Impact of Mindfulness-Based Eating Awareness on Diet and Exercise Habits in Adolescents. Barnes Vernon A,Kristeller Jean L International journal of complementary & alternative medicine Background:Childhood and adolescent overweight is one of the most important current public health concerns. There is an urgent need to initiate community-based prevention to support healthy eating and physical activity in children. Mindfulness-Based Eating Awareness Training (MB-EAT) is a 12-w eek manualized intervention developed by Kristeller et al. that uses focused meditation techniques to help obese individuals normalize eating behaviors, and improve exercise and dietary habits. Objective:To adapt the MB-EAT program to adolescents (MB-EAT-A) and assess the impact of the MB-EAT-A program implemented in a high school setting on self-reported assessment of eating and exercise habits and dietary intake of fat. Methods:40 ninth grade adolescents (14 males; 35 African-Americans, 1 Caucasian, 4 Others; mean age 16.2±1.2 yrs; BMI=32.4±9.0, BMI range 19.1 to 58.4) from 6 high school health/physical education classes were randomly assigned to 12-weekly sessions of MB-EAT-A intervention (n=18) or health education control (CTL, n=22). Assessments of eating and exercise habits and dietary fat and caloric content were conducted at pre-test, post-test at 3 mo. immediately following intervention and follow-up, 3 months after intervention ended, with 85% retention at follow up. Results:At 6 mo. follow-up, the MB-EAT-A group increased days/week of moderate exercise >30 min/day (0.8 vs -0.7 days/week), and intense aerobic exercise >20 min/day (1.4 vs. -0.5 days/week, both ps<.05) compared to decreases in CTLs. At 6 mo. follow-up the MB-EAT-A group increased number of servings per week of low calorie foods (7.7 vs. -.05, p<.02), foods with no saturated fats (5.1 vs. -0.4, p<.10) and low in saturated fats (4.6 vs. -2.7, p<.02). At 6 mo. follow-up the MBEAT-A group increased number of foods with no fat (3.9 vs -0.3, p<.08) and low in fat (5.8 vs. -1.4, p<.02) compared to decreases in CTLs. Weight gains at follow-up (4.2 vs 6.2 lbs, MB-EAT-A vs CTL) did not differ significantly between the two conditions (p=.87). In a sub-sample of 29 African American adolescents, 58% reported, a binge eating problem with most being mild to moderate in severity. Excessively eating on a regular basis and thinking about trying to control eating urges were the most common features present. Binge eating severity did not significantly correlate with anxiety, depression, or self-esteem. Conclusion:The MB-EAT-A program increased moderate and intense aerobic exercise and improved dietary habits in favor of low calorie and low fat foods in an overweight/obese adolescent sample. The MB-EAT-A program increased moderate and intense aerobic exercise and improved consumption of low calorie and low fat foods in overweight/obese adolescents. The study demonstrated feasibility of conducting the MB-EAT-A program in a high school setting, and good acceptability by the students. The successful implementation of MB-EAT-A points to the potential of school-based mindful eating programs as a means of addressing early onset of obesity in high-risk youth. 10.15406/ijcam.2016.03.00070
    What Motivates Older Adults to Improve Diet and Exercise Patterns? Bardach Shoshana H,Schoenberg Nancy E,Howell Britteny M Journal of community health Dietary intake and physical activity are lifestyle behaviors that are learned, developed, and practiced throughout an individual's lifetime. These lifestyle behaviors have a profound role on health and quality of life--with late-life changes still resulting in notable improvements. Despite well documented benefits of behavior change, such changes are extremely challenging. The purpose of this study is to better understand from the perspective of older adults themselves, the factors that may influence their likelihood of making lifestyle changes. Participants were recruited two primary care clinics. 104 older adults ranging in age from 65 to 95 were included. Participants were interviewed about their motivations and plans to change diet and physical activity behaviors following a routine primary care visit. All interviews were transcribed and transcripts were analyzed using a line-by-line coding approach. Older adults reported that their likelihood of making a lifestyle change related to perceptions of old age, personal motivation, and perceived confidence in the ability to make effective changes. These findings suggest the importance of creating more positive images of old age and tailoring health promotion efforts to older adults' motivations and confidence in their ability to make behavior changes. 10.1007/s10900-015-0058-5
    Fatty liver disease and lifestyle in youngsters: diet, food intake frequency, exercise, sleep shortage and fashion. Trovato Francesca M,Martines Giuseppe Fabio,Brischetto Daniela,Catalano Daniela,Musumeci Giuseppe,Trovato Guglielmo M Liver international : official journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver BACKGROUND & AIMS:Fatty liver is associated with alcohol habits and/or overweight/obesity. We challenged several lifestyle features associated with fatty liver and, particularly, with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Among them, sleep shortage as a result of nightlife habits and a preference for plus-size fashion were assessed. The latter consists of fashionable plus-sized clothing for actual individuals' size and reflects a frequent attitude of some social or age groups, conceivably indicating more global and widespread trend and behaviour. METHODS:We studied a group of 708 non-diabetic youngsters, 458 women and 250 men, 21.72 ± 3.71 years old (range 15-35 years), referred for minor digestive ailments for clinical assessment, ultrasound detection of fatty liver and nutritional counselling. Details of personal history regarding lifestyle, food intake frequency and alcohol intake, dietary and physical exercise profile, sleep duration and clothing preferences were recorded. RESULTS:The prevalence of NAFLD in this cohort of youngsters is 67/708 (9.4%). Even if it is quantitatively very low in both groups, the average alcohol intake, always below 20 g/day, is greater in NAFLD subjects (5.83 ± 4.32 g) vs. subjects with normal liver (2.02 ± 3.20 g). The number of meals/day and adherence to a Mediterranean diet profile are smaller in NAFLD subjects. By multiple regression, BMI, sedentary life, plus-sized clothing for their actual size, sleep shortage and lower frequency of daily food intake are associated with the presence of NAFLD. CONCLUSIONS:Onset and continuation of fatty liver disease, beyond food and exercise quantity and quality, with their effects on obesity, may also be associated with other aspects of lifestyle. 10.1111/liv.12957
    Moderate Exercise Prevents Functional Remodeling of the Anterior Pituitary Gland in Diet-Induced Insulin Resistance in Rats: Role of Oxidative Stress and Autophagy. Mercau María E,Repetto Esteban M,Perez Matías N,Martinez Calejman Camila,Sanchez Puch Silvia,Finkielstein Carla V,Cymeryng Cora B Endocrinology A sustained elevation of glucocorticoid production, associated with the establishment of insulin resistance (IR) could add to the deleterious effects of the IR state. The aim of this study is to analyze the consequences of long-term feeding with a sucrose-rich diet (SRD) on Pomc/ACTH production, define the underlying cellular processes, and determine the effects of moderate exercise (ME) on these parameters. Animals fed a standard chow with or without 30% sucrose in the drinking water were subjected to ME. Circulating hormone levels were determined, and pituitary tissues were processed and analyzed by immunobloting and quantitative real-time PCR. Parameters of oxidative stress (OxS), endoplasmic reticulum stress, and autophagy were also determined. Rats fed SRD developed a decrease in pituitary Pomc/ACTH expression levels, increased expression of antioxidant enzymes, and induction of endoplasmic reticulum stress and autophagy. ME prevented pituitary dysfunction as well as induction of antioxidant enzymes and autophagy. Reporter assays were performed in AtT-20 corticotroph cells incubated in the presence of palmitic acid. Pomc transcription was inhibited by palmitic acid-dependent induction of OxS and autophagy, as judged by the effect of activators and inhibitors of both processes. Long-term feeding with SRD triggers the generation of OxS and autophagy in the pituitary gland, which could lead to a decline in Pomc/ACTH/glucocorticoid production. These effects could be attributed to an increase in fatty acids availability to the pituitary gland. ME was able to prevent these alterations, suggesting additional beneficial effects of ME as a therapeutic strategy in the management of IR. 10.1210/en.2015-1777
    The Effect of Diet and Exercise on Intestinal Integrity and Microbial Diversity in Mice. Campbell Sara C,Wisniewski Paul J,Noji Michael,McGuinness Lora R,Häggblom Max M,Lightfoot Stanley A,Joseph Laurie B,Kerkhof Lee J PloS one BACKGROUND:The gut microbiota is now known to play an important role contributing to inflammatory-based chronic diseases. This study examined intestinal integrity/inflammation and the gut microbial communities in sedentary and exercising mice presented with a normal or high-fat diet. METHODS:Thirty-six, 6-week old C57BL/6NTac male mice were fed a normal or high-fat diet for 12-weeks and randomly assigned to exercise or sedentary groups. After 12 weeks animals were sacrificed and duodenum/ileum tissues were fixed for immunohistochemistry for occludin, E-cadherin, and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). The bacterial communities were assayed in fecal samples using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP) analysis and pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons. RESULTS:Lean sedentary (LS) mice presented normal histologic villi while obese sedentary (OS) mice had similar villi height with more than twice the width of the LS animals. Both lean (LX) and obese exercise (OX) mice duodenum and ileum were histologically normal. COX-2 expression was the greatest in the OS group, followed by LS, LX and OX. The TRFLP and pyrosequencing indicated that members of the Clostridiales order were predominant in all diet groups. Specific phylotypes were observed with exercise, including Faecalibacterium prausnitzi, Clostridium spp., and Allobaculum spp. CONCLUSION:These data suggest that exercise has a strong influence on gut integrity and host microbiome which points to the necessity for more mechanistic studies of the interactions between specific bacteria in the gut and its host. 10.1371/journal.pone.0150502
    Comparison of control fasting plasma glucose of exercise-only versus exercise-diet among a pre-diabetic population: a meta-analysis. Zheng L,Wu J,Wang G,Persuitte G,Ma Y,Zou L,Zhang L,Zhao M,Wang J,Lan Qin,Liu Z,Fan H,Li J European journal of clinical nutrition BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES:Exercise is considered a protective factor in the prevention of type 2 diabetes, although its role as a sole treatment for pre-diabetes remains unknown. The present meta-analysis compared the effect of exercise-only with exercise-diet interventions on plasma glucose levels among a pre-diabetic population. SUBJECTS/METHODS:A literature search was conducted using PubMed, EMBASE and Cochrane databases. The Cochrane Collaboration tool was used to assess the quality of each trial. Two reviewers independently performed quality assessment of all included articles. A random effects model was used to calculate the pooled effect. RESULTS:A total of 4021 participants from 12 studies were included in this meta-analysis, 2045 of them were in the intervention group and 1976 were in the control group. Compared with the exercise-only interventions, the exercise-diet interventions showed a significant effect on decreasing fasting plasma glucose (FPG) levels, with a weighted mean difference (WMD) =-0.22 mmol/l, 95% confidence interval (CI): -0.25, -0.18 (Z=12.06, P<0.05). The subgroup effect of exercise-only interventions did not produce a statistically significant result (WMD=-0.09 mmol/l, 95% CI: -0.18, 0.00, Z=1.91, P>0.05). According to the intervention periods, the pooled effect in the ⩾2-year group was the highest, and its WMD (95% CI) was -0.24 mmol/l (-0.43,-0.05). The pooled effects were statistically significant among the elderly and those of American and European descent, with WMD (95% CI) being -0.19 mmol/l (95% CI: -0.22, -0.15), -0.17 mmol/l (-0.21,-0.12) and -0.22 mmol/l (-0.27, -0.17), respectively. CONCLUSIONS:Evidence from published trials indicates that exercise-diet interventions showed a significant effect on decreasing FPG levels. 10.1038/ejcn.2015.128
    Effect of Weight Loss, Diet, Exercise, and Bariatric Surgery on Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease. Hannah William N,Harrison Stephen A Clinics in liver disease Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the hepatic manifestation of the metabolic syndrome. NAFLD is the most common liver disease in developed countries. Weight reduction of 3% to 5% is associated with improved steatosis; reductions of 5% to 7% are necessary for decreased inflammation; with 7% to 10%, individuals may experience NAFLD/NASH remission and regression of fibrosis. No specific dietary intervention has proven beneficial beyond calorie restriction. Physical activity without weight loss seems to decrease hepatic steatosis. Bariatric surgery is associated with decreased cardiovascular risk and improved overall mortality in addition to reduction in hepatic steatosis, inflammation, and fibrosis. 10.1016/j.cld.2015.10.008
    High-intensity exercise training increases the diversity and metabolic capacity of the mouse distal gut microbiota during diet-induced obesity. Denou Emmanuel,Marcinko Katarina,Surette Michael G,Steinberg Gregory R,Schertzer Jonathan D American journal of physiology. Endocrinology and metabolism Diet and exercise underpin the risk of obesity-related metabolic disease. Diet alters the gut microbiota, which contributes to aspects of metabolic disease during obesity. Repeated exercise provides metabolic benefits during obesity. We assessed whether exercise could oppose changes in the taxonomic and predicted metagenomic characteristics of the gut microbiota during diet-induced obesity. We hypothesized that high-intensity interval training (HIIT) would counteract high-fat diet (HFD)-induced changes in the microbiota without altering obesity in mice. Compared with chow-fed mice, an obesity-causing HFD decreased the Bacteroidetes-to-Firmicutes ratio and decreased the genetic capacity in the fecal microbiota for metabolic pathways such as the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. After HFD-induced obesity was established, a subset of mice were HIIT for 6 wk, which increased host aerobic capacity but did not alter body or adipose tissue mass. The effects of exercise training on the microbiota were gut segment dependent and more extensive in the distal gut. HIIT increased the alpha diversity and Bacteroidetes/Firmicutes ratio of the distal gut and fecal microbiota during diet-induced obesity. Exercise training increased the predicted genetic capacity related to the TCA cycle among other aspects of metabolism. Strikingly, the same microbial metabolism indexes that were increased by exercise were all decreased in HFD-fed vs. chow diet-fed mice. Therefore, exercise training directly opposed some of the obesity-related changes in gut microbiota, including lower metagenomic indexes of metabolism. Some host and microbial pathways appeared similarly affected by exercise. These exercise- and diet-induced microbiota interactions can be captured in feces. 10.1152/ajpendo.00537.2015
