per litre in the second group of patients. CONCLUSION:Conclusions: The survey examined leptin level and showed that leptin level increases alongside with the disease duration. Consequently, insulin resistance index HOMA is associated with leptin resistance and there is a direct correlation between them.
Serum Metabolomics of Activity Energy Expenditure and its Relation to Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity.
Palmnäs Marie S A,Kopciuk Karen A,Shaykhutdinov Rustem A,Robson Paula J,Mignault Diane,Rabasa-Lhoret Rémi,Vogel Hans J,Csizmadi Ilona
Modifiable lifestyle factors, including exercise and activity energy expenditure (AEE), may attenuate the unfavorable health effects of obesity, such as risk factors of metabolic syndrome (MetS). However, the underlying mechanisms are not clear. In this study we sought to investigate whether the metabolite profiles of MetS and adiposity assessed by body mass index (BMI) and central obesity are inversely correlated with AEE and physical activity. We studied 35 men and 47 women, aged 30-60 years, using doubly labeled water to derive AEE and the Sedentary Time and Activity Reporting Questionnaire (STAR-Q) to determine the time spent in moderate and vigorous physical activity. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy was used for serum metabolomics analysis. Serine and glycine were found in lower concentrations in participants with more MetS risk factors and greater adiposity. However, serine and glycine concentrations were higher with increasing activity measures. Metabolic pathway analysis and recent literature suggests that the lower serine and glycine concentrations in the overweight/obese state could be a consequence of serine entering de novo sphingolipid synthesis. Taken together, higher levels of AEE and physical activity may play a crucial part in improving metabolic health in men and women with and without MetS risk factors.
Obesity, Metabolic Syndrome, and Breast Cancer: From Prevention to Intervention.
Li Yun Rose,Ro Vicky,Tchou Julia C
Current surgery reports
Obesity contributes to an estimated forty-percent, or 630,000 cases, of malignant neoplasms diagnosed in the United States and higher body mass index (BMI) has been associated with at least seventeen types of solid tumors, including 9% of all breast cancer cases. In this review, we discuss the impact of obesity and consequences of obesity, including the metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus, on breast cancer risk and recurrence. Recent work has identified multiple molecular mechanisms that may underlie the association between obesity and breast cancer. In particular, insulin resistance, increased inflammatory cytokines, leptin signaling, and adipokine signaling have been shown to affect breast cancer risk and outcomes. While obesity is associated with higher breast cancer incidences and worse breast cancer outcomes, several risk reduction methods have been shown to attenuate these risks. Both metformin and statins have been shown to improve disease free survival and overall survival compared to non-users. Metformin also has been associated with lower risk of breast cancer incidence. Furthermore, increased physical activity and weight loss have been shown to decrease risk of breast cancer, especially in post-menopausal women. These studies have emphasized the potential impact that lifestyle changes can have on breast cancer risk and outcomes, and demonstrate the need for randomized control trials to evaluate the roles of metformin and statins for the treatment and chemoprevention of breast cancer.
Cardiorespiratory fitness and the metabolic syndrome: Roles of inflammation and abdominal obesity.
Wedell-Neergaard Anne-Sophie,Krogh-Madsen Rikke,Petersen Gitte Lindved,Hansen Åse Marie,Pedersen Bente Klarlund,Lund Rikke,Bruunsgaard Helle
OBJECTIVE:Individuals with metabolic syndrome have increased risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. We aimed to test the hypothesis that a high level of cardiorespiratory fitness (CR-fitness), counteracts accumulation of visceral fat, decreases inflammation and lowers risk factors of the metabolic syndrome. METHOD:The study sample included 1,293 Danes (age 49-52 years) who from 2009 to 2011 participated in the Copenhagen Aging and Midlife Biobank, including a questionnaire, physical tests, and blood samples. Multiple linear regression models were performed with CR-fitness as exposure and plasma levels of cytokines and high sensitive C-reactive protein as outcomes and measures of abdominal obesity were added to test if they explained the potential association. Similarly, multiple linear regression models were performed with CR-fitness as exposure and factors of the metabolic syndrome as outcomes and the potential explanation by inflammatory biomarkers were tested. All models were adjusted for the effect of age, sex, smoking, alcohol consumption, socio-economic status, and acute inflammatory events within the preceding two weeks. RESULTS:CR-fitness was inversely associated with high sensitive C-reactive protein, Interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-18, and directly associated with the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10, but not associated with tumor necrosis factor alpha, interferon gamma or IL-1β. Abdominal obesity could partly explain the significant associations. Moreover, CR-fitness was inversely associated with an overall metabolic syndrome score, as well as triglycerides, glycated haemoglobin A1c, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure and directly associated with high-density lipoprotein. Single inflammatory biomarkers and a combined inflammatory score partly explained these associations. CONCLUSION:Data suggest that CR-fitness has anti-inflammatory effects that are partly explained by a reduction in abdominal obesity and a decrease in the metabolic syndrome risk profile. The overall inflammatory load was mainly driven by high sensitive C-reactive protein and IL-6.