    Exercise Prevents Diet-Induced Cellular Senescence in Adipose Tissue. Schafer Marissa J,White Thomas A,Evans Glenda,Tonne Jason M,Verzosa Grace C,Stout Michael B,Mazula Daniel L,Palmer Allyson K,Baker Darren J,Jensen Michael D,Torbenson Michael S,Miller Jordan D,Ikeda Yasuhiro,Tchkonia Tamara,van Deursen Jan M,Kirkland James L,LeBrasseur Nathan K Diabetes Considerable evidence implicates cellular senescence in the biology of aging and chronic disease. Diet and exercise are determinants of healthy aging; however, the extent to which they affect the behavior and accretion of senescent cells within distinct tissues is not clear. Here we tested the hypothesis that exercise prevents premature senescent cell accumulation and systemic metabolic dysfunction induced by a fast-food diet (FFD). Using transgenic mice that express EGFP in response to activation of the senescence-associated p16(INK4a) promoter, we demonstrate that FFD consumption causes deleterious changes in body weight and composition as well as in measures of physical, cardiac, and metabolic health. The harmful effects of the FFD were associated with dramatic increases in several markers of senescence, including p16, EGFP, senescence-associated β-galactosidase, and the senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP) specifically in visceral adipose tissue. We show that exercise prevents the accumulation of senescent cells and the expression of the SASP while nullifying the damaging effects of the FFD on parameters of health. We also demonstrate that exercise initiated after long-term FFD feeding reduces senescent phenotype markers in visceral adipose tissue while attenuating physical impairments, suggesting that exercise may provide restorative benefit by mitigating accrued senescent burden. These findings highlight a novel mechanism by which exercise mediates its beneficial effects and reinforces the effect of modifiable lifestyle choices on health span. 10.2337/db15-0291
    Comparing diet and exercise. Larsen Gregory D Lab animal 10.1038/laban.1056
    Diet and Exercise for Obese Patients With Heart Failure. Farmakis Dimitrios,Parissis John,Filippatos Gerasimos JAMA 10.1001/jama.2016.2915
    The Effect of Diet or Exercise on Visceral Adipose Tissue in Overweight Youth. Vissers Dirk,Hens Wendy,Hansen Dominique,Taeymans Jan Medicine and science in sports and exercise OBJECTIVE:Excess visceral adipose tissue (VAT) in children with obesity is associated with the development of cardiovascular and metabolic disease. This meta-analysis investigated if lifestyle interventions can reduce VAT in overweight and obese youth. METHODS:Pubmed, Cochrane, and PEDro were searched for clinical trials that objectively assessed VAT and included study arms with supervised diet, exercise, or a combination of both. If there was a no-therapy control group, the data of the control group and the intervention groups were used to meta-analyze the data. In all other cases, the preintervention and the postintervention data were used to meta-analyze. Effect sizes were calculated as standardized mean differences or changes of VAT and expressed as Hedges' g. RESULTS:The overall weighted mean effect size on VAT of all included interventions was -0.69 (95% confidence interval [CI] = -0.90 to -0.48) (P < 0.001). Subgroup analysis showed that the overall weighted mean effect size of diet-only interventions on VAT was 0.23 (95% CI = -0.22 to 0.68) (P = 0.311). Interventions that combined diet and exercise showed a pooled effect size on VAT of -0.55 (95% CI = -0.75 to -0.39) (P < 0.001). The pooled effect size of exercise-only interventions on VAT was -0.85 (95% CI = -1.20 to -0.57) (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS:Supervised exercise-only or combined diet and exercise interventions can reduce VAT in overweight and obese children and adolescents. The strongest effect was found in exercise-only groups. However, high-quality randomized controlled trials describing the effect of supervised dietary interventions on VAT in children are lacking. 10.1249/MSS.0000000000000888
    Exercise and diet in the management of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Mahady Suzanne E,George Jacob Metabolism: clinical and experimental Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most prevalent chronic liver condition worldwide, and is projected to become the leading cause for liver transplantation in the United States as early as 2020. The mainstay of treatment remains lifestyle modification with diet and exercise recommendations, as although some pharmacological treatments such as glitazones and Vitamin E have shown benefit, there are concerns regarding long term safety. The evidence base for dietary interventions in NAFLD such as the Mediterranean diet, omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and coffee is mainly derived from observational data with questionable validity. Where trials exist, they have shown benefit for surrogate outcomes such as hepatic steatosis and insulin resistance, but no trials have been conducted with salient clinical outcomes such as reduction in progression to chronic liver disease. Benefit in surrogate outcomes has also been seen for aerobic, anaerobic and combined modality exercise but it remains unclear if one type is superior. Furthermore, a reduction in sedentary time appears equally important. To provide a sound evidence base for lifestyle recommendations to people with NAFLD, longer duration trials of standardized dietary or exercise interventions, and testing various doses, types and with liver related outcomes, are essential. 10.1016/j.metabol.2015.10.032
    A systematic review and meta-analysis on the effects of exercise training versus hypocaloric diet: distinct effects on body weight and visceral adipose tissue. Verheggen R J H M,Maessen M F H,Green D J,Hermus A R M M,Hopman M T E,Thijssen D H T Obesity reviews : an official journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity Exercise training ('exercise') and hypocaloric diet ('diet') are frequently prescribed for weight loss in obesity. Whilst body weight changes are commonly used to evaluate lifestyle interventions, visceral adiposity (VAT) is a more relevant and stronger predictor for morbidity and mortality. A meta-analysis was performed to assess the effects of exercise or diet on VAT (quantified by radiographic imaging). Relevant databases were searched through May 2014. One hundred seventeen studies (n = 4,815) were included. We found that both exercise and diet cause VAT loss (P < 0.0001). When comparing diet versus training, diet caused a larger weight loss (P = 0.04). In contrast, a trend was observed towards a larger VAT decrease in exercise (P = 0.08). Changes in weight and VAT showed a strong correlation after diet (R(2)  = 0.737, P < 0.001), and a modest correlation after exercise (R(2)  = 0.451, P < 0.001). In the absence of weight loss, exercise is related to 6.1% decrease in VAT, whilst diet showed virtually no change (1.1%). In conclusion, both exercise and diet reduce VAT. Despite a larger effect of diet on total body weight loss, exercise tends to have superior effects in reducing VAT. Finally, total body weight loss does not necessarily reflect changes in VAT and may represent a poor marker when evaluating benefits of lifestyle-interventions. 10.1111/obr.12406
    Promoting brain health through exercise and diet in older adults: a physiological perspective. Jackson Philippa A,Pialoux Vincent,Corbett Dale,Drogos Lauren,Erickson Kirk I,Eskes Gail A,Poulin Marc J The Journal of physiology The rise in incidence of age-related cognitive impairment is a global health concern. Ageing is associated with a number of changes in the brain that, collectively, contribute to the declines in cognitive function observed in older adults. Structurally, the ageing brain atrophies as white and grey matter volumes decrease. Oxidative stress and inflammation promote endothelial dysfunction thereby hampering cerebral perfusion and thus delivery of energy substrates and nutrients. Further, the development of amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles contributes to neuronal loss. Of interest, there are substantial inter-individual differences in the degree to which these physical and functional changes impact upon cognitive function as we grow older. This review describes how engaging in physical activity and cognitive activities and adhering to a Mediterranean style diet promote 'brain health'. From a physiological perspective, we discuss the effects of these modifiable lifestyle behaviours on the brain, and how some recent human trials are beginning to show some promise as to the effectiveness of lifestyle behaviours in combating cognitive impairment. Moreover, we propose that these lifestyle behaviours, through numerous mechanisms, serve to increase brain, cerebrovascular and cognitive reserve, thereby preserving and enhancing cognitive function for longer. 10.1113/JP271270
    Comparison of Diet versus Exercise on Metabolic Function and Gut Microbiota in Obese Rats. Welly Rebecca J,Liu Tzu-Wen,Zidon Terese M,Rowles Joe L,Park Young-Min,Smith T Nicholas,Swanson Kelly S,Padilla Jaume,Vieira-Potter Victoria J Medicine and science in sports and exercise UNLABELLED:Cardiometabolic impairments that begin early in life are particularly critical, because they often predict metabolic dysfunction in adulthood. Obesity, high-fat diet (HFD), and inactivity are all associated with adipose tissue (AT) inflammation and insulin resistance (IR), major predictors of metabolic dysfunction. Recent evidence has also associated the gut microbiome with cardiometabolic health. PURPOSE:The objective of this study is to compare equal energy deficits induced by exercise and caloric reduction on cardiometabolic disease risk parameters including AT inflammation, IR, and gut microbiota changes during HFD consumption. METHODS:Obesity-prone rats fed HFD were exercise trained (Ex, n = 10) or weight matched to Ex via caloric reduction although kept sedentary (WM, n = 10), and compared with ad libitum HFD-fed (Sed, n = 10) rats for IR, systemic energetics and spontaneous physical activity (SPA), adiposity, and fasting metabolic parameters. Visceral, subcutaneous, periaortic, and brown AT (BAT), liver, aorta, and cecal digesta were examined. RESULTS:Despite identical reductions in adiposity, Ex, but not WM, improved IR, increased SPA by approximately 26% (P < 0.05 compared with WM and Sed), and reduced LDL cholesterol (P < 0.05 compared with Sed). WM and Ex both reduced inflammatory markers in all AT depots and aorta, whereas only Ex increased indicators of mitochondrial function in BAT. Ex significantly increased the relative abundance of cecal Streptococcaceae and decreased S24-7 and one undefined genus in Rikenellaceae; WM induced similar changes but did not reach statistical significance. CONCLUSIONS:Both Ex and WM reduced AT inflammation across depots, whereas Ex caused more robust changes to gut microbial communities, improved IR, increased fat oxidation, increased SPA, and increased indices of BAT mitochondrial function. Our findings add to the growing body of literature indicating that there are weight-loss-independent metabolic benefits of exercise. 10.1249/MSS.0000000000000964
    Diet change and exercise enhance protein expression of CREB, CRTC 2 and lipolitic enzymes in adipocytes of obese mice. Woo Jinhee,Kang Sunghwun Lipids in health and disease BACKGROUND:The study investigated the effects of regular exercise and diet changes on the change in metabolic processes of the cAMP-Response Element-Binding Protein-Regulated Transcription Coactivator (CRTC) family and its sub-lipolysis. METHODS:Four-week-old C57/black male mice received an 8-week diet of general formula (control, CO; n = 10) or a high fat diet (HF; n = 30) to induce obesity. Thereafter, the mice received another 8-week regimen of general formula CO (n = 10) diet, continuous HF diet (n = 10), switched to general formula (diet change, DC; n = 10) or switched to general formula + exercise (diet and exercise, DE; n = 10). RESULTS:The DE group displayed significantly lower body weight, abdominal fat and lipid profiles (p < 0.05). The DE group also displayed significantly lower (35 %) CRTC 2 activity than the CO (p < 0.05). Activities of adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL), hormone sensitive lipolitic enzyme (HSL) and monoacylglycerol lipase (MGL) were significantly higher (51 %, 38 %, 49 %) in the DE group than the HF group (p < 0.05). MGL, there were no differences between the CO group, HF group, and DC group, with the DE group (70 %) being significantly higher (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION:Change in diet in the absence of exercise was not associated with changes in adipose tissue CRTC family lipase activity, indicating that lipolysis metabolic processes are effective only when diet and exercise are carried out together. 10.1186/s12944-016-0316-2
    Independent effects of diet and exercise training on fat oxidation in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Croci Ilaria,Byrne Nuala M,Chachay Veronique S,Hills Andrew P,Clouston Andrew D,O'Moore-Sullivan Trisha M,Prins Johannes B,Macdonald Graeme A,Hickman Ingrid J World journal of hepatology AIM:To investigate the independent effects of 6-mo of dietary energy restriction or exercise training on whole-body and hepatic fat oxidation of patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). METHODS:Participants were randomised into either circuit exercise training (EX; = 13; 3 h/wk without changes in dietary habits), or dietary energy restriction (ER) without changes in structured physical activity (ER; = 8). Respiratory quotient (RQ) and whole-body fat oxidation rates (Fat) were determined by indirect calorimetry under basal, insulin-stimulated and exercise conditions. Severity of disease and steatosis was determined by liver histology; hepatic Fat was estimated from plasma β-hydroxybutyrate concentrations; cardiorespiratory fitness was expressed as VO. Complete-case analysis was performed (EX: = 10; ER: = 6). RESULTS:Hepatic steatosis and NAFLD activity score decreased with ER but not with EX. β-hydroxybutyrate concentrations increased significantly in response to ER (0.08 ± 0.02 mmol/L 0.12 ± 0.04 mmol/L, = 0.03) but remained unchanged in response to EX (0.10 ± 0.03 mmol/L 0.11 ± 0.07 mmol/L, = 0.39). Basal RQ decreased ( = 0.05) in response to EX, while this change was not significant after ER ( = 0.38). VO ( < 0.001) and maximal Fat during aerobic exercise ( = 0.03) improved with EX but not with ER ( > 0.05). The increase in β-hydroxybutyrate concentrations was correlated with the reduction in hepatic steatosis ( = -0.56, = 0.04). CONCLUSION:ER and EX lead to specific benefits on fat metabolism of patients with NAFLD. Increased hepatic Fat in response to ER could be one mechanism through which the ER group achieved reduction in steatosis. 10.4254/wjh.v8.i27.1137
    Getting on Message: Preventing Alzheimer Disease Through Diet and Exercise. Steffens Eleanor Bastian,Steffens David C The American journal of geriatric psychiatry : official journal of the American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry 10.1016/j.jagp.2016.06.002
    Metabolic syndrome, diet and exercise. De Sousa Sunita M C,Norman Robert J Best practice & research. Clinical obstetrics & gynaecology Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is associated with a range of metabolic complications including insulin resistance (IR), obesity, dyslipidaemia, hypertension, obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. These compound risks result in a high prevalence of metabolic syndrome and possibly increased cardiovascular (CV) disease. As the cardiometabolic risk of PCOS is shared amongst the different diagnostic systems, all women with PCOS should undergo metabolic surveillance though the precise approach differs between guidelines. Lifestyle interventions consisting of increased physical activity and caloric restriction have been shown to improve both metabolic and reproductive outcomes. Pharmacotherapy and bariatric surgery may be considered in resistant metabolic disease. Issues requiring further research include the natural history of PCOS-associated metabolic disease, absolute CV risk and comparative efficacy of lifestyle interventions. 10.1016/j.bpobgyn.2016.01.006