Neuropilin-1 expression in adipose tissue macrophages protects against obesity and metabolic syndrome.
Wilson Ariel Molly,Shao Zhuo,Grenier Vanessa,Mawambo Gaëlle,Daudelin Jean-François,Dejda Agnieszka,Pilon Frédérique,Popovic Natalija,Boulet Salix,Parinot Célia,Oubaha Malika,Labrecque Nathalie,de Guire Vincent,Laplante Mathieu,Lettre Guillaume,Sennlaub Florian,Joyal Jean-Sebastien,Meunier Michel,Sapieha Przemyslaw
Obesity gives rise to metabolic complications by mechanisms that are poorly understood. Although chronic inflammatory signaling in adipose tissue is typically associated with metabolic deficiencies linked to excessive weight gain, we identified a subset of neuropilin-1 (NRP1)-expressing myeloid cells that accumulate in adipose tissue and protect against obesity and metabolic syndrome. Ablation of NRP1 in macrophages compromised lipid uptake in these cells, which reduced substrates for fatty acid β-oxidation and shifted energy metabolism of these macrophages toward a more inflammatory glycolytic metabolism. Conditional deletion of NRP1 in LysM Cre-expressing cells leads to inadequate adipose vascularization, accelerated weight gain, and reduced insulin sensitivity even independent of weight gain. Transfer of NRP1 hematopoietic cells improved glucose homeostasis, resulting in the reversal of a prediabetic phenotype. Our findings suggest a pivotal role for adipose tissue-resident NRP1-expressing macrophages in driving healthy weight gain and maintaining glucose tolerance.
Food-derived regulatory factors against obesity and metabolic syndrome.
Bioscience, biotechnology, and biochemistry
Obesity is a key factor in metabolic syndrome. The study of metabolic syndrome focuses on the anti-weight gain properties of physiological mechanisms and food components. Abnormal energy metabolism is a major risk factor of metabolic syndrome. Chronic inflammation is a feature of obesity; cytokines from hypertrophied adipocytes cause inflammation in both adipose tissue and blood vessels, resulting in symptoms of metabolic syndrome. Tumor necrosis factor-α causes insulin resistance in adipocytes and regression of brown adipocytes, resulting in abnormal energy metabolism. Functional foods can serve as a strategy for prevention and treatment of obesity linked with metabolic processes in white and brown adipose tissues. Diet-induced thermogenesis caused by certain food components stimulates burning of stored fat within adipose tissues. A mechanistic understanding of dietary thermogenesis via the sympathetic nerve system will prove valuable for the development of precise strategies for the practical prevention of metabolic syndrome.
Metabolic syndrome but not obesity measures are risk factors for accelerated age-related glomerular filtration rate decline in the general population.
Stefansson Vidar T N,Schei Jørgen,Solbu Marit D,Jenssen Trond G,Melsom Toralf,Eriksen Bjørn O
Rapid age-related glomerular filtration rate (GFR) decline increases the risk of end-stage renal disease, and a low GFR increases the risk of mortality and cardiovascular disease. High body mass index and the metabolic syndrome are well-known risk factors for patients with advanced chronic kidney disease, but their role in accelerating age-related GFR decline independent of cardiovascular disease, hypertension and diabetes is not adequately understood. We studied body mass index, waist circumference, waist-hip ratio and metabolic syndrome as risk factors for accelerated GFR decline in 1261 middle-aged people representative of the general population without diabetes, cardiovascular disease or kidney disease. GFR was measured as iohexol clearance at baseline and repeated after a median of 5.6 years. Metabolic syndrome was defined as fulfilling three out of five criteria, based on waist circumference, blood pressure, glucose, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides. The mean GFR decline rate was 0.95 ml/min/year. Neither the body mass index, waist circumference nor waist-hip ratio predicted statistically significant changes in age-related GFR decline, but individuals with baseline metabolic syndrome had a significant mean of 0.30 ml/min/year faster decline than individuals without metabolic syndrome in a multivariable adjusted linear regression model. This association was mainly driven by the triglyceride criterion of metabolic syndrome, which was associated with a significant 0.36 ml/min/year faster decline when analyzed separately. Results differed significantly when GFR was estimated using creatinine and/or cystatin C. Thus, metabolic syndrome, but not the body mass index, waist circumference or waist-hip ratio, is an independent risk factor for accelerated age-related GFR decline in the general population.
Nut consumption and risk of metabolic syndrome and overweight/obesity: a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies and randomized trials.