    Exercise-induced stress behavior, gut-microbiota-brain axis and diet: a systematic review for athletes. Clark Allison,Mach Núria Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition Fatigue, mood disturbances, under performance and gastrointestinal distress are common among athletes during training and competition. The psychosocial and physical demands during intense exercise can initiate a stress response activating the sympathetic-adrenomedullary and hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axes, resulting in the release of stress and catabolic hormones, inflammatory cytokines and microbial molecules. The gut is home to trillions of microorganisms that have fundamental roles in many aspects of human biology, including metabolism, endocrine, neuronal and immune function. The gut microbiome and its influence on host behavior, intestinal barrier and immune function are believed to be a critical aspect of the brain-gut axis. Recent evidence in murine models shows that there is a high correlation between physical and emotional stress during exercise and changes in gastrointestinal microbiota composition. For instance, induced exercise-stress decreased cecal levels of spp and increased which have well defined roles in intestinal mucus degradation and immune function. Diet is known to dramatically modulate the composition of the gut microbiota. Due to the considerable complexity of stress responses in elite athletes (from leaky gut to increased catabolism and depression), defining standard diet regimes is difficult. However, some preliminary experimental data obtained from studies using probiotics and prebiotics studies show some interesting results, indicating that the microbiota acts like an endocrine organ (e.g. secreting serotonin, dopamine or other neurotransmitters) and may control the HPA axis in athletes. What is troubling is that dietary recommendations for elite athletes are primarily based on a low consumption of plant polysaccharides, which is associated with reduced microbiota diversity and functionality (e.g. less synthesis of byproducts such as short chain fatty acids and neurotransmitters). As more elite athletes suffer from psychological and gastrointestinal conditions that can be linked to the gut, targeting the microbiota therapeutically may need to be incorporated in athletes' diets that take into consideration dietary fiber as well as microbial taxa not currently present in athlete's gut. 10.1186/s12970-016-0155-6
    Partner Influence in Diet and Exercise Behaviors: Testing Behavior Modeling, Social Control, and Normative Body Size. Perry Brea,Ciciurkaite Gabriele,Brady Christy Freadreacea,Garcia Justin PloS one Previous research has documented social contagion in obesity and related health behaviors, but less is known about the social processes underlying these patterns. Focusing on married or cohabitating couples, we simultaneously explore three potential social mechanisms influencing obesity: normative body size, social control, and behavior modeling. We analyze the association between partner characteristics and the obesity-related health behaviors of focal respondents, comparing the effects of partners' body type, partners' attempts to manage respondents' eating behaviors, and partners' own health behaviors on respondents' health behaviors (physical activity, fruit and vegetable consumption, and fast food consumption). Data on 215 partners are extracted from a larger study of social mechanisms of obesity in family and community contexts conducted in 2011 in the United States. Negative binomial regression models indicate that partner behavior is significantly related to respondent behavior (p < .001), net of controls. These results are suggestive of a behavior modeling mechanism in obesity-related patterns of consumption and physical activity. In contrast, we find little support for the influence of normative body size or partner social control in this sample, though generalizations about the relevance of these processes may be inappropriate. These results underscore the importance of policies and interventions that target dyads and social groups, suggesting that adoption of exercise or diet modifications in one individual is likely to spread to others, creating a social environment characterized by mutual reinforcement of healthy behavior. 10.1371/journal.pone.0169193
    High fat diet and exercise lead to a disrupted and pathogenic DNA methylome in mouse liver. Zhou Dan,Hlady Ryan A,Schafer Marissa J,White Thomas A,Liu Chen,Choi Jeong-Hyeon,Miller Jordan D,Roberts Lewis R,LeBrasseur Nathan K,Robertson Keith D Epigenetics High-fat diet consumption and sedentary lifestyle elevates risk for obesity, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, and cancer. Exercise training conveys health benefits in populations with or without these chronic conditions. Diet and exercise regulate gene expression by mediating epigenetic mechanisms in many tissues; however, such effects are poorly documented in the liver, a central metabolic organ. To dissect the consequences of diet and exercise on the liver epigenome, we measured DNA methylation, using reduced representation bisulfite sequencing, and transcription, using RNA-seq, in mice maintained on a fast food diet with sedentary lifestyle or exercise, compared with control diet with and without exercise. Our analyses reveal that genome-wide differential DNA methylation and expression of gene clusters are induced by diet and/or exercise. A combination of fast food and exercise triggers extensive gene alterations, with enrichment of carbohydrate/lipid metabolic pathways and muscle developmental processes. Through evaluation of putative protective effects of exercise on diet-induced DNA methylation, we show that hypermethylation is effectively prevented, especially at promoters and enhancers, whereas hypomethylation is only partially attenuated. We assessed diet-induced DNA methylation changes associated with liver cancer-related epigenetic modifications and identified significant increases at liver-specific enhancers in fast food groups, suggesting partial loss of liver cell identity. Hypermethylation at a subset of gene promoters was associated with inhibition of tissue development and promotion of carcinogenic processes. Our study demonstrates extensive reprogramming of the epigenome by diet and exercise, emphasizing the functional relevance of epigenetic mechanisms as an interface between lifestyle modifications and phenotypic alterations. 10.1080/15592294.2016.1261239
    Exercise prevents high fat diet-induced bone loss, marrow adiposity and dysbiosis in male mice. McCabe Laura R,Irwin Regina,Tekalur Arjun,Evans Christian,Schepper Jonathan D,Parameswaran Narayanan,Ciancio Mae Bone High fat diets can have detrimental effects on the skeleton as well as cause intestinal dysbiosis. Exercise prevents high fat (HF) diet-induced obesity and also improves bone density and prevents the intestinal dysbiosis that promotes energy storage. Previous studies indicate a link between intestinal microbial balance and bone health. Therefore, we examined whether exercise could prevent HF-induced bone pathology in male mice and determined whether benefits correlate to changes in host intestinal microbiota. Male C57Bl/6 mice were fed either a low fat diet (LF; 10 kcal% fat) or a HF diet (60 kcal% fat) and put under sedentary or voluntary exercise conditions for 14 weeks. Our results indicated that HF diet reduced trabecular bone volume, when corrected for differences in body weight, of both the tibia (40% reduction) and vertebrae (25% reduction) as well and increased marrow adiposity (44% increase). More importantly, these effects were prevented by exercise. Exercise also had a significant effect on several cortical bone parameters and enhanced bone mechanical properties in LF but not HF fed mice. Microbiome analyses indicated that exercise altered the HF induced changes in microbial composition by reducing the Firmicutes/Bacteriodetes ratio. This ratio negatively correlated with bone volume as did levels of Clostridia and Lachnospiraceae. In contrast, the abundance of several Actinobacteria phylum members (i.e., Bifidobacteriaceae) were positively correlated with bone volume. Taken together, exercise can prevent many of the negative effects of a high fat diet on male skeletal health. Exercise induced changes in microbiota composition could represent a novel mechanism that contributes to exercise induced benefits to bone health. 10.1016/j.bone.2018.03.024
    Vitamin B improves blood parameters in rats fed a protein-deficient diet and subjected to moderate, long-term exercise. Kalicki Bolesław,Lewicka Aneta,Jęderka Krystyna,Leśniak Monika,Marszałkowska-Jakubik Justyna,Lewicki Sławomir Central-European journal of immunology Vitamin B is necessary for many enzymatic pathways (glucose and lipid metabolism, DNA/RNA synthesis, or modulation of gene expression) and affects immune cell function and blood-forming processes. We hypothesised that supplementing a protein-deficient diet with vitamin B may reduce the negative impact of protein malnutrition. Here, we evaluated the effect of moderate, long-term exercise (ninety days) on selected blood parameters in rats fed a normal diet, a protein-deficient diet, or a protein-deficient diet supplemented with vitamin B. Selected haematological, immunological, and biochemical parameters were examined. A protein-deficient diet lasting 90 days caused significant reduction in body mass, increased activity of aminotransferases (asparagine and alanine), an increased percentage of innate cells in the blood, and decreased haemoglobin concentration in the blood. Adding vitamin B significantly increased body and muscle mass, decreased liver parameters, and caused normalisation of haemoglobin concentration and the proportion of white blood cells in the blood. These results indicate that vitamin B supplementation significantly improves the health of protein-malnourished rats and paves the way for the development of novel anti-malnutrition therapies. 10.5114/ceji.2019.83266
    Timing of food intake is more potent than habitual voluntary exercise to prevent diet-induced obesity in mice. Okauchi Hiroki,Hashimoto Chiaki,Nakao Reiko,Oishi Katsutaka Chronobiology international Inappropriate eating habits such as skipping breakfast and eating late at night are associated with risk for abnormal weight-gain and adiposity. We previously reported that time-imposed feeding during the daytime (inactive phase) induces obesity and metabolic disorders accompanied by physical inactivity in mice. The present study compares metabolic changes induced in mice by time-imposed feeding under voluntary wheel-running (RW) and sedentary (SED) conditions to determine the effects of voluntary wheel-running activity on obesity induced in mice by feeding at inappropriate times. Mice were individually housed in cages with or without running-wheels. We compared food consumption, core body temperature, hormonal and metabolic variables in the blood, lipid accumulation in the liver, circadian expression of clock and metabolic genes in peripheral tissues, and gains in body weight between mice allowed access to food only during the sleep phase (daytime feeding; DF) or only during the active phase (nighttime feeding; NF) under SED or RW conditions. Only a high-fat high-sucrose diet was available to the mice throughout restricted feeding. Nocturnal activity was maintained in both NF and DF mice under RW conditions, but significantly suppressed during the latter half of the dark phase in DF mice. Nocturnal fluctuations in core body temperature were maintained in DF and NF mice under both SED and RW conditions, although DF attenuated the day-night amplitude more under SED, than RW conditions. The degrees of DF-induced increases in body weight gain, food efficiency, adipose tissue mass, lipogenic gene expression in metabolic tissues, and hepatic lipid accumulation were essentially identical between SED and RW conditions. Daytime feeding also induced hyperinsulinemia and hyperleptinemia under both SED and RW conditions, although DF-induced hyperleptinemia was slightly attenuated by wheel-running. The temporal expression of circadian clock genes became synchronized to feeding cycles in the liver but not in the skeletal muscle of mice under both SED and RW conditions. Chronic voluntary exercise on running-wheels minimally affected obesity and adiposity in mice caused by daily feeding at unusual times. The timing of food intake might be more important than physical exercise for preventing metabolic disorders. Abbreviations: ANOVA: analysis of variance; DF: daytime feeding; FFA: free fatty acid; GLP-1: glucagon-like peptide-1; HOMA-IR: homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance; NEAT: non-exercise activity thermogenesis; NF: nighttime feeding; RF: restricted feeding; RW: running-wheel; SCN: suprachiasmatic nucleus; SE: standard error of the mean; SED: sedentary; SPA: spontaneous physical activity; T-Cho: total cholesterol; TG: triglyceride; WAT: white adipose tissues. 10.1080/07420528.2018.1516672
    Diet and prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus: beyond weight loss and exercise. Palacios Orsolya M,Kramer Melvyn,Maki Kevin C Expert review of endocrinology & metabolism INTRODUCTION:Insulin resistance (IR) and pancreatic beta-cell dysfunction are core pathophysiologic features of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Select lifestyle and pharmacologic interventions, including weight loss, physical activity, a Mediterranean diet intervention, and hypoglycemic agents, have been shown to prevent or delay T2DM. However, dietary factors other than weight loss may also impact risk, mainly through effects to enhance insulin sensitivity, although some may also directly or indirectly impact pancreatic beta-cell function. AREAS COVERED:A literature review of observational studies and randomized controlled trials (RCTs) was conducted, and the research indicates dietary factors showing promise for reducing T2DM risk include higher intakes of cereal fibers, unsaturated fatty acids, magnesium, and polyphenols (e.g. anthocyanins), while reducing dietary glycemic load, added sugars, and high-sugar beverages. EXPERT COMMENTARY:While these dietary factors are mainly supported by evidence from observational studies and RCTs of surrogate markers for T2DM, they are consistent with current recommendations to emphasize consumption of whole grains, nuts, seeds, legumes, seafood, fruits, and vegetables, while limiting intakes of saturated fatty acids, refined carbohydrates, and processed meats. Additional dietary intervention RCTs are needed to assess the efficacy of these promising dietary interventions for delaying or preventing the onset of T2DM. 10.1080/17446651.2019.1554430
    Limited Effects of Low-to-Moderate Aerobic Exercise on the Gut Microbiota of Mice Subjected to a High-Fat Diet. Ribeiro Filipe M,Ribeiro Camila F A,G Ana Cláudia M,Castro Alinne P,Almeida Jeeser A,Franco Octavio L,Petriz Bernardo A Nutrients Several studies have indicated that diet and exercise may modulate the gut microbiota in obese subjects. Both interventions were shown to alter the microbiota orthogonally. However, this relationship has not been fully explored. This study analyzed the effects of low-to-moderate aerobic training on the fecal microbiota of mice subjected to a high-fat diet (HFD). Here, 40 male mice (C57Bl/6) were divided into two groups with standard diet (SD; 12.4% lipid) and HFD (60.3% lipid) for four months. These groups were divided into four, named SD control, HF control, SD trained and HF trained. All animals were submitted to an incremental test to estimate low-to-moderate maximum speed Training consisted of 30 min·day, 5 days/week, for 8 weeks. The HFD increased the body weight ( < 0.0001) and adiposity index ( < 0.05). HFD also negatively influenced performance in exercise training. Moreover, the diversity of gut microbiota was reduced by the HFD in all groups. A low-to-moderate exercise was ineffective in modulating the gut microbiota composition in mice subjected to HFD. These findings suggest that two months of low-to-moderate exercise does not achieve a preponderant modulatory effect on shaping microbiota when submitted to the high-fat diet. 10.3390/nu11010149