Li Hang,Li Xia,Yuan Sheng,Jin Yalei,Lu Jinping
Nutrition & metabolism
BACKGROUND:Nut consumption has been shown to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. However, its role in the prevention of metabolic disorders, such as metabolic syndrome (Mets) and overweight/obesity, remains controversial. We therefore conducted a meta-analysis to determine the association of nut consumption with Mets and overweight/obesity. METHODS:Eligible studies were identified by searching the PubMed and Embase databases and by reviewing the references of relevant literatures. We used random effect models to pool the studies-specific risk ratio (RR) and weighted mean difference (WMD). RESULTS:This meta-analysis included six prospective cohort studies with 420,890 subjects and 62 randomized feeding trials with 7184 participants. Among the cohort studies, the summary RR for every 1-serving/week increase in nut intake was 0.96 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.92 to 0.99; = 3) for Mets, 0.97 (95% CI: 0.95 to 0.98; = 2) for overweight/obesity, and 0.95 (95% CI: 0.89 to 1.02; n = 2) for obesity. Pooling of randomized trials indicated that nut consumption was related to a significant reduction in body weight (WMD: - 0.22 Kg, 95% CI: -0.40 to - 0.04), body mass index (WMD: - 0.16 Kg/m, 95% CI: -0.31 to - 0.01), and waist circumference (WMD: - 0.51 cm, 95% CI: -0.95 to - 0.07). These findings remained stable in the sensitivity analysis, and no publication bias was detected. CONCLUSION:Nut consumption may be beneficial in the prevention of Mets and overweight/obesity. Additional prospective studies are needed to enhance these findings and to explore the metabolic benefits for specific subclasses of nut.
Association of sleep disturbances with obesity, insulin resistance and the metabolic syndrome.
Koren Dorit,Taveras Elsie M
Metabolism: clinical and experimental
Insufficient sleep, which has become endemic in recent years, has been variably associated with increased risk of obesity, disorders of glucose and insulin homeostasis, and the metabolic syndrome; to a lesser degree, so has excessive sleep. This review summarizes recent epidemiological and pathophysiological evidence linking sleep disturbances (primarily abnormalities of sleep duration) with obesity, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes and the metabolic syndrome in children and adults.
New insights into apolipoprotein A5 in controlling lipoprotein metabolism in obesity and the metabolic syndrome patients.
Su Xin,Kong Yi,Peng Dao-Quan
Lipids in health and disease
Apolipoprotein A5 (apoA5) has been identified to play an important role in lipid metabolism, specifically in triglyceride (TG) and TG-rich lipoproteins (TRLs) metabolism. Numerous evidence has demonstrated for an association between apoA5 and the increased risk of obesity and metabolic syndrome, but the mechanism remains to be fully elucidated. Recently, several studies verified that apoA5 could significantly reduce plasma TG level by stimulating lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity, and the intracellular role of apoA5 has also been proved since apoA5 is associated with cytoplasmic lipid droplets (LDs) and affects intrahepatic TG accumulation. Furthermore, since adipocytes provide the largest storage depot for TG and play a crucial role in the development of obesity, we could infer that apoA5 also acts as a novel regulator to modulate TG storage in adipocytes. In this review, we focus on the association of gene and protein of apoA5 with obesity and metabolic syndrome, and provide new insights into the physiological role of apoA5 in humans, giving a potential therapeutic target for obesity and associated disorders.
Omega-3 fatty acids in obesity and metabolic syndrome: a mechanistic update.
Albracht-Schulte Kembra,Kalupahana Nishan Sudheera,Ramalingam Latha,Wang Shu,Rahman Shaikh Mizanoor,Robert-McComb Jacalyn,Moustaid-Moussa Naima
The Journal of nutritional biochemistry
Strategies to reduce obesity have become public health priorities as the prevalence of obesity has risen in the United States and around the world. While the anti-inflammatory and hypotriglyceridemic properties of long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) are well known, their antiobesity effects and efficacy against metabolic syndrome, especially in humans, are still under debate. In animal models, evidence consistently suggests a role for n-3 PUFAs in reducing fat mass, particularly in the retroperitoneal and epididymal regions. In humans, however, published research suggests that though n-3 PUFAs may not aid weight loss, they may attenuate further weight gain and could be useful in the diet or as a supplement to help maintain weight loss. Proposed mechanisms by which n-3 PUFAs may work to improve body composition and counteract obesity-related metabolic changes include modulating lipid metabolism; regulating adipokines, such as adiponectin and leptin; alleviating adipose tissue inflammation; promoting adipogenesis and altering epigenetic mechanisms.
Obesity and incidence of diabetes: Effect of absence of metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance, inflammation and fatty liver.
Sung Ki-Chul,Lee Mi Yeon,Kim Young-Hwan,Huh Ji-Hye,Kim Jang-Young,Wild Sarah H,Byrne Christopher D
BACKGROUND AND AIMS:Obesity is frequently associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), insulin resistance (IR), inflammation and metabolic syndrome (MetS), all of which increase the risk of type 2 diabetes (T2DM). However, the role of these risk factors in mediating the effect of obesity remains unclear. We investigated the association between obesity and T2DM in the absence and presence of NAFLD, IR, inflammation and MetS components. METHODS:29,836 obese subjects without diabetes were studied in a Korean health screening program. Obesity was defined by the appropriate ethnic-specific body mass index (BMI) threshold ≥25 kg/m. Hazard ratios (HRs and 95% confidence intervals, CIs) for incident T2DM were estimated for the group with no hypertension, dyslipidemia, impaired fasting glucose, fatty liver, IR, or inflammation (n = 1717), compared to the reference group, with one or more of these factors (n = 19,757). RESULTS:Mean (SD) age at baseline was 37 (7) years and 1200 incident cases of diabetes occurred. Crude T2D incidence was 12.6/10,000 person-years in the group without metabolic abnormality and 143/10,000 person-years in the reference group. HR (95% CIs) for incident diabetes was 0.13 (0.06, 0.33) in the group without metabolic abnormality. CONCLUSIONS:Obese subjects without components of the metabolic syndrome, IR, fatty liver and inflammation have an approximately 11-fold lower risk of incident type 2 diabetes than obese subjects who have these risk factors. These simple factors could be used to target limited resources in high risk obese subjects in the prevention of diabetes.
Adipokines demonstrate the interacting influence of central obesity with other cardiometabolic risk factors of metabolic syndrome in Hong Kong Chinese adults.
Supriya Rashmi,Tam Bjorn T,Yu Angus P,Lee Paul H,Lai Christopher W,Cheng Kenneth K,Yau Sonata Y,Chan Lawrence W,Yung Benjamin Y,Sheridan Sinead,Siu Parco M
OBJECTIVE:Metabolic syndrome (MetS) or prediabetes is a complex disorder that is defined by a clustering of cardiometabolic risk factors, including obesity, hypertriglyceridemia, reduced high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, hypertension, and insulin resistance. Among cardiometabolic risk factors, central obesity plays a key role in the development of MetS through alterations in the secretion of adipokines and interacts with other MetS risk factors to unfavorably influence overall cardiometabolic risk. Obesity has grasped epidemic proportions in Asia, which has the highest number of people with diabetes in the world. But, the importance of central obesity in the clustering of all four MetS risk factors or vice versa in predicting severity of MetS has not yet been investigated in Asian population. Therefore, the present study examined the influence of central obesity on circulating levels of adipokines through its interaction with the clustering of cardiometabolic risk factors of MetS including hyperglycemia, hypertriglyceridemia, dyslipidemia and hypertension in Hong Kong Chinese adults. SUBJECTS:Blood samples from 83 Hong Kong Chinese adults, who were previously screened for MetS according to the guideline of the United States National Cholesterol Education Program Expert Panel Adult Treatment Panel III criteria were selected. Insulin and adipokines, including visfatin, chemerin, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), resistin, C-C motif chemokine ligand 2 (CCL-2), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-8 (IL-8), interleukin-10 (IL-10), tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), leptin and adiponectin were assessed. RESULTS:The interacting effect of central obesity with all of the other four MetS risk factors increased the proinflammatory status of adipokines (TNF-α, leptin) and decreased the anti-inflammatory status of adipokine (adiponectin). CONCLUSION:Our results indicate that the inflammatory status of MetS may be more severe in the presence of central obesity. Adipokines, as biomarkers for pathophysiological changes, may help to improve early patient identification and to predict MetS-associated morbidity and mortality.
Inadequate identification of fatty liver disease, obesity, and metabolic syndrome by family physicians.
Mahamid Mahmud,Khoury Tawfik,Amara Hana,Siadi Mahmoud,Mohamed Jabaren,Mari Amir,Shalabi Rafea,Sholy Hisham,Nseir Wiliam
Diabetes, metabolic syndrome and obesity : targets and therapy
BACKGROUND:Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is an emerging condition and is constituted as a vital public health epidemic globally. This study evaluated the process of identification and documentation of NAFLD and metabolic syndrome in correlation with those diagnosed with obesity. METHODS:Participants included 352 patients older than 18 years who were diagnosed with fatty liver disease. We performed a cross-sectional study between August 2016 and September 2017. Categorical variables were extracted and analyzed using SPSS. The body mass index (BMI) was determined by the study staff and compared with the data retrieved from the family physician's database. RESULTS:Patients who presented documented BMI in their past medical history showed to be significantly higher than those without documentation of BMI (29+4.4 vs 25.7+4.6 kg/m, <0.01). For instance, 54% of patients with NAFLD were documented in the electronic medical record (EMR) by the family physician, with higher documentation rate among males than females. Moreover, 72% qualified for documentation of metabolic syndrome, but only 5% were documented in their EMR. Patients with significant obesity and obesity-related conditions were more likely to have documentation in their EMR. DISCUSSION:Further analyses supported the conclusion that family physicians inadequately identify BMI in the EMR for overweight, obesity, metabolic syndrome, and fatty liver disease. Additional efforts are necessary to improve knowledge of proper identification of NAFLD and metabolic syndrome.