    Effect of diet with or without exercise on abdominal fat in postmenopausal women - a randomised trial. van Gemert Willemijn A,Peeters Petra H,May Anne M,Doornbos Adriaan J H,Elias Sjoerd G,van der Palen Job,Veldhuis Wouter,Stapper Maaike,Schuit Jantine A,Monninkhof Evelyn M BMC public health BACKGROUND:We assessed the effect of equivalent weight loss with or without exercise on (intra-) abdominal fat in postmenopausal women in the SHAPE-2 study. METHODS:The SHAPE-2 study is a three-armed randomised controlled trial conducted in 2012-2013 in the Netherlands. Postmenopausal overweight women were randomized to a diet (n = 97), exercise plus diet (n = 98) or control group (n = 48). Both intervention groups aimed for equivalent weight loss (6-7%) following a calorie-restricted diet (diet group) or a partly supervised intensive exercise programme (4 h per week) combined with a small caloric restriction (exercise plus diet group). Outcomes after 16 weeks are amount and distribution of abdominal fat, measured by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with the use of the three-point IDEAL Dixon method. RESULTS:The diet and exercise plus diet group lost 6.1 and 6.9% body weight, respectively. Compared to controls, subcutaneous and intra-abdominal fat reduced significantly with both diet (- 12.5% and - 12.0%) and exercise plus diet (- 16.0% and - 14.6%). Direct comparison between both interventions revealed that the reduction in subcutaneous fat was statistically significantly larger in the group that combined exercise with diet: an additional 10.6 cm (95%CI -18.7; - 2.4) was lost compared to the diet-only group. Intra-abdominal fat loss was not significantly larger in the exercise plus diet group (- 3.8 cm, 95%CI -9.0; 1.3). CONCLUSIONS:We conclude that weight loss of 6-7% with diet or with exercise plus diet reduced both subcutaneous and intra-abdominal fat. Only subcutaneous fat statistically significantly reduced to a larger extent when exercise is combined with a small caloric restriction. TRIAL REGISTER:NCT01511276 (clinicaltrials.gov), prospectively registered. 10.1186/s12889-019-6510-1
    Diet, exercise and weight loss and dyslipidaemia. Clifton Peter M Pathology There is a large amount of controversy relating dietary fat intake and coronary artery disease. It has been strongly suggested that saturated fat is not harmful and that polyunsaturated fat is either not beneficial or even harmful. Given that dietary lipids and fibre can influence serum lipids which are strongly linked to the risk of coronary artery disease I have reviewed recent evidence linking diet and serum lipids to confirm a diet-heart disease link. Over 84 studies have been included in a recent meta-analysis and meta-regression which examined the effects of changes in fat type on lipid levels. An absolute 1% reduction in saturated fat or trans fat intake as a percentage of energy with replacement by n-6 polyunsaturated fat would lead to a reduction in low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol of 0.05 mmol/L. In most Western countries the difference in intake between the highest quintile and the lowest quintile of saturated fat is about 7%, so moving from the highest to the lowest quintile should lower LDL cholesterol by 0.35 mmol/L or about 10%. This change should lower cardiovascular disease rates by at least 10%. Replacing this amount of saturated fat with carbohydrate of average quality would lower LDL cholesterol by 0.21 mmol/L and increase fasting triglyceride by 0.17 mmol/L. This combination of effects would have a neutral effect on cardiovascular disease rates. However, replacement of trans fat appears to reduce disease rates and total mortality. Substituting low glycaemic index carbohydrates for high glycaemic index carbohydrates will lower triglyceride by 15-25% and reduce cardiovascular risk. Large doses of fish oil will lower triglyceride with a mean lowering of 0.45 mmol/L for a 3.5 g/day amount. Large doses of soluble fibre (3.5-7.0 g/day) lower LDL cholesterol by 0.2-0.35 mmol/L with Konjac glucomannan being the most effective per gram. Plant sterols or stanols lower LDL cholesterol by about 10% for a 2 g/day dose, while exercise and weight loss lower cardiovascular risk predominantly by lowering fasting triglyceride. In conclusion, diet lowers LDL cholesterol and triglyceride and dietary changes should be ultimately linked to a reduced risk of heart disease. 10.1016/j.pathol.2018.10.013
    Questionnaire to assess adherence to diet and exercise advices for weight management in lifestyle-related diseases. Dubasi Sravan Kumar,Ranjan Piyush,Arora Charu,Vikram Naval K,Dwivedi Sada N,Singh Namrata,Kaloiya Gauri S,Shalimar Journal of family medicine and primary care Background:Lifestyle-related diseases have assumed significant public health problem across the globe including developing nations. High rate of nonadherence to treatment poses challenges to family physicians in its treatment. Objective:To develop a valid and reliable questionnaire for assessment of adherence to lifestyle modification advices. Materials and Methods:The questionnaire was developed following a systematic, scientifically accepted methodology which included literature review, focused group discussions, detailed interviews, and expert evaluation. Comprehensibility, replicability, face validity, content validity, patient acceptance, and ease of usage of the questionnaire were analyzed. Five-point Likert scale was employed as response options. Cronbach's alpha was calculated to assess internal consistency of overall questionnaire. A cross-sectional survey was then performed on 100 obese patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease to validate the questionnaire. Results:The developed questionnaire consists of 14 questions under two domains, 12 items under diet and 2 items under the physical activity domain. Each of these questions is on a 5-point Likert scale. The tool has shown satisfactory validity. It also has adequate reliability and internal consistency with Cronbach's alpha value of 0.9. Conclusion:It is a valid and reliable tool which can be used in clinical practice to assess adherence to lifestyle modification advices by family physicians. 10.4103/jfmpc.jfmpc_338_18
    Exercise training prevents high-fat diet-induced adipose tissue remodeling by promoting capillary density and macrophage polarization. Kolahdouzi Sarkawt,Talebi-Garakani Elahe,Hamidian Gholamreza,Safarzade Alireza Life sciences AIMS:Increasing adipose tissue capillarization is beneficial to metabolic health. The present study examined the effects of continuous training (CT) and aerobic-interval training (AIT) coinciding with a high-fat diet (HFD) on capillary density, macrophage polarization in mesenteric (mAT) and subcutaneous (sAT) adipose tissue. MAIN METHODS:48 male Wistar rats were divided into HFD and normal diet (ND) groups. After 10 weeks, each group was divided into sedentary, CT, and AIT. The animals in training groups performed 10-week matched distances of CT and AIT on a motorized treadmill (5 times/week). KEY FINDINGS:The results showed that HFD significantly reduced the capillary density of adipose tissue (sAT: 54% vs. mAT:49%) and increased systemic insulin resistance, mean adipocyte size, crown-like structure (CLs), and M1-macrophages with no change in the total number of adipocytes in either tissue. Exercise training reversed the HFD induced adipose tissue dysfunction. Compared to CT, AIT was more effective on increasing the capillary density of sAT (170 vs. 87%) and mAT (140 vs. 100%). Likewise, AIT increased the capillary density of both tissues even in comparison to the ND sedentary group (~25%). Compared with CT as well, AIT more significantly increased the number of M2 macrophages (181 vs. 122%) and decreased CLs (60 vs. 38%) in mAT. SIGNIFICANCE:The findings suggest that hypertrophy is a major contributor to adipose tissue expansion in obesity. Furthermore, exercise training largely demonstrated beneficial effects on adipose tissue remodeling, where AIT is more effective than CT in reducing HFD-induced adipose tissue dysfunction. 10.1016/j.lfs.2019.01.037
    Diet and exercise: Clinical studies and molecular biology show that diet and other lifestyle changes have significant potential for treating metabolic diseases. Hunter Philip EMBO reports 10.15252/embr.201947966
    Diet-induced weight loss alone or combined with exercise in overweight or obese people with knee osteoarthritis: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Hall Michelle,Castelein Birgit,Wittoek Ruth,Calders Patrick,Van Ginckel Ans Seminars in arthritis and rheumatism OBJECTIVES:The purposes were to (i) determine the effect of diet-only treatments and combined diet and exercise treatments on pain and physical function and (ii) explore the effect of these treatments on inflammatory biomarkers in overweight and obese adults with knee osteoarthritis. METHODS:Five electronic databases were searched until March 2017. Randomised controlled trials investigating the effect of non-surgical non-pharmacological weight loss treatment, with or without exercise, on self-reported pain and/or physical function and/or inflammatory biomarkers were selected. Two review authors independently extracted data and assessed risk of bias for each study. Standardised mean differences (SMD) of outcomes were pooled as appropriate, using a random effects approach. RESULTS:2676 articles were identified, 19 met review criteria and 9 met criteria for meta-analyses. Diet-only treatments did not reduce pain (SMD -0.13; 95% confidence interval, CI: -0.37, 0.10; I = 49%) while a combination of diet and exercise treatments did reduce pain moderately (SMD -0.37; 95%CI: -0.69, -0.04; I = 54%). Physical function improved moderately with diet treatments (SMD -0.30; 95%CI: -0.52, -0.08; I = 47%) and combined diet and exercise treatments (SMD -0.32; 95%CI: -0.56, -0.08; I = 24%). Of the inflammatory markers assessed, only IL-6 reduced with diet-only treatments (SMD -0.23; 95%CI: -0.45, -0.02; I = 0%). CONCLUSION:Overall, moderate pain-relief is achievable with a combination of diet and exercise, but potentially not with diet-only treatments. Findings support that either diet-only treatments or combined diet and exercise treatments moderately improve physical function. Overall, treatment effects on inflammatory biomarkers are questionable. 10.1016/j.semarthrit.2018.06.005
    Protective effects of exercise on heart and aorta in high-fat diet-induced obese rats. Acikel Elmas Merve,Cakıcı Seyit Enes,Dur Ismail Rahmi,Kozluca Ibrahim,Arınc Melih,Binbuga Berkant,Bingol Ozakpınar Ozlem,Kolgazi Meltem,Sener Goksel,Ercan Feriha Tissue & cell We investigated the protective effects of swimming exercise on high-fat diet-induced heart and aorta damage by evaluating oxidative stress and the endothelial nitric oxide (NO) system. Sprague Dawley rats were fed either standard chow (STD, 6% fat) or high-fat diet (HFD; 45% fat) for 18 weeks, with half of the animals trained by daily swimming sessions (EXC; 1 h per day for 5 days/week) for the last 6 weeks of the experimental period and half kept sedentary (SED). Heart and aorta tissues were prepared for routine light and electron microscopy evaluation. Endothelial NOS (eNOS) and inducible NOS (iNOS) distribution in the tissue samples were examined by immunohistochemistry. Biochemical examinations, including blood serum lipid profiles, malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and tissue NO levels were measured. Deteriorated heart and aorta morphology, increased MDA levels and iNOS-immunoreactivity (iNOS-ir), as well as decreased GSH, NO, SOD, and eNOS-ir parameters were observed in the HFD + SED group. These morphological and biochemical parameters were ameliorated in the HFD + EXC group. Our study revealed that obesity-induced iNOS activation and increased oxidative stress in cardiac and aorta tissues. Exercise protected the obesity-induced cardiac and aortic tissue damage by modulating oxidant/antioxidant balance via involvement of the NO system. 10.1016/j.tice.2019.01.005
    Effect of a Dynamic Exercise Program in Combination With Mediterranean Diet on Quality of Life in Women With Rheumatoid Arthritis. García-Morales José Manuel,Lozada-Mellado Mariel,Hinojosa-Azaola Andrea,Llorente Luis,Ogata-Medel Midori,Pineda-Juárez Juan Antonio,Alcocer-Varela Jorge,Cervantes-Gaytán Rocío,Castillo-Martínez Lilia Journal of clinical rheumatology : practical reports on rheumatic & musculoskeletal diseases OBJECTIVE:To assess the effect of a dynamic exercise program (DEP) in combination with a Mediterranean diet (MD) on health-related quality of life in women with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHOD:A randomized clinical trial including 144 women with RA diagnosis was performed. Patients were randomized into 4 groups: (1) MD + DEP (n = 36), (2) DEP (n = 37), (3) MD (n = 40), and (4) control (n = 31). All patients received conventional disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs. Health-related quality of life was assessed with 36-item Short Form Health Survey v2 (0-100 score) and disability with Health Assessment Questionnaire Disability Index at enrollment and after 24 weeks. Between-groups comparisons of the change in the quality of life scores from baseline to follow-up were performed using analysis of covariance in which baseline-to-follow-up was the dependent variable, and the intervention group was the independent variable. RESULTS:All patients had low disease activity at the time of enrollment, with a mean 28-joint Disease Activity Score of less than 3.2. Patients who were included in the MD + DEP and DEP groups showed 15 points of increase in health-related quality of life global punctuation versus 3.5 in the MD group and -4.6 in the control group (p = 0.01). Also the scores in the physical component after 24 weeks of intervention in the MD + DEP group improved (15.5), in the DEP group (12) and MD group as well (5.1), whereas the control group showed a decrease of the score (-1.7) (p = 0.03 between groups). CONCLUSIONS:The combination of MD + DEP could improve the quality of life in RA patients with low disease activity receiving conventional disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs. 10.1097/RHU.0000000000001064
    Effects of Home-Based Exercise Training Systems, Combined with Diet, on Cardiometabolic Health. Roberts Christian K,Segovia David E,Lankford D Eli International journal of exercise science The efficacy of exercise training systems designed to be used in the home on cardiometabolic outcomes remains largely unknown. This investigation included two studies. Study 1 tested the effects a multi-exercise pulley system (NordicTrack Fusion CST with video trainer) and Study 2 an incline trainer (NordicTrack X22i with video trainer), both combined with daily food provision, for 12-weeks on indices of cardiometabolic health. Study 1 enrolled 27 adults (11 men, 16 women, 33.8±4.4 years of age) and Study 2 enrolled 29 adults (11 men, 18 women, 40.8±12.5 years of age). Pre- and post-intervention measurements were performed for body weight, fat mass, lean tissue mass, and visceral fat by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry, blood pressure, aerobic fitness and body circumferences. For Study 1, there were significant decreases in body weight, fat mass, visceral fat, diastolic blood pressure (DBP), resting heart rate (RHR), and all circumference sites, while there was an increase in aerobic fitness (all p<0.001). Both males and females exhibited significant improvement in all these outcomes. For Study 2, there were significant decreases in body weight, fat mass, visceral fat, DBP, RHR, all circumference sites (all p<0.001), and lean tissue mass (LTM) (p=0.006), and an increase in aerobic fitness (p<0.001). Both males and females exhibited significant changes in all these outcomes, except LTM which did not change in females. Both studies exhibited high exercise session attendance and high dietary adherence. Overall these data indicate the potential efficacy of home-based training systems, when combined with diet, on selected cardiometabolic outcomes.