Perceived stress correlates with visceral obesity and lipid parameters of the metabolic syndrome: A systematic review and meta-analysis.
Tenk Judit,Mátrai Péter,Hegyi Péter,Rostás Ildikó,Garami András,Szabó Imre,Hartmann Petra,Pétervári Erika,Czopf László,Hussain Alizadeh,Simon Mária,Szujó Szabina,Balaskó Márta
BACKGROUND:Perceived stress has been proposed as a risk factor of metabolic syndrome. However, correlations between perceived stress and parameters of the metabolic syndrome have not been properly analyzed despite extensive research data on the topic. Our current meta-analysis aimed to examine the mutual association between perceived stress of patients and parameters of metabolic syndrome. METHODS:This systematic review has been registered on the PROSPERO database (registration number CRD42017055293). Eligible studies divided participants based on their stress level or on the presence of metabolic syndrome. They reported at least one parameter of the metabolic syndrome or the stress level of the participants measured with some stress scale. Data from 17 articles met the eligibility criteria and were included. Random effects model with the DerSimonian and Laird weighting methods was applied. I-squared indicator and Q test were performed to assess heterogeneity. RESULTS:Although the majority of individual studies failed to demonstrate correlations between stress and their analyzed parameters of metabolic syndrome, our meta-analysis showed a significant association between stress and BMI [average effect size (ES) with 95% confidence interval (95%CI), ES = 0.65, 95%CI 0.16, 1.14), waist circumference (ES = 1.84 cm, 95%CI 0.79, 2.89) and serum triglyceride level (ES = 7.52 mg/dl, 95%CI 0.07, 14.96). Additional analysis confirmed effects of stress on serum HDL (ES = - 1.699 mg/dl, 95%CI -2.966, -0.432) and diastolic blood pressure (ES = 1.04 mmHg, 95%CI 0.18, 1.89). No correlations were found for fasting glucose or systolic blood pressure. No association between metabolic syndrome and stress level of patients was detected either. CONCLUSION:The potentially key role of visceral obesity in the association between perceived stress and dyslipidemia or diastolic blood pressure are discussed together with potential moderators (e.g. gender-differences, variations in stress assessment and metabolic syndrome criteria) that may explain the inconsistent, contradictory results of the individual studies.
From inflammation to sexual dysfunctions: a journey through diabetes, obesity, and metabolic syndrome.
Maiorino M I,Bellastella G,Giugliano D,Esposito K
Journal of endocrinological investigation
Metabolic diseases are associated with chronic low-grade inflammation, which has been indicated as a potential mediator of endothelial dysfunction and cardiovascular disease. Visceral adiposity is thought to be the starting condition of the inflammatory state through the release of inflammatory cytokines, including TNF-alpha, CRP, and IL-6, which in turn promote endothelial dysfunction, endothelial expression of chemokines (IL-1) and adhesion molecules (ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and P-selectin), and the inhibition of anti-atherogenic factors (adiponectin). Obesity, metabolic diseases, and diabetes, all conditions characterized by abdominal fat, are well-recognized risk factors for sexual dysfunction in both sexes. Evidence from randomized-controlled trials supports the association between inflammatory milieau and erectile dysfunction in men suffering from metabolic diseases, whereas, in women, this has to be confirmed in further studies. A healthy lifestyle based on dietary pattern with high content of whole grain, fruit, nuts and seeds, and vegetables and low in sodium and saturated fatty acids plus regular physical activity may help to modulate the pro-inflammatory state associated with metabolic diseases and the related burden of sexual dysfunctions.
Abdominal obesity, metabolic dysfunction, and metabolic syndrome in U.S. adolescents: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2011-2016.
Annals of epidemiology
PURPOSE:The objectives were to use National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data to (1) estimate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) risk factors (elevated blood pressure, triglycerides, blood glucose, and low HDL cholesterol); (2) estimate the prevalence of MetS using three common definitions; and (3) compare the odds of MetS risk factors/MetS when using different measures of abdominal obesity (sagittal abdominal diameter [SAD] versus waist circumference [WC]) among U.S. adolescents. METHODS:Analyses were performed on data collected from adolescents aged 12-19 years (n = 1214) participating in the 2011-2016 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Prevalence of MetS risk factors and MetS were estimated. Unadjusted and adjusted binomial/multinomial logistic regressions were performed to test associations between WC and SAD z-scores and MetS risk factors/MetS. Analyses were performed for all participants and were stratified by sex as well as race/ethnicity. RESULTS:Males were more likely to have MetS risk factors. Depending on sex and the definition applied, the prevalence of MetS ranged from 2% to 11% and was lowest among females. Adjusted logistic regressions showed that one z-score increase in SAD and WC resulted in similar increased odds of MetS risk factors/MetS, but associations between abdominal obesity and MetS varied by the definition applied and race/ethnicity. CONCLUSIONS:Metabolic dysfunction and MetS are prevalent among U.S. adolescents, and it is important to consider how MetS components and MetS are measured in population inference.
Descriptive epidemiology of metabolic syndrome among obese adolescent population.
Mahbuba Sharmin,Mohsin Fauzia,Rahat Farhana,Nahar Jebun,Begum Tahmina,Nahar Nazmun
Diabetes & metabolic syndrome
AIMS:The study was done to assess the magnitude of problems of metabolic syndrome among obese adolescents. MATERIALS AND METHOD:It was a cross-sectional study done from January 2013 to June 2014 in paediatric endocrine outpatient department in BIRDEM General Hospital, Dhaka, Bangladesh. Total 172 adolescents having exogenous obesity aged 10-18 years were included. Impaired fasting glucose (IFG), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) were defined as per WHO criteria.The adolescents having Body Mass Index (BMI) ≥95th centile were classified as obese.Waist circumference was measured at the level midway between the lower rib margin & the iliac crest, at the level of umbilicus with the person breathing out gently in centimeter. Hip circumference was measured at the maximum width over the buttocks at the level of the greater trochanters in centimeter. RESULT:Among 172 obese adolescents, metabolic syndrome was found in 66 patients (38.4%). The commonest metabolic abnormality among those having metabolic syndrome was low HDL level (77.3%) followed by high triglyceride level(71.2%). Glucose intolerance (IFG and/or IGT) was found in 16.7%, Type 2 DM in 10.6%, systolic hypertension in 10.7% and diastolic hypertension in 12.1%. Triglyceride (p = 0.042) and Cholesterol level (p = 0.016) were significantly higher and HDL-cholesterol level (p = 0.000) was significantly lower among obese adolescents having metabolic syndrome. Less physical activity (p = 0.04) was significantly related to the development of metabolic syndrome. On logistic regression analysis male sex, family history of obesity and low HDL-cholesterol correlated to metabolic syndrome. CONCLUSION:The High rate of metabolic syndrome among obese adolescents is alarming.
Alterations of circadian rhythms and their impact on obesity, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular diseases.
Hernández-García Javier,Navas-Carrillo Diana,Orenes-Piñero Esteban
Critical reviews in food science and nutrition
Circadian system is comprised by central circadian pacemaker and several peripheral clocks that receive information from the external environment, synchronizing the circadian clocks. It is widely known that physiology is rhythmic and that the rupture of this rhythmicity can generate serious consequences. Circadian clocks, led by suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) in the central nervous system, are the responsible for generating this biological rhythmicity. These clocks are affected by external signals such as light (changes between day and night) and feeding rhythms. In this review, the basic principles of the circadian system and current knowledge of biological clocks are addressed, analyzing the relationship between circadian system, food intake, nutrition, and associated metabolic processes. In addition, the consequences occurring when these systems are not well coordinated with each other, such as the development of cardiovascular and metabolic pathologies, will be thoroughly discussed.
Exercise training dose differentially alters muscle and heart capillary density and metabolic functions in an obese rat with metabolic syndrome.
Machado Marcus Vinicius,Vieira Aline Bomfim,da Conceição Fabiana Gomes,Nascimento Alessandro Rodrigues,da Nóbrega Antonio Claudio Lucas,Tibirica Eduardo
NEW FINDINGS:What is the central question of this study? Regular exercise is recommended as a non-pharmacological approach for the prevention and treatment of metabolic syndrome. However, the impact of different combinations of intensity, duration and frequency of exercise on metabolic syndrome and microvascular density has not been reported. What is the main finding and its importance? We provide evidence on the impact of aerobic exercise dose on metabolic and microvascular alterations in an experimental model of metabolic syndrome induced by high-fat diet. We found that the exercise frequency and duration were the main factors affecting anthropometric and metabolic parameters and microvascular density in the skeletal muscle. Exercise intensity was related only to microvascular density in the heart. We evaluated the effect of the frequency, duration and intensity of exercise training on metabolic parameters and structural capillary density in obese rats with metabolic syndrome. Wistar-Kyoto rats were fed either a standard commercial diet (CON) or a high-fat diet (HFD). Animals that received the HFD were randomly separated into either a sedentary (SED) group or eight different exercise groups that varied according to the frequency, duration and intensity of training. After 12 weeks of aerobic exercise training, the body composition, aerobic capacity, haemodynamic variables, metabolic parameters and capillary density in the heart and skeletal muscle were evaluated. All the exercise training groups showed reduced resting systolic blood pressure and heart rate and normalized fasting glucose. The minimal amount of exercise (90 min per week) produced little effect on metabolic syndrome parameters. A moderate amount of exercise (150 min per week) was required to reduce body weight and improve capillary density. However, only the high amount of exercise (300 min per week) significantly reduced the amount of body fat depots. The three-way ANOVA showed a main effect of exercise frequency and duration for the improvement of metabolic syndrome and capillary density in skeletal muscle. Exercise intensity was a main factor in reversing microvascular rarefaction in the heart.