    Improvement of microvascular endothelial dysfunction induced by exercise and diet is associated with microRNA-126 in obese adolescents. Donghui Tang,Shuang Bai,Xulong Li,Meng Yao,Yujing Gong,Yujie Hou,Juan Li,Dongsheng Yang Microvascular research OBJECTIVE:Microvascular endothelial dysfunction, which is at the early stage of atherosclerosis, precedes macrovascular endothelial dysfunction. The study is aimed to investigate the mechanism underlying the improvement of microvascular endothelial dysfunction by exercise and diet in obese adolescents. METHODS:A quasi-randomized study was carried out with 2 cohorts: the experimental group (57 obese male adolescents; age: 15.38 ± 2.82 years, BMI: 33.21 ± 4.23 kg/m) completed a 6-week exercise program with dietary intervention, and control group (10 normal weight adolescents; age: 15.38 ± 2.82 years, BMI: 23.21 ± 4.23 kg/m) maintained sedentary. Clinical characteristics, circulating NO, ET-1 and microRNA-126 (miR-126) levels were measured before and after 6 weeks. The Reactive Hyperemia Index (RHI) was measured using EndoPAT-2000 system. RESULTS:After 6-weeks intervention, obese adolescents' body circumferences and glucolipid metabolism are significantly improved. RHI (p < 0.01) and serum levels of NO/ET-1 (p < 0.01) are significantly increased, while microRNA-126 significantly decreased (p < 0.01). ΔMiR-126 were positive correlated with ΔBMI (r = 0.60, p < 0.01), ΔRHI (r = 0.69, p < 0.05), and ΔNO/ET-1 (r = -0.68, p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS:Combination of exercise and diet control can effectively improve glycolipid metabolism of obese adolescents, and thus their microvascular endothelial function, which might be related to changes in serum miRNA-126. 10.1016/j.mvr.2018.10.009
    The effect of diet and exercise on tobacco carcinogen-induced lung cancer. Elisia Ingrid,Cho Brandon,Hay Mariah,Li Michael Yu,Hofs Elyse,Lam Vivian,Dyer Roger A,Lum Julian,Krystal Gerald Carcinogenesis In previous studies, we found that low-carbohydrate (CHO) diets reduced the incidence of tumors in mice genetically predisposed to cancer. However, because >90% of human cancers arise via carcinogen-induced somatic mutations, we investigated, herein, the role that different types and levels of CHO, protein and lipid play in lung cancer induced by the tobacco-specific carcinogen, nicotine-derived nitrosamine ketone (NNK) in A/J mice. We found lowering CHO levels significantly reduced lung nodules and blood glucose levels. We also found that soy protein was superior to casein and that coconut oil was ineffective at reducing lung nodules. Diets containing amylose or inulin (at 15% of total calories), soy protein (at 35%) and fat (at 50%, 30% being fish oil) were the most effective at reducing lung nodules. These fish oil-containing diets increased plasma levels of the ketone body, β-hydroxybutyrate, while reducing both insulin and 8-isoprostane in plasma and bronchoalveolar interleukin-12 and lung PGE2 levels. After only 2 weeks on this diet, the levels of γ-H2AX were significantly reduced, 24 hours after NNK treatment. Housing these mice in two-tiered rat cages with exercise wheels led to similar mouse weights on the different diets, whereas keeping mice in standard mouse cages led to both significant weight differences between the low-CHO, soy protein, fish oil diet and Western diet and substantially more lung nodules than in the two-tiered cages. Our results suggest that low-CHO, soy protein, fish oil-containing diets, together with exercise, may reduce the incidence of lung cancer. 10.1093/carcin/bgz060
    Exercise ameliorates the FGF21-adiponectin axis impairment in diet-induced obese mice. Yang Wenqi,Liu Ling,Wei Yuan,Fang Chunlu,Zhou Fu,Chen Jinbao,Han Qinghua,Huang Meifang,Tan Xuan,Liu Qiuyue,Pan Qiang,Zhang Lu,Lei Xiaojuan,Li Liangming Endocrine connections Objective:The protective effects of exercise against glucose dysmetabolism have been generally reported. However, the mechanism by which exercise improves glucose homeostasis remains poorly understood. The FGF21-adiponectin axis participates in the regulation of glucose metabolism. Elevated levels of FGF21 and decreased levels of adiponectin in obesity indicate FGF21-adiponectin axis dysfunction. Hence, we investigated whether exercise could improve the FGF21-adiponectin axis impairment and ameliorate disturbed glucose metabolism in diet-induced obese mice. Methods:Eight-week-old C57BL/6J mice were randomly assigned to three groups: low-fat diet control group, high-fat diet group and high-fat diet plus exercise group. Glucose metabolic parameters, the ability of FGF21 to induce adiponectin, FGF21 receptors and co-receptor levels and adipose tissue inflammation were evaluated after 12 weeks of intervention. Results:Exercise training led to reduced levels of fasting blood glucose and insulin, improved glucose tolerance and better insulin sensitivity in high-fat diet-induced obese mice. Although serum FGF21 levels were not significantly changed, both total and high-molecular-weight adiponectin concentrations were markedly enhanced by exercise. Importantly, exercise protected against high-fat diet-induced impaired ability of FGF21 to stimulate adiponectin secretion. FGF21 co-receptor, β-klotho, as well as receptors, FGFR1 and FGFR2, were upregulated by exercise. We also found that exercise inhibited adipose tissue inflammation, which may contribute to the improvement in the FGF21-adiponectin axis impairment. Conclusions:Our data indicate exercise protects against high-fat diet-induced FGF21-adiponectin axis impairment, and may thereby exert beneficial effects on glucose metabolism. 10.1530/EC-19-0034
    The Counteracting Effects of Exercise on High-Fat Diet-Induced Memory Impairment: A Systematic Review. Loprinzi Paul D,Ponce Pamela,Zou Liye,Li Hong Brain sciences The objective of the present review was to evaluate whether exercise can counteract a potential high-fat diet-induced memory impairment effect. The evaluated databases included: Google Scholar, Sports Discus, Embase/PubMed, Web of Science, and PsychInfo. Studies were included if: (1) an experimental/intervention study was conducted, (2) the experiment/intervention included both a high-fat diet and exercise group, and evaluated whether exercise could counteract the negative effects of a high-fat diet on memory, and (3) evaluated memory function (any type) as the outcome measure. In total, 17 articles met the inclusionary criteria. All 17 studies (conducted in rodents) demonstrated that the high-fat diet protocol impaired memory function and all 17 studies demonstrated a counteracting effect with chronic exercise engagement. Mechanisms of these robust effects are discussed herein. 10.3390/brainsci9060145
    Exercise training and/or diet on reduction of intra-abdominal adipose tissue and risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Borges Juliano H,Carter Stephen J,Bryan David R,Hunter Gary R European journal of clinical nutrition BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES:To test the effects of weight loss with and without exercise training (aerobic or resistance) on intra-abdominal adipose tissue (IAAT) and risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Additionally, CVD risk factors was evaluated before and after weight loss using previously established IAAT cut-points. SUBJECTS/METHODS:One hundred twenty-two overweight premenopausal women were randomly assigned to one of three groups: (1) diet only (Diet); (2) diet and aerobic training (Diet + AT); or (3) diet and resistance training (Diet + RT); until a BMI of < 25 kg/m was reached. Computerized tomography was used to measure IAAT and blood lipids were measured by assay. Evaluations were made before and after weight loss. RESULTS:Though no group-by-time effects were found after weight loss, we observed significant time effects for: IAAT (-38.0%, P < 0.001), total cholesterol (TC) (-2.2%, P = 0.008), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) (-4.8%, P < 0.001), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) (+20.2%, P < 0.001), triglycerides (-18.7%, P < 0.001), TC/HDL-C (-16.3%, P < 0.001), and LDL-C/HDL-C (-18.0%, P < 0.001). Following weight loss, 40.2% of all participants reduced IAAT to < 40 cm (IAAT associated with low CVD risk). Furthermore, only 2.5% of participants had an IAAT > 110 cm (IAAT associated with high CVD risk) after weight loss. We also observed that decreases of IAAT were associated with decreased CVD risk factors after weight loss independent of race, changes in %fat mass and changes in maximal oxygen uptake. CONCLUSIONS:Caloric restriction leading to significant weight loss with or without exercise training appears to be equally effective for reducing IAAT and CVD risk factors. 10.1038/s41430-018-0318-4
    Practical Guidance for Interventions in Adults with Metabolic Syndrome: Diet and Exercise vs. Changes in Body Composition. Pérez Enrique Albert,González Marina Poveda,Martínez-Espinosa Rosa María,Vila Mariola D Molina,Reig García-Galbis Manuel International journal of environmental research and public health (1) Objective: to establish practical guidance for the design of future clinical trials in MS (metabolic syndrome) patients aged 18 and older, based on a systematic review of randomized clinical trials connecting diet, physical exercise and changes in body composition. (2) Method: this systematic review of randomized clinical trials (RCT) is based on the guidelines recommended by PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses). Criteria of selection: ≥18 years of age; patients diagnosed with MS; intervention programs including diet, physical exercise and/or modifications in the style of life as treatment, as well as the magnitude of changes in body composition (BC); randomized clinical trial published between 2004 and 2018. (3) Results: the multidisciplinary interventions describe major changes in BC, and the recurring pattern in these clinical trials is an energy reduction and control in the percentage of intake of macronutrients along with the performance of regularly structured exercise; the most analyzed parameter was waist circumference (88.9% of the trials), followed by body weight (85.2%), BMI (77.8%) and body fat (55.6%). (4) Conclusions: The analysis of the information here reported sheds light for the design of future clinical trials in adults with MS. The best anthropometric parameters and units of measurement to monitor the interventions are related to dietary and physical exercise interventions. A list of practical advice that is easy to implement in daily practice in consultation is here proposed in order to guarantee the best results in changes of body composition. 10.3390/ijerph16183481
    Carbohydrate-restricted Diet and Exercise Increase Brain-derived Neurotrophic Factor and Cognitive Function: A Randomized Crossover Trial. Gyorkos Amy,Baker Mark H,Miutz Lauren N,Lown Deborah A,Jones Michael A,Houghton-Rahrig Lori D Cureus Introduction Metabolic syndrome (MetS) has been recognized as one of the most important clinical challenges and global health issues of today. Growing evidence suggests that mechanisms of energy metabolism may also play a key role in mediating aspects of cognitive function. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is one such factor well known for its critical role in neuronal plasticity, including memory and learning, and more recently metabolic processes. BDNF levels have been shown separately to be dependent on diet and exercise programming. Purpose The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of diet and exercise on BDNF levels and cognitive functioning with any metabolic association in individuals characterized with MetS. Methods Twelve subjects with MetS followed a randomized crossover design with two four-week interventions, including a carbohydrate (CHO)-restricted Paleolithic-based diet (CRPD; <50gCHO) with sedentary activity (CRPD-Sed) and CRPD with high intensity interval training (HIIT; CRPD-Sed), separated by a four-week washout period. The HIIT exercise consisted of 10 x 60 s cycling intervals interspersed with 60 s of active recovery 3 day/week for four-week. Serum BDNF was detected and quantified via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Cognitive executive function (Stroop Test) and self-perceived cognitive symptoms and function (MOS-CFS) were quantified. A two-way analysis of variance with repeated measures was performed with post-hoc analysis using simple effects analysis with a Bonferroni adjustment. The level of statistical significance was established a priori as P < 0.05. Results Compared to baseline, CRPD-Sed and CRPD-Ex improved variables for cognitive function, including increased peripheral serum BDNF levels (20% and 38%), psychomotor speed and cognitive flexibility (-14%, -14%), and self-perceived cognitive symptoms and functioning (+8%, +16%), respectively. BDNF inversely correlated with %body fat (r = -0.35, P < 0.05), fasting glucose (r = -0.64, P < 0.05), triglycerides (r = -0.55, P < 0.05), and insulin sensitivity (r = -0.25, P < 0.05). Conclusion This study shows the short-term beneficial effects of carbohydrate-restricted diet on serum BDNF and executive function in those individuals characterized with MetS. We have shown that the addition of exercise can further improve neuroprotection and cognitive function beyond the results of diet alone. 10.7759/cureus.5604
    Non-Energy-Restricted Low-Carbohydrate Diet Combined with Exercise Intervention Improved Cardiometabolic Health in Overweight Chinese Females. Sun Shengyan,Kong Zhaowei,Shi Qingde,Hu Mingzhu,Zhang Haifeng,Zhang Di,Nie Jinlei Nutrients This study aimed to examine the effects of four weeks of a low-carbohydrate diet (LC) and incorporated exercise training on body composition and cardiometabolic health. Fifty-eight overweight/obese Chinese females (age: 21.2 ± 3.3 years, body mass index (BMI): 25.1 ± 2.8 kg/m) were randomly assigned to the control group (CON, = 15), the LC control group (LC-CON, = 15), the LC and high-intensity interval training group (LC-HIIT, = 15), or the LC and moderate-intensity continuous training group (LC-MICT, = 13). Subjects consumed a four week LC, whereas LC-HIIT and LC-MICT received extra training 5 d/week (LC-HIIT: 10 × 6 s cycling interspersed with 9 s rest, MICT: 30 min continuous cycling at 50-60% VO). After intervention, the three LC groups demonstrated significant reductions in body weight (-2.85 kg in LC-CON, -2.85 kg in LC-HIIT, -2.56 kg in LC-MICT, < 0.001, η = 0.510), BMI ( < 0.001, = 0.504) and waist-to-hip ratio ( < 0.001, η = 0.523). Groups with extra training (i.e., LC-HIIT and LC-MICT) improved VO by 14.8 and 17.3%, respectively. However, fasting glucose and blood lipid levels remained unchanged in all groups. Short-term LC is a useful approach to improve body composition in overweight/obese Chinese females. Incorporated exercise training has no additional effects on weight loss, but has additional benefits on cardiorespiratory fitness, and HIIT is more time efficient than the traditional MICT (2.5 min vs. 30 min). 10.3390/nu11123051
    Effect of a Low-Carbohydrate High-Fat Diet and a Single Bout of Exercise on Glucose Tolerance, Lipid Profile and Endothelial Function in Normal Weight Young Healthy Females. Valsdottir Thorhildur Ditta,Henriksen Christine,Odden Nancy,Nellemann Birgitte,Jeppesen Per B,Hisdal Jonny,Westerberg Ane C,Jensen Jørgen Frontiers in physiology Low-carbohydrate-high-fat (LCHF) diets are efficient for weight loss, and are also used by healthy people to maintain bodyweight. The main aim of this study was to investigate the effect of 3-week energy-balanced LCHF-diet, with >75 percentage energy (E%) from fat, on glucose tolerance and lipid profile in normal weight, young, healthy women. The second aim of the study was to investigate if a bout of exercise would prevent any negative effect of LCHF-diet on glucose tolerance. Seventeen females participated, age 23.5 ± 0.5 years; body mass index 21.0 ± 0.4 kg/m, with a mean dietary intake of 78 ± 1 E% fat, 19 ± 1 E% protein and 3 ± 0 E% carbohydrates. Measurements were performed at baseline and post-intervention. Fasting glucose decreased from 4.7 ± 0.1 to 4.4 mmol/L ( < 0.001) during the dietary intervention whereas fasting insulin was unaffected. Glucose area under the curve (AUC) and insulin AUC did not change during an OGTT after the intervention. Before the intervention, a bout of aerobic exercise reduced fasting glucose (4.4 ± 0.1 mmol/L, < 0.001) and glucose AUC (739 ± 41 to 661 ± 25, = 0.008) during OGTT the following morning. After the intervention, exercise did not reduce fasting glucose the following morning, and glucose AUC during an OGTT increased compared to the day before (789 ± 43 to 889 ± 40 mmol/L∙120min, = 0.001). AUC for insulin was unaffected. The dietary intervention increased total cholesterol ( < 0.001), low-density lipoprotein ( ≤ 0.001), high-density lipoprotein ( = 0.011), triglycerides ( = 0.035), and free fatty acids ( = 0.021). In conclusion, 3-week LCHF-diet reduced fasting glucose, while glucose tolerance was unaffected. A bout of exercise post-intervention did not decrease AUC glucose as it did at baseline. Total cholesterol increased, mainly due to increments in low-density lipoprotein. LCHF-diets should be further evaluated and carefully considered for healthy individuals. 10.3389/fphys.2019.01499
    Identifying a motivational process surrounding adherence to exercise and diet among adults with type 2 diabetes. Laroche Manon,Roussel Peggy,Cury Francois The Physician and sportsmedicine : This paper aims to provide physicians with knowledge about the motivational processes surrounding exercise and diet for patients with type 2 diabetes and to offer patient support measures to favor self-management. To respond to this objective, the links between two kind of motivators (i.e., promotion and prevention foci), the Selection, Optimization and Compensation (SOC) self-management strategy, and adherence to exercise and diet of patients with type 2 diabetes were investigated for the first time in the literature.: A cross-sectional study was conducted with 491 French volunteer participants with type 2 diabetes diagnosed for at least 3 months (Age = 61.66 ± 9.63; BMI = 29.8 ± 5.9). Participants completed an online self-report survey measuring SOC strategy, promotion and prevention foci, and adherence to exercise and diet.: The main results of path and bootstrapping analysis demonstrated that promotion focus was positively related with SOC strategy (β = .69, p < .001) whereas prevention focus was not (β = -.01, .). On the other hand, SOC strategy was positively related with exercise (β = .20, p < .05), general diet (β = .49, p < .001), fruit and vegetable consumption (β = .27, p < .001), and spacing of carbohydrates (β = .40, p < .001), and mediated the positive link between promotion focus and these behaviors (bootstrapped 95% CI: [.11; .40], [.52; .81], [.22; .54], [.37; .70], respectively).: This paper addresses a gap in previous research by evidencing a motivator that promotes self-management for exercise and diet among patients with type 2 diabetes. Our results suggest that physicians should privilege an interaction with patients oriented toward promotional motivation so as to favor their patients' self-management regarding exercise and diet. 10.1080/00913847.2019.1632154
    Exercise, diet and stress as modulators of gut microbiota: Implications for neurodegenerative diseases. Gubert Carolina,Kong Geraldine,Renoir Thibault,Hannan Anthony J Neurobiology of disease The last decade has witnessed an exponentially growing interest in gut microbiota and the gut-brain axis in health and disease. Accumulating evidence from preclinical and clinical research indicate that gut microbiota, and their associated microbiomes, may influence pathogenic processes and thus the onset and progression of various diseases, including neurological and psychiatric disorders. In fact, gut dysbiosis (microbiota dysregulation) has been associated with a range of neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, Huntington's and motor neuron disease, as well as multiple sclerosis. The gut microbiota constitutes a dynamic microbial system constantly challenged by many biological variables, including environmental factors. Since the gut microbiota constitute a changeable and experience-dependent ecosystem, they provide potential therapeutic targets that can be modulated as new interventions for dysbiosis-related disorders, including neurodegenerative diseases. This article reviews the evidence for environmental modulation of gut microbiota and its relevance to brain disorders, exploring in particular the implications for neurodegenerative diseases. We will focus on three major environmental factors that are known to influence the onset and progression of those diseases, namely exercise, diet and stress. Further exploration of environmental modulation, acting via both peripheral (e.g. gut microbiota and associated metabolic dysfunction or 'metabolopathy') and central (e.g. direct effects on CNS neurons and glia) mechanisms, may lead to the development of novel therapeutic approaches, such as enviromimetics, for a wide range of neurological and psychiatric disorders. 10.1016/j.nbd.2019.104621
    The Influence of Peers on Diet and Exercise Among Adolescents: A Systematic Review. Chung Sophia Jihey,Ersig Anne L,McCarthy Ann Marie Journal of pediatric nursing Adolescents' diet and exercise are modifiable factors contributing to high rates of adolescent obesity. Diverse contextual factors, including family, social environment, and peers, affect adolescents' diet and exercise behaviors. Because peer influence increases during adolescence, peers' contributions to adolescents' diet and exercise behaviors should be examined as potential targets for intervention to reduce the prevalence of adolescent obesity. The purpose of this systematic review is to identify research examining the contribution of peers to diet and exercise of adolescents. The electronic databases PubMed, CINAHL, Web of Science, and SCOPUS were searched. A total of 24 unique articles were included: seven examined diet only, fourteen studied exercise only, and three explored diet and exercise. This review provided evidence that diet and exercise of adolescents were significantly associated with those of their peers. However, these associations differed depending on gender, the type of diet and exercise, and closeness of friends. Findings from this review suggest that peers could be possible targets for interventions to promote healthier diet and exercise among adolescents; however, more studies are needed to identify specific peer influences and develop tailored interventions. 10.1016/j.pedn.2017.04.010
    Nutrient Intake During Diet-Induced Weight Loss and Exercise Interventions in a Randomized Trial in Older Overweight and Obese Adults. Miller G D,Beavers D P,Hamm D,Mihalko S L,Messier S P The journal of nutrition, health & aging OBJECTIVES:Dietary restriction in obese older adults undergoing weight loss may exacerbate nutrient deficiencies common in this group; the nutritional health of older adults is a factor in their quality of life, disability, and mortality. This study examined the effect of an 18-month weight loss program based in social cognitive theory incorporating partial meal replacements, on nutrient intake in older overweight and obese adults. DESIGN:The following analysis is from the Intensive Diet and Exercise for Arthritis (IDEA) trial, a single-blind, randomized controlled trial. Individuals were randomized into one of three 18-month interventions: exercise (E); intensive diet-induced weight loss (D); or intensive diet-induced weight loss plus exercise (D+E). SETTING:The study setting was at a university research facility. PARTICIPANTS:Overweight and obese older adults (n=388; BMI=33.7±3.8 kg/m2; 65.8±6.1 years) were recruited. INTERVENTIONS:The D and D+E interventions (group mean goal of ≥10% loss by 18-months) utilized partial meal replacements (2 meal replacement shakes/day for 6-months). Exercise training for E and D+E was 3 days/week, 60 minutes/day. MEASUREMENTS:Three day food records were collected at baseline, 6-months, and 18-months and analyzed for total energy and macro- and micronutrient intake. Comparisons of dietary intake among treatment groups were performed at 6 and 18 months using mixed linear models. RESULTS:Weight loss at 18-months was 11.3±8.3% (D), 10.3±6.8% (D+E), and 1.2±4.2% (E). Meal replacements were used by more than 60% (6-months) and 50% (18-months) of D and D+E participants, compared to ≤15% for E. Both D and D+E consumed less energy and fat, and more carbohydrates and selected micronutrients than E during follow-up. More than 50% of all participants consumed less than the recommended intake of particular vitamins and minerals. CONCLUSIONS:The diet intervention improved intakes of several nutrients. However, inadequate intake of several vitamins and minerals of concern for older adults suggests they need further guidance to assure adequate intake. 10.1007/s12603-017-0892-5
    Beneficial effects of exercise on offspring obesity and insulin resistance are reduced by maternal high-fat diet. Kasch Juliane,Schumann Sara,Schreiber Saskia,Klaus Susanne,Kanzleiter Isabel PloS one SCOPE:We investigated the long-term effects of maternal high-fat consumption and post-weaning exercise on offspring obesity susceptibility and insulin resistance. METHODS:C57BL/6J dams were fed either a high-fat (HFD, 40% kcal fat) or low-fat (LFD, 10% kcal fat) semi-synthetic diet during pregnancy and lactation. After weaning, male offspring of both maternal diet groups (mLFD; mHFD) received a LFD. At week 7, half of the mice got access to a running wheel (+RW) as voluntary exercise training. To induce obesity, all offspring groups (mLFD +/-RW and mHFD +/-RW) received HFD from week 15 until week 25. RESULTS:Compared to mLFD, mHFD offspring were more prone to HFD-induced body fat gain and exhibited an increased liver mass which was not due to increased hepatic triglyceride levels. RW improved the endurance capacity in mLFD, but not in mHFD offspring. Additionally, mHFD offspring +RW exhibited higher plasma insulin levels during glucose tolerance test and an elevated basal pancreatic insulin production compared to mLFD offspring. CONCLUSION:Taken together, maternal HFD reduced offspring responsiveness to the beneficial effects of voluntary exercise training regarding the improvement of endurance capacity, reduction of fat mass gain, and amelioration of HFD-induced insulin resistance. 10.1371/journal.pone.0173076
    Physical exercise remodels visceral adipose tissue and mitochondrial lipid metabolism in rats fed a high-fat diet. Rocha-Rodrigues Sílvia,Rodríguez Amaia,Becerril Sara,Ramírez Beatriz,Gonçalves Inês O,Beleza Jorge,Frühbeck Gema,Ascensão António,Magalhães José Clinical and experimental pharmacology & physiology We aimed to investigate the effects of two physical exercise models, voluntary physical activity (VPA) and endurance training (ET) as preventive and therapeutic strategies, respectively, on lipid accumulation regulators and mitochondrial content in VAT of rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD). Sprague-Dawley rats (6 weeks old, n=60) were assigned into sedentary and VPA groups fed isoenergetic diets: standard (S, 35 kcal% fat) or HFD (71 kcal% fat). The VPA groups had free access to wheel running during the entire protocol. After 9 weeks, half of the sedentary animals were exercised on a treadmill while maintaining the dietary treatments. The HFD induced no changes in plasma non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and glycerol levels and decreased oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) subunit IV and increased truncated/full-length sterol regulatory element-binding transcription factor 1c (SREBP1c) ratio in epididymal white adipose tissue (eWAT). VPA decreased plasma glycerol levels, aquaglyceroporin 7 (AQP7) and increased subunit I of cytochrome c oxidase (COX) protein, in standard diet fed animals. Eight weeks of ET decreased body weight, visceral adiposity and adipocyte size and plasma NEFA and glycerol levels, as well as AQP7 protein expression in eWAT. ET increased fatty acid translocase (FAT/CD36), mitochondrial content of complexes IV and V subunits, mitochondrial biogenesis and dynamic (mitofusins and optic atrophy 1)-related proteins. Moreover, lipogenesis-related markers (SREBP1c and acetyl CoA carboxylase) were reduced after 8 weeks of ET. In conclusion, ET-induced alterations reflect a positive effect on mitochondrial function and the overall VAT metabolism of HFD-induced obese rats. 10.1111/1440-1681.12706
    Low-Carbohydrate-High-Fat Diet: Can it Help Exercise Performance? Chang Chen-Kang,Borer Katarina,Lin Po-Ju Journal of human kinetics Low-carbohydrate-high-fat (LCHF) diets have been used as a means of weight loss and control of symptoms in several clinical conditions. There is emerging evidence that the metabolic changes induced by LCHF diets enhance endurance performance. The aims of this review are to examine the evidence of LCHF diets in improving various aspects of athletic performance. Long-term LCHF dietary intake may help control body weight and fat mass while maintaining lean body mass in athletes in weight-sensitive sports. LCHF-adapted endurance athletes can reach the maximal fat oxidation rate of approximately 1.5 g/min, with a lower carbohydrate oxidation rate and similar muscle glycogen content and a resynthesis rate compared to their counterparts consuming high-carbohydrate-low-fat (HCLF) diets. The elevated fat oxidation rate and glycogen sparing effect may improve performance in ultra-endurance events. These metabolic changes may also prevent the decline in performance in later stages of repeated high-intensity movements, in which the aerobic metabolism becomes more important. However, elevated blood concentrations of non-esterified fatty acids and ammonia during exercise after LCHF diets may lead to early development of central fatigue. It appears that at least several months of adaptation to a LCHF diet are required for the metabolic changes and restoration of muscle glycogen to occur. Further investigations on LCHF diets are needed regarding (1) performance after weight loss in weight-categorized sports; (2) repeated high-intensity exercise performance; (3) development of central fatigue during endurance events; (4) perceptual-motor performance during prolonged intermittent sports; and (5) ideal dietary fatty acid compositions. 10.1515/hukin-2017-0025
    Physical exercise ameliorates mood disorder-like behavior on high fat diet-induced obesity in mice. Park Hye-Sang,Lee Jae-Min,Cho Han-Sam,Park Sang-Seo,Kim Tae-Woon Psychiatry research Obesity is associated with mood disorders such as depression and anxiety. The aim of this study was to investigate whether treadmill exercise had any benefits on mood disorder by high fat diet (HFD) induced obesity. Mice were randomly divided into four groups: control, control and exercise, high fat diet (HFD), and HFD and exercise. Obesity was induced by a 20-week HFD (60%). In the exercise groups, exercise was performed 6 times a week for 12 weeks, with the exercise duration and intensity gradually increasing at 4-week intervals. Mice were tested in tail suspension and elevated plus maze tasks in order to verify the mood disorder like behavior such as depression and anxiety on obesity. In the present study, the number of 5-HT- and TPH-positive cells, and expression of 5-HT and 5-HTT protein decreased in dorsal raphe, and depression and anxiety like behavior increased in HFD group compared with the CON group. In contrast, treadmill exercise ameliorated mood disorder like behavior by HFD induced obesity and enhanced expression of the serotonergic system in the dorsal raphe. We concluded that exercise increases the capacity of the serotonergic system in the dorsal raphe, which improves the mood disorders associated with HFD-induced obesity. 10.1016/j.psychres.2017.01.012
    A gut reaction: the combined influence of exercise and diet on gastrointestinal microbiota in rats. Batacan R B,Fenning A S,Dalbo V J,Scanlan A T,Duncan M J,Moore R J,Stanley D Journal of applied microbiology AIMS:Intestinal microbiota modulates the development of clinical conditions, including metabolic syndrome and obesity. Many of these conditions are influenced by nutritional and exercise behaviours. This study aimed to investigate the ability of exercise to re-shape the intestinal microbiota and the influence of the diet on the process. METHODS AND RESULTS:A rat model was used to examine the intestinal microbiota responses to four activity conditions, including: high-intensity interval training (HIIT), light-intensity training (LIT), sedentary and normal control, each containing two nutritional conditions: high-fat high-fructose diet (HF) and standard chow (SC) diet. No significant differences in microbiota were apparent between activity conditions in rats fed a HF diet but changes in the presence/absence of phylotypes were observed in the LIT and HIIT groups. In rats fed SC, significant differences in intestinal microbiota were evident between exercised and nonexercised rats. Both LIT and HIIT induced significant differences in intestinal microbiota in SC-fed rats compared to their respective SC-fed controls. Characterization of the exercise-induced bacterial phylotypes indicated an increase in bacteria likely capable of degrading resistant polysaccharides and an increase in short chain fatty acid producers. CONCLUSIONS:While a significant effect of exercise on microbiota composition occurred in SC-fed rats, the HF-fed rats microbiota showed little response. These data suggest that a HF diet prevented microbiota differentiation in response to exercise. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY:The importance of diet-exercise interaction is extended to the level of intestinal bacteria and gut health. 10.1111/jam.13442
    Exercise training rescues high fat diet-induced neuronal nitric oxide synthase expression in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex of mice. Tomiga Yuki,Yoshimura Saki,Ito Ai,Nakashima Shihoko,Kawanaka Kentaro,Uehara Yoshinari,Tanaka Hiroaki,Higaki Yasuki Nitric oxide : biology and chemistry Consumption of a high fat diet (HFD) and being overweight both induce functional deterioration and atrophy of the hippocampus. These alterations are associated with mental disorders such as depression and anxiety. Exercise combats obesity and enhances brain health. There is substantial evidence that neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) is a key regulator of affective behavior, and that increased brain nNOS leads to anxiety while environmental enrichment (EE), which reduces brain nNOS, has anxiolytic effects. In this study we investigated the effects of HFD with and without exercise on nNOS protein and gene expression levels in the brains of mice. Twelve weeks of HFD consumption increased body and mesenteric fat weight, as well as nNOS protein levels in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex. Six weeks of exercise training reduced body fat and rescued hippocampal and cortical nNOS expression levels in HFD-fed mice. Cerebellar nNOS expression was unaffected by HFD and exercise. Our results suggest that HFD-induced brain dysfunction may be regulated by hippocampal and/or cortical nNOS, and that exercise may have therapeutic potential for the treatment of HFD-induced depression and anxiety via the nNOS/NO pathway. In conclusion, exercise reverses HFD-induced changes in hippocampal and cortical nNOS protein levels in mice. 10.1016/j.niox.2017.03.002
    High Intensity Exercise: Can It Protect You from A Fast Food Diet? Duval Christian,Rouillier Marc-Antoine,Rabasa-Lhoret Rémi,Karelis Antony D Nutrients The purpose of this study was to assess the ability of high intensity exercise to counteract the deleterious effects of a fast food diet on the cardiometabolic profile of young healthy men. Fifteen men were subjected to an exclusive fast food diet from a popular fast food restaurant chain (three extra value meals/day + optional snack) for 14 consecutive days. Simultaneously, participants were asked to perform each day high intensity interval training (HIIT) (15 × 60 sec sprint intervals (~90% of maximal heart rate)) on a treadmill. Fast food diet and energy expenditure profiles of the participants during the intervention were assessed as well as body composition (DXA), cardiometabolic profile (lipid, hepatic enzymes, glycated hemoglobin, glucose, insulin, hsC-reactive protein (hsCRP) and blood pressure) and estimated maximal oxygen consumption (VO2 max) pre- and post-experiment. We found significant improvements for fat mass, lean body mass, estimated VO₂ max, fasting glucose, serum lipoprotein(a) and hsCRP after the intervention ( < 0.05). HDL-cholesterol significantly decreased ( < 0.002), but the triglycerides/HDL-cholesterol ratio did not change. All other cardiometabolic variables measured remained stable, which includes the primary outcome: the HOMA index (pre: 1.83 ± 1.2 vs. post: 1.54 ± 0.7 values; = 0.35). In conclusion, in large part, insulin resistance and the cardiometabolic profile of young healthy individuals seems to be protected by HIIT from a fast food diet. 10.3390/nu9090943