Age Differences in the Relationship between Secondhand Smoke Exposure and Risk of Metabolic Syndrome: A Meta-Analysis.
Chen Hui-Jian,Li Gai-Ling,Sun Ao,Peng Dang-Sheng,Zhang Wan-Xia,Yan You-E
International journal of environmental research and public health
Secondhand smoke (SHS), a common environmental exposure factor, has become a serious public health problem. Metabolic syndrome is another worldwide clinical challenge. Our study tried to determine the age differences in the relationship between SHS and the risk of metabolic syndrome. Studies were searched in PubMed and Web of Science from 11 November to 30 November 2018. Eighteen studies were finally included based on inclusion and exclusion criteria. The relationship between SHS and the risk indicators of metabolic syndrome was analyzed. The weighted mean difference (WMD) of fasting plasma glucose (FPG), insulin, body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference (WC), and the standard mean difference (SMD) of total cholesterol, triglycerides, and low- and high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C, HDL-C) were calculated in a meta-analysis. SHS was positively associated with the level of insulin and WC. According to the subgroup analysis based on age difference, SHS was positively associated with FPG in the upper age group, and positively associated with LDL-C and negatively associated with HDL-C in the lower age group. BMI showed a more obvious positive correlation in the adults group than in the children and the teenagers group. In conclusion, the association of metabolic syndrome with SHS varies with age. When exposed to SHS, older people may be more susceptible to glucose metabolic disorder, but younger people may be more susceptible to lipid metabolic disorder.
Plasma lactate as a marker of metabolic health: Implications of elevated lactate for impairment of aerobic metabolism in the metabolic syndrome.
Jones Terry E,Pories Walter J,Houmard Joseph A,Tanner Charles J,Zheng Donghai,Zou Kai,Coen Paul M,Goodpaster Bret H,Kraus William E,Dohm G Lynis
BACKGROUND:Fasting lactate is elevated in metabolic diseases and could possibly be predictive of the risk of developing the metabolic syndrome. METHODS:Plasma samples were analyzed for fasting lactate to compare lean subjects, nondiabetic subjects with severe obesity, and metabolically impaired subjects. Subjects with severe obesity were studied 1 week before and 1 week to 9 months after gastric bypass surgery. Subjects with components of the metabolic syndrome were studied before and after 6 months of an exercise intervention. RESULTS:Metabolically impaired subjects had higher fasting lactate concentrations (P < .0001) and respond to a glucose or insulin challenge with higher lactates than non-obese subjects (P < .004). Lactate was significantly reduced a week after gastric bypass surgery (P < .05) and further reduced 1 to 9 months after surgery (0.95 ± 0.04 mM in non-obese, 1.26 ± 0.12 mM in subjects with severe obesity, and 0.68 ± 0.03 mM 1-3 months after gastric bypass). Six months of chronic exercise resulted in a 16% reduction (P = .028) in fasting lactate. CONCLUSION:Fasting plasma lactate was elevated in obese subjects with the metabolic syndrome compared with healthy lean individuals. Lactate was reduced by exercise and bariatric surgery, interventions that improve metabolic health and risk for subsequent disease. The results of this study and those previously published by our research group suggest that elevated lactate may be caused by an impairment in aerobic metabolism and may offer a metric assessing the severity of the metabolic syndrome.
Increased Prevalence of Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome in Patients with Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.
Singh Amandeep,Amin Hina,Garg Rajat,Gupta Mohit,Lopez Rocio,Alkhouri Naim,MCCullough Arthur
Digestive diseases and sciences
BACKGROUND AND AIMS:Obesity and diabetes are risk factors for advanced alcoholic liver disease, and both are components of the metabolic syndrome. We aimed to assess the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its components in a contemporary US cohort of adults with alcoholic liver disease and compare it to a historic cohort to assess changes over time. METHOD:Individuals 18 years or older who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey during 2009-2014 and 1999-2001 were used as the contemporary and historic cohort, respectively. Alcoholic liver disease was defined as excessive alcohol consumption (men: ≥ 3 drinks/day; women: ≥ 2 drinks/day) and elevated alanine aminotransferase. Metabolic syndrome definition was based on the updated International Diabetes Federation criteria. Data are presented as mean ± standard error or unweighted frequency. A logistic regression analysis was performed to assess differences in metabolic syndrome components between the two period cohorts while adjusting for central obesity. RESULTS:The mean age for our contemporary cohort was 41.9, 66.1% being male. Central obesity was present in 66.3%, type 2 diabetes in 18.7%, low high-density lipoprotein in 28.3%, hypertriglyceridemia in 44.8%, and hypertension in 54.7%. 36.9% met the criteria for metabolic syndrome. Compared to the historic cohort, patients in the contemporary cohort were more likely to have central obesity (50% vs. 66%, p = 0.002), metabolic syndrome (26% vs. 37%, p = 0.044), and type 2 diabetes (12% vs. 19%, p = 0.099). CONCLUSIONS:Prevalence of both obesity and metabolic syndrome is increasing in alcoholic liver disease patients. Further studies are required to investigate effective interventions to avoid disease progression in these high-risk patients.