    Impacts of maternal diet and exercise on offspring behavior and body weights. Moser Virginia C,McDaniel Katherine L,Woolard Emily A,Phillips Pamela M,Franklin Jason N,Gordon Christopher J Neurotoxicology and teratology Human and animal studies indicate that maternal obesity can negatively impact aspects of metabolism and neurodevelopment in the offspring. Not known, however, is whether maternal exercise can alter these adverse outcomes. In this study, Long-Evans female rats were provided a high fat (60%; HFD) or control diet (CD) 44days before mating and throughout gestation and lactation. Running wheels were available to half of each diet group during the gestational period only, resulting in four conditions: CD diet with (CDRW) or without (sedentary; CDSED) exercise, and HFD with (HFRW) or without (HFSED) exercise. Only male offspring (one per litter) were available for this study: they were put on control diet two weeks after weaning and examined using behavioral evaluations up to four months of age. Before weaning, offspring of CDRW dams weighed less than offspring from CDSED or HFD dams. After weaning, the lower weight in CDRW offspring generally persisted. Adult offspring from HFSED dams performed worse than the HFRW group in a Morris water maze during initial spatial training as well as reversal learning; memory was not impacted. No differences between groups were seen in tests of novel object recognition, social approach, or chocolate milk preference. Thus, maternal diet and exercise produced differential effects on body weights and cognitive behaviors in the offspring, and the data demonstrate a positive impact of maternal exercise on the offspring in that it ameliorated some deleterious behavioral effects of a maternal high fat diet. 10.1016/j.ntt.2017.07.002
    Exercise improves high fat diet-impaired vascular function. Fang Jun,Tang Mei Biomedical reports The prevalence of metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease is increasing due to increases in the consumption of high fat diets (HFDs) and the epidemic of obesity. In the present study, it was hypothesized that swimming exercise may prevent HFD-induced impairment of aortic function and that these changes are associated with reduction of oxidative stress, proinflammatory adipokines/cytokines. Male, 6-week-old C57BL/6J mice were fed a 60% lipid composition HFD with or without swimming exercise (90 min/swim and 2 swims/day) for 16 weeks. Exercise training prevented HFD-induced increases in visceral fat weight, total cholesterol and triglycerides. Furthermore, exercise training improved HFD-impaired aortic endothelium-dependent dilation that was associated with reduction of oxidative stress, leptin, resistin, monocyte chemoattractant protein 1, interleukin (IL)6 and IL8. In addition, exercise inhibited HFD-induced vascular endothelial growth factor expression in gastrocnemius skeletal muscle. These data demonstrate that swimming exercise prevents aortic tissue oxidative stress, inflammation and vascular dysfunction in HFD-induced obesity. 10.3892/br.2017.972
    Treatment of NAFLD with diet, physical activity and exercise. Romero-Gómez Manuel,Zelber-Sagi Shira,Trenell Michael Journal of hepatology Lifestyle intervention can be effective when treating non-alcoholic fatty liver diseases (NAFLD) patients. Weight loss decreases cardiovascular and diabetes risk and can also regress liver disease. Weight reductions of ⩾10% can induce a near universal non-alcoholic steatohepatitis resolution and fibrosis improvement by at least one stage. However, modest weight loss (>5%) can also produce important benefits on the components of the NAFLD activity score (NAS). Additionally, we need to explore the role of total calories and type of weight loss diet, micro- and macronutrients, evidence-based benefits of physical activity and exercise and finally support these modifications through established behavioural change models and techniques for long-term maintenance of lifestyle modifications. Following a Mediterranean diet can reduce liver fat even without weight loss and is the most recommended dietary pattern for NAFLD. The Mediterranean diet is characterised by reduced carbohydrate intake, especially sugars and refined carbohydrates (40% of the calories vs. 50-60% in a typical low fat diet), and increased monounsaturated and omega-3 fatty acid intake (40% of the calories as fat vs. up-to 30% in a typical low fat diet). Both TV sitting (a reliable marker of overall sedentary behaviour) and physical activity are associated with cardio-metabolic health, NAFLD and overall mortality. A 'triple hit behavioural phenotype' of: i) sedentary behaviour, ii) low physical activity, and iii) poor diet have been defined. Clinical evidence strongly supports the role of lifestyle modification as a primary therapy for the management of NAFLD and NASH. This should be accompanied by the implementation of strategies to avoid relapse and weight regain. 10.1016/j.jhep.2017.05.016
    The effect of combined diet and exercise intervention on body weight and the serum GPIHBP1 concentration in overweight/obese middle-aged women. Aruga Masashi,Tokita Yoshiharu,Nakajima Katsuyuki,Kamachi Keiko,Tanaka Akira Clinica chimica acta; international journal of clinical chemistry BACKGROUND:The relationship between the effects of diet and exercise intervention and the body weight associated with the serum lipoprotein lipase (LPL), hepatic triglyceride lipase (HTGL) and glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchored high density lipoprotein binding protein 1 (GPIHBP1) concentrations has not been elucidated. METHODS:Sixty-six overweight/obese middle aged women were assigned to the diet and exercise intervention for 4months. They were divided into 2 groups followed by the body mass index (BMI) decreased >3% (n=41) and <3% (n=25). Serum lipids, lipoproteins and the LPL, HTGL, GPIHBP1 concentrations were determined. RESULTS:The cases in which the BMI decreased >3% exhibited significant improvement of diagnostic markers compared with the cases with <3% decrease after the intervention. The LPL concentration did not significantly change, but GPIHBP1 increased significantly after the intervention. The increased GPIHBP1 was significantly associated with decreased body weight. Multiple regression analysis indicated a strong association between GPIHBP1 and percentage of body fat. CONCLUSIONS:The diet and exercise intervention significantly increased the serum GPIHBP1 concentration in association with a decrease in body weight and percentage of body fat. These results suggest that GPIHBP1 is a better marker for body weight decrease than LPL. 10.1016/j.cca.2017.10.017
    Diet and Exercise: a Match Made in Bone. Willems Hubertine M E,van den Heuvel Ellen G H M,Schoemaker Ruud J W,Klein-Nulend Jenneke,Bakker Astrid D Current osteoporosis reports PURPOSE OF REVIEW:Multiple dietary components have the potential to positively affect bone mineral density in early life and reduce loss of bone mass with aging. In addition, regular weight-bearing physical activity has a strong positive effect on bone through activation of osteocyte signaling. We will explore possible synergistic effects of dietary components and mechanical stimuli for bone health by identifying dietary components that have the potential to alter the response of osteocytes to mechanical loading. RECENT FINDINGS:Several (sub)cellular aspects of osteocytes determine their signaling towards osteoblasts and osteoclasts in response to mechanical stimuli, such as the osteocyte cytoskeleton, estrogen receptor α, the vitamin D receptor, and the architecture of the lacunocanalicular system. Potential modulators of these features include 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D, several forms of vitamin K, and the phytoestrogen genistein. Multiple dietary components potentially affect osteocyte function and therefore may have a synergistic effect on bone health when combined with a regime of physical activity. 10.1007/s11914-017-0406-8
    Flexible Eating Behavior Predicts Greater Weight Loss Following a Diet and Exercise Intervention in Older Women. Berg Alison C,Johnson Kristen B,Straight Chad R,Reed Rachelle A,O'Connor Patrick J,Evans Ellen M,Johnson Mary Ann Journal of nutrition in gerontology and geriatrics Eating behaviors (cognitive restraint, flexible and rigid restraint, disinhibition, hunger) have been associated with obesity and weight loss success in middle-aged individuals, but little is known about these relationships in older adults. This study examined relationships between eating behaviors and weight loss in overweight/obese older women (n = 61; 69 ± 3.6 years; body mass index = 31.1 ± 5.0 kg/m) completed a 6-month behavioral weight loss intervention. Baseline, postintervention, and change measures of eating behaviors (51-items Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire) were assessed for relationships with weight loss. In the final regression model, an increase in flexible restraint accompanied by a decrease in rigid restraint predicted greater weight loss (adjusted R = 0.21, Model F (4, 56) = 4.97, P < 0.01). No associations were found with disinhibition or hunger and degree of weight loss (all P > 0.05). Results suggest encouraging a flexible approach to eating behavior and discouraging rigid adherence to a diet may lead to better intentional weight loss for overweight and obese older women. 10.1080/21551197.2018.1435433
    [Effects of aerobic exercise plus diet control on serum levels of total IGF-1 and IGF-1 binding protein-3 in female obese youths and adolescents]. Yang Hong-Fang,Lin Xiao-Jing,Wang Xiao-Hui Zhongguo ying yong sheng li xue za zhi = Zhongguo yingyong shenglixue zazhi = Chinese journal of applied physiology OBJECTIVE:To investigate the effects of 4-week moderate aerobic exercise plus diet control on serum levels of total insulin-like growth factor 1(IGF-1) and IGF-1 binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) as well as IGF-1 activity (reflected by molar ratio of IGF-1/IGFBP-3) in female obese adolescents and youths, and their possible role on fat loss, and improvement of glucose and lipid metabolism. METHODS:Nine female obese youths (age:18~19 y) and 30 female obese adolescents (age:14~16 y) were recruited and undertook 4-week aerobic exercise such as swimming and jogging (6 days/week, twice a day, 2 h/time with 5 min rest per 30 min exercise) with gradual increase of intensity from low (heart rate immediately post-exercise of 1st week:100~120 beats/min) to moderate (heart rate immediately post-exercise of 2-4 weeks:120~140 beats/min) level, combined with a diet intervention (total daily energy intake of 1 400 or 1 600 kcal according to basal metabolism rate) in Shanghai Dianfeng weight loss enclosed camp. Nine normal weight young women and 9 female children matched at age and nationality were recruited as the normal control. Before and after the experimental period, anthropometric index (body weight, body mass index(BMI) and waist circumference), glucose and lipid metabolism parameters including fasting blood glucose (FBG), fasting insulin (FINS), homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), triglyceride (TG); total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein (LDL) and high density lipoprotein (HDL), and serum levels of total IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 were measured, and IGF-1 activity was calculated in the obese and normal control female adolescents. RESULTS:①Compared with normal control, the serum levels of total IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 were decreased in the female obese youths and adolescents, and IGF-1 activity was reduced only in the obese female adolescents. ②The serum level of IGFBP-3 was down-regulated and IGF-1 activity was up-regulated while no change of serum total IGF-1 was induced by 4-week moderate aerobic exercise plus diet control, accompanied with significant decreases of body weight, BMI and waist circumference as well as improvement of glucose and lipid metabolism in the female obese youths and adolescents. Except for a positive association between the increased IGF-1 activity and the decreased waist circumference was found in the female obese youths by Pearson's correlation analysis, there was no relation of the decreased IGFBP-3, the increased IGF-1 activity with the improvements of anthropometric index and glucose and lipid metabolism in female obese youths and adolescents. CONCLUSIONS:The serum level of IGFBP-3 was down-regulated and the IGF-1 activity was up-regulated by 4-week moderate aerobic exercise plus diet control in female obese youths and adolescents. The increase of IGF-1 activity might be associated with the exercise-plus-diet-induced decrease of waist circumstance in female obese youths. 10.12047/j.cjap.5571.2018.020
    Endothelial Regenerative Capacity and Aging: Influence of Diet, Exercise and Obesity. Ross Mark D Current cardiology reviews BACKGROUND:The endothelium plays an important role in cardiovascular regulation, from blood flow to platelet aggregation, immune cell infiltration and demargination. A dysfunctional endothelium leads to the onset and progression of Cardiovascular Disease (CVD). The aging endothelium displays significant alterations in function, such as reduced vasomotor functions and reduced angiogenic capabilities. This could be partly due to elevated levels of oxidative stress and reduced endothelial cell turnover. Circulating angiogenic cells, such as Endothelial Progenitor Cells (EPCs) play a significant role in maintaining endothelial health and function, by supporting endothelial cell proliferation, or via incorporation into the vasculature and differentiation into mature endothelial cells. However, these cells are reduced in number and function with age, which may contribute to the elevated CVD risk in this population. However, lifestyle factors, such as exercise, physical activity obesity, and dietary intake of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, nitrates, and antioxidants, significantly affect the number and function of these circulating angiogenic cells. CONCLUSION:This review will discuss the effects of advancing age on endothelial health and vascular regenerative capacity, as well as the influence of diet, exercise, and obesity on these cells, the mechanistic links and the subsequent impact on cardiovascular health. 10.2174/1573403X14666180726112303
    Improved Sleep, Diet, and Exercise in Adults with Serious Mental Illness: Results from a Pilot Self-Management Intervention. Schmutte Timothy,Davidson Larry,O'Connell Maria The Psychiatric quarterly Compared to the general population, adults with serious mental illnesses have elevated rates of medical morbidity resulting in a reduced life expectancy of approximately 15 years. Chronic disease self-management programs for adults with serious mental and chronic medical illnesses show some promise in improving physical health-related outcomes, yet none of them address sleep quality. Poor sleep affects a majority of adults with serious mental illness and is robust risk factor for physical morbidity and premature mortality. This pilot project examined the impact of a 14-week educational and support group that included sleep quality as a cornerstone in promoting wellness and self-management in 78 adults with serious mental illness and poor health. Results provide preliminary data that the self-management program was associated with significant improvements in self-reported sleep quality at post-intervention. At 3-month follow-up, participants reported additional increases in sleep quality as well as in healthy diet and exercise frequency. Addressing sleep quality as part of self-management and wellness programs may be a viable approach to assist adults with chronic mental and physical illnesses to adopt health-promoting changes. 10.1007/s11126-017-9516-9
    Swim exercise training ameliorates hepatocyte ultrastructural alterations in rats fed on a high fat and sugar diet. Dallak Mohammed A,Bin-Jaliah Ismaeel,Albawardi Alia,Haidara Mohamed A,Sakr Hussein F,Eid Refaat A,Hassan W N,Al-Ani Bahjat Ultrastructural pathology Excessive consumption of carbohydrate and fat increases the risk of liver disease. We hypothesized that swim exercise can protect hepatocytes from ultra-structural damage induced by high cholesterol and fructose diets (HCFD). Rats were either fed with HCFD (model group) or a standard laboratory chow (control group) for 15 weeks before being sacrificed. Swim exercise trained rats started the treatment from the 11 week until the sacrifice day, end of week 15. Blood samples were assayed for biomarkers of liver injury and adiponectin. The harvested liver tissues were examined using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). TEM images revealed substantial damage and accumulation of lipid droplets (steatosis) in the hepatocytes of the model group that was inhibited by swim exercise. In addition, HCFD significantly (p < 0.0005) increased insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR), interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and aspartate aminotransferase (AST), which were effectively (p < 0.02) decreased by a swim exercise to levels comparable to control group. Whereas, swim exercise increased adiponectin levels in HCFD group (p < 0.03). These results show that HCFD-induced hepatic injury is ameliorated by swim training exercise possibly via restoration of a normal blood sugar and lipid, induction of adiponectin and inhibition of inflammatory, and liver injury biomarkers. 10.1080/01913123.2017.1422581
    The effect of diet and exercise on lipid droplet dynamics in human muscle tissue. Daemen Sabine,van Polanen Nynke,Hesselink Matthijs K C The Journal of experimental biology The majority of fat in the human body is stored as triacylglycerols in white adipose tissue. In the obese state, adipose tissue mass expands and excess lipids are stored in non-adipose tissues, such as skeletal muscle. Lipids are stored in skeletal muscle in the form of small lipid droplets. Although originally viewed as dull organelles that simply store lipids as a consequence of lipid overflow from adipose tissue, lipid droplets are now recognized as key components in the cell that exert a variety of relevant functions in multiple tissues (including muscle). Here, we review the effect of diet and exercise interventions on myocellular lipid droplets and their putative role in insulin sensitivity from a human perspective. We also provide an overview of lipid droplet biology and identify gaps for future research. 10.1242/jeb.167015
    Quality of Life in Dementia Sufferers: The Role of Diet and Exercise. Ricci Pasquale,Massoni Francesco,Ricci Lidia,Onofri Emanuela,Donato Giuseppe,Ricci Serafino Current Alzheimer research BACKGROUND:Among the myriad of factors modulating quality of life assessments estimated in patients presenting a variety of cognitive impairments, the distinctive and critical influence of diet and exercise cannot be overestimated. OBJECTIVE:The objective of this study was to review the evidence to confirm the association between these health-endowering agents and cognitive performance in People With Dementia as well as providing a correlation between Mini Mental State Examination scores and available anthropometric data. METHODS:The authors tested the hypothesized correlation on a sample of subjects with instrumentally confirmed cognitive impairment using parameters as Body Mass Index and calf circumference. RESULTS:The results confirm the hypothesis and suggesting the possible use of anthropometric data in the process of objective evaluation of the patient with cognitive impairment that could also be used for forensic medicine. 10.2174/1567205014666170925151614
    Exercise training improves intramuscular triglyceride lipolysis sensitivity in high-fat diet induced obese mice. Ko Kangeun,Woo Jinhee,Bae Ju Yong,Roh Hee Tae,Lee Yul Hyo,Shin Ki Ok Lipids in health and disease BACKGROUND:The purpose of this study was to determine whether regular exercise training enhances intramuscular triglyceride (IMTG) lipolysis sensitivity during consumption of a continued high-fat diet by exploring changes in biochemical factors activated by IMTG lipolysis. METHODS:Male C57BL/6 mice aged 4 weeks were randomly divided into a high-fat diet group (HF) to induce obesity for 6 weeks and a control (CO) group. Thereafter, the HF group was divided into a high-fat diet group (HF) and high-fat diet + training group (HFT). The HFT group was trained on an animal treadmill 40 min/day, 5 days/week for 8 weeks. PKA, Plin5, p-Plin5, CGI-58, ATGL, and HSL were analyzed to investigate IMTG sensitivity by western blotting. RESULTS:PKA, CGI-58, and HSL protein levels in the HF group were significantly lower than those in the CO group (p < 0.05). However, PKA, CGI-58, and HSL protein levels in the HFT group were significantly higher than those in the HF group, and ATGL and p-Plin5 protein levels as well as the p-Plin5/Plin5 ratio in the HFT group were significantly higher than those in the HF group (p < 0.05). In addition, the HF group showed a significantly higher IMTG volume than the CO and HFT groups (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS:These results suggest that in an obese mouse model, 8 weeks of treadmill exercise contributes to decreased IMTG volume by activating lipolysis factors, such as PKA, PLIN5, CGI-58, and lipases. Therefore, regular exercise training may play an important role in obesity treatment by increasing IMTG lipolysis sensitivity. 10.1186/s12944-018-0730-8
    A Vitamin E-Enriched Antioxidant Diet Interferes with the Acute Adaptation of the Liver to Physical Exercise in Mice. Hoene Miriam,Irmler Martin,Beckers Johannes,Hrabě de Angelis Martin,Häring Hans-Ulrich,Weigert Cora Nutrients Physical exercise is beneficial for general health and is an effective treatment for metabolic disorders. Vitamin E is widely used as dietary supplement and is considered to improve non-alcoholic fatty liver disease by reducing inflammation and dyslipidemia. However, increased vitamin E intake may interfere with adaptation to exercise training. Here, we explored how vitamin E alters the acute exercise response of the liver, an organ that plays an essential metabolic role during physical activity. Mice fed a control or an &alpha;-tocopherol-enriched diet were subjected to a non-exhaustive treadmill run. We assessed the acute transcriptional response of the liver as well as glucocorticoid signalling and plasma free fatty acids (FFA) and performed indirect calorimetry. Vitamin E interfered with the exercise-induced increase in FFA and upregulation of hepatic metabolic regulators, and it shifted the transcriptional profile of exercised mice towards lipid and cholesterol synthesis while reducing inflammation. Energy utilization, as well as corticosterone levels and signalling were similar, arguing against acute differences in substrate oxidation or glucocorticoid action. Our results show that high-dose vitamin E alters the metabolic and inflammatory response of the liver to physical exercise. The interference with these processes may suggest a cautious use of vitamin E as dietary supplement. 10.3390/nu10050547
    Association between posttraumatic stress disorder and lack of exercise, poor diet, obesity, and co-occuring smoking: A systematic review and meta-analysis. van den Berk-Clark Carissa,Secrest Scott,Walls Jesse,Hallberg Ellen,Lustman Patrick J,Schneider F David,Scherrer Jeffrey F Health psychology : official journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association OBJECTIVES:Research has shown that posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) increases the risk of development of cardiometabolic disease (CMD) including cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Whether PTSD is also associated with behavioral risk factors (e.g., diet, exercise, smoking and obesity) for CMD, is less clear. METHODS:PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus databases were searched to obtain papers published between 1980-2016. Studies were reviewed for quality using the Quality of Cohort screen. Significance values, odds ratios (OR), 95% confidence intervals (CI), and tests of homogeneity of variance were calculated. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS:A total of 1,349 studies were identified from our search and 29 studies met all eligibility criteria. Individuals with PTSD were 5% less likely to have healthy diets (pooled adjusted OR = 0.95; 95% CI: 0.92, 0.98), 9% less likely to engage in physical activity (pooled adjusted OR = 0.91; 95% CI: 0.88, 0.93), 31% more likely to be obese (pooled adjusted OR = 1.31; 95% CI:1.25, 1.38), and about 22% more likely to be current smokers (pooled adjusted OR = 1.22; 95% CI: 1.19, 1.26), than individuals without PTSD. CONCLUSIONS:Evidence shows PTSD is associated with reduced healthy eating and physical activity, and increased obesity and smoking. The well-established association between PTSD and metabolic and cardiovascular disease may be partly due to poor diet, sedentary lifestyle, high prevalence of obesity, and co-occurring smoking in this population. The well-established association of PTSD with CMD is likely due in part to poor health behaviors in this patient population. (PsycINFO Database Record 10.1037/hea0000593
    Physical exercise mitigates high-fat diet-induced adiposopathy and related endocrine alterations in an animal model of obesity. Rocha-Rodrigues Sílvia,Gonçalves Inês O,Beleza Jorge,Ascensão António,Magalhães José Journal of physiology and biochemistry The dysregulation of adipokine secretion owing to adiposopathy can contribute to the pathogenesis of obesity-related disorders. Being that exercise is an advised strategy against obesity-induced adiposopathy, we aimed to analyze the role of physical exercise as a preventive and therapeutic strategy against high-fat diet (HFD)-induced adipokine and ghrelin alterations. Rats were pair-fed the Lieber De Carli standard diet (S, 35 Kcal% fat) or HFD (71 Kcal% fat) over 17 weeks. Animals were assigned into four groups as follows: standard diet sedentary (SS), standard diet voluntary physical activity (SVPA), high-fat diet sedentary (HS), and high-fat diet voluntary physical activity (HVPA). After 9 weeks of dietary treatment, half of the SS and HS animals were submitted to an 8-week endurance training program, standard diet endurance training (SET), and high-fat-diet endurance training (HET) groups, maintaining the respective diets. Although there were no changes in body weight, HFD increased visceral adiposity, percentage of large adipocytes, hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-1α, and leptin contents in epididymal adipose tissue (eWAT) and decreased plasma content of adiponectin (AdipQ). Both VPA and ET decreased visceral adiposity and percentage of large adipocytes in HFD-fed animals, but ET also increased the percentage of small- to medium-sized adipocytes. VPA increased plasma growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R) and decreased leptin protein in HVPA group. ET decreased plasma insulin and leptin levels and eWAT HIF-1α and leptin expression in HET group. Moreover, ET improved insulin sensitivity, plasma high molecular weight, and AdipQ and ghrelin levels and increased eWAT and GHS-R expression. Our data suggest that exercise, particularly ET, reverted adiposopathy and related endocrine alterations induced by an isocaloric HFD pair-fed diet. 10.1007/s13105-018-0609-1
    Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Sleep Architecture in Adolescents With Severe Obesity: Effects of a 9-Month Lifestyle Modification Program Based on Regular Exercise and a Balanced Diet. Roche Johanna,Gillet Valérie,Perret Frédéric,Mougin Fabienne Journal of clinical sleep medicine : JCSM : official publication of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine STUDY OBJECTIVES:Physical exercise and lifestyle modification are recognized as adjunct therapy for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in overweight adults. The objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of long-term physical exercise combined with a balanced diet on sleep architecture, sleep duration, and OSA in adolescents with severe obesity. METHODS:This interventional study was conducted in a nursing institution. Participants were aged 14.6 ± 1.2 years with obesity (body mass index (BMI) = 40.2 ± 6.5 kg/m). At admission and at 9 months, participants underwent ambulatory polysomnography and incremental maximal exercise testing to determine cardiorespiratory fitness. RESULTS:Twenty-four subjects completed the study. Analyses were performed on the whole population and on a subgroup of subjects with OSA (OSA-subgroup). OSA, defined as obstructive apnea-hypopnea index (OAHI) ≥ 2 events/h, was diagnosed in 58.3% of the population. OAHI was only associated with fat mass in males ( = .75, < .05). At 9 months postintervention, weight loss (-11.1 kg, < .0001) and improved cardiorespiratory fitness (VOpeak: +4.9 mL/min/kg, < .001) were found in the whole population. Sleep duration was increased (+34 minutes, < .05) and sleep architecture was changed with an increase of rapid eye movement sleep (+2.5%, < .05) and a decrease of stage N3 sleep (-3.1%, < .001). Similar results were found in the OSA subgroup. However, OAHI remained unchanged ( = .18). CONCLUSIONS:A combination of supervised aerobic exercise and a balanced diet led to weight loss, improved aerobic capacity, and modified sleep architecture without changes in OSA. COMMENTARY:A commentary on this article appears in this issue on page 907. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION:Registry: ClinicalTrials.gov, Title: Exercise and Venous Compression on Upper Airway Resistance in Obese Teenagers With OSA (OBESOMAC), URL: https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02588469, Identifier: NCT02588469. 10.5664/jcsm.7162
    What is the effect of diet and/or exercise interventions on behavioural compensation in non-exercise physical activity and related energy expenditure of free-living adults? A systematic review. Silva Analiza M,Júdice Pedro B,Carraça Eliana V,King Neil,Teixeira Pedro J,Sardinha Luís B The British journal of nutrition Non-exercise physical activity (NEPA) and/or non-exercise activity thermogenesis (NEAT) reductions may occur from diet and/or exercise-induced negative energy balance interventions, resulting in less-than-expected weight loss. This systematic review describes the effects of prescribed diet and/or physical activity (PA)/exercise on NEPA and/or NEAT in adults. Studies were identified from PubMed, web-of-knowledge, Embase, SPORTDiscus, ERIC and PsycINFO searches up to 1 March 2017. Eligibility criteria included randomised controlled trials (RCT), randomised trials (RT) and non-randomised trials (NRT); objective measures of PA and energy expenditure; data on NEPA, NEAT and spontaneous PA; ≥10 healthy male/female aged>18 years; and ≥7 d length. The trial is registered at PROSPERO-2017-CRD42017052635. In all, thirty-six articles (RCT-10, RT-9, NRT-17) with a total of seventy intervention arms (diet, exercise, combined diet/exercise), with a total of 1561 participants, were included. Compensation was observed in twenty-six out of seventy intervention arms (fifteen studies out of thirty-six reporting declines in NEAT (eight), NEPA (four) or both (three)) representing 63, 27 and 23 % of diet-only, combined diet/exercise, and exercise-only intervention arms, respectively. Weight loss observed in participants who decreased NEAT was double the weight loss found in those who did not compensate, suggesting that the energy imbalance degree may lead to energy conservation. Although these findings do not support the hypothesis that prescribed diet and/or exercise results in decreased NEAT and NEPA in healthy adults, the underpowered trial design and the lack of state-of-the-art methods may limit these conclusions. Future studies should explore the impact of weight-loss magnitude, energetic restriction degree, exercise dose and participant characteristics on NEAT and/or NEPA. 10.1017/S000711451800096X
    Implications of the Mediterranean diet and physical exercise on the lipid profile of metabolically healthy obese women as measured by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (H NMR). Rodriguez-Garcia Enrique,Ruiz-Nava Josefina,Santamaria-Fernandez Sonia,Fernandez-Garcia Jose Carlos,Vargas-Candela Antonio,Yahyaoui Raquel,Tinahones Francisco J,Bernal-Lopez M Rosa,Gomez-Huelgas Ricardo Chemistry and physics of lipids OBJECTIVE:There is a lack of consensus when it comes to establishing the biochemical parameters that define metabolically healthy obese (MHO) subjects. Indeed, most studies do not include subjects' lipid profiles. Our objective was to characterize lipoprotein size, particle and subclass concentration using H NMR in MHO women after two years of weight loss with a hypocaloric Mediterranean diet and physical exercise. METHODS:115 non-diabetic women (aged 35-55 years) with a body mass index (BMI) of 30-40 kg/m and ≤1 of the following criteria: blood pressure ≥135/85 mmHg, fasting plasma glucose ≥100 mg/dL, HDL cholesterol ≤50 mg/dL and triglycerides ≥150 mg/dL were included. After two years of intensive lifestyle modification (Mediterranean diet and physical exercise), they were classified according to their weight loss: <5%, ≥5%-<10% and ≥10%. Lipoprotein size, particle and subclass concentrations were measured using H NMR. RESULTS:The final population, after dropouts, were 67 women (age: 44.5 ± 3.7 years, BMI: 36.3 ± 4.7 kg/m), of whom 23 (38.3%) lost <5%, and 22 (36.7%), lost ≥5% to <10% and ≥10% of baseline body weight, respectively. The lipid profile showed no significant changes after intervention, especially in small LDL particles or in production of HDL. The diameter of LDL and HDL particles did not change after two years of a Mediterranean diet and physical exercise. CONCLUSION:These results indicate that intensive lifestyle modification does not produce significant changes in the lipid profile of MHO women. Levels of more atherogenic or atheroprotective particles did not change after two years, despite the intervention. 10.1016/j.chemphyslip.2018.03.007
    The Effects of Diet Alone or in Combination with Exercise in Patients with Prehypertension and Hypertension: a Randomized Controlled Trial. Lee Chan Joo,Kim Ji Young,Shim Eugene,Hong Sung Hyun,Lee MiKyung,Jeon Justin Y,Park Sungha Korean circulation journal BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES:Supervised lifestyle interventions, including dietary and exercise programs, may be infeasible to implement in real-world settings. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a home-based lifestyle modification intervention on blood pressure (BP) management. METHODS:Eighty-five patients aged over 20 years and diagnosed with prehypertension or mild hypertension were randomly assigned to an advice-only comparison group (C group, n=28), a Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet education group (D group, n=30), or a DASH and home-based exercise group (D+Ex group, n=27). The intervention lasted for 8 weeks. The primary outcome was the difference in office systolic blood pressure (SBP) before and after the study period (Trial registry at ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01637909). RESULTS:Seventy-two participants (87.8%) completed the trial. The degree of change in office SBP did not significantly differ among the intervention groups; however, the D+Ex group demonstrated a tendency toward decreased SBP. Upon analysis of 24-hour ambulatory BP measurements, daytime ambulatory SBP was significantly lower in the D+Ex group (134 mmHg; 95% confidence interval [CI], 131 to 137; p=0.011) than in the C group (139.5 mmHg; 95% CI, 130.9 to 137), and daytime ambulatory SBP was significantly decreased in the D+Ex group (-5.2 mmHg; 95% CI, -8.3 to -2.1; p=0.011) compared to the C group (0.4 mmHg, 95% CI, -2.5 to 3.3). CONCLUSIONS:In conclusion, lifestyle modification emphasizing both diet and exercise was effective