Gut Microbiome in Obesity, Metabolic Syndrome, and Diabetes.
Chen Xinpu,Devaraj Sridevi
Current diabetes reports
PURPOSE OF REVIEW:Obesity and diabetes are worldwide epidemics. There is also a growing body of evidence relating the gut microbiome composition to insulin resistance. The purpose of this review is to delineate the studies linking gut microbiota to obesity, metabolic syndrome, and diabetes. RECENT FINDINGS:Animal studies as well as proof of concept studies using fecal transplantation demonstrate the pivotal role of the gut microbiota in regulating insulin resistance states and inflammation. While we still need to standardize methodologies to study the microbiome, there is an abundance of evidence pointing to the link between gut microbiome, inflammation, and insulin resistance, and future studies should be aimed at identifying unifying mechanisms.
Metabolic syndrome, Mediterranean diet, and polyphenols: Evidence and perspectives.
Finicelli Mauro,Squillaro Tiziana,Di Cristo Francesca,Di Salle Anna,Melone Mariarosa Anna Beatrice,Galderisi Umberto,Peluso Gianfranco
Journal of cellular physiology
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is defined as the co-occurrence of metabolic risk factors that includes insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, impaired glucose tolerance, type 2 diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, and visceral obesity. The clinical significance of MetS consists of identifying a subgroup of patients sharing a common physiopathological state predisposing to chronic diseases. Clinical and scientific studies pinpoint lifestyle modification as an effective strategy aiming to reduce several features accountable for the risk of MetS onset. Among the healthy dietary patterns, the Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) emerges in terms of beneficial properties associated with longevity. Current evidence highlights the protective effect exerted by MedDiet on the different components of MetS. Interestingly, the effect exerted by polyphenols contained within the representative MedDiet components (i.e., olive oil, red wine, and nuts) seems to be accountable for the beneficial properties associated to this dietary pattern. In this review, we aim to summarize the principal evidence regarding the effectiveness of MedDiet-polyphenols in preventing or delaying the physiopathological components accountable for MetS onset. These findings may provide useful insights concerning the health properties of MedDiet-polyphenols as well as the novel targets destined to a tailored approach to MetS.
Physical Activity, Cardiorespiratory Fitness, and the Metabolic Syndrome.
Myers Jonathan,Kokkinos Peter,Nyelin Eric
Both observational and interventional studies suggest an important role for physical activity and higher fitness in mitigating the metabolic syndrome. Each component of the metabolic syndrome is, to a certain extent, favorably influenced by interventions that include physical activity. Given that the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome and its individual components (particularly obesity and insulin resistance) has increased significantly in recent decades, guidelines from various professional organizations have called for greater efforts to reduce the incidence of this condition and its components. While physical activity interventions that lead to improved fitness cannot be expected to normalize insulin resistance, lipid disorders, or obesity, the combined effect of increasing activity on these risk markers, an improvement in fitness, or both, has been shown to have a major impact on health outcomes related to the metabolic syndrome. Exercise therapy is a cost-effective intervention to both prevent and mitigate the impact of the metabolic syndrome, but it remains underutilized. In the current article, an overview of the effects of physical activity and higher fitness on the metabolic syndrome is provided, along with a discussion of the mechanisms underlying the benefits of being more fit or more physically active in the prevention and treatment of the metabolic syndrome.
The Role of Diet in Patients with Metabolic Syndrome.
Almeda-Valdes Paloma,Herrera-Mercadillo Roberto J,Aguilar-Salinas Carlos A,Uribe Misael,Méndez-Sánchez Nahum
Current medicinal chemistry
Metabolic syndrome is a frequent metabolic disorder characterized by obesity and insulin resistance seems to be the main pathophysiological alteration. The goal of treating metabolic syndrome is to reduce the risk of coronary heart disease and the development of type 2 diabetes. The lifestyle modification therapy combines specific recommendations on diet alone or combined with other strategies. In this review, we address the following topics: 1) the importance of the high prevalence of metabolic syndrome and obesity, and 2) the role of lifestyle modification focusing on dietary fat intake in the management of MS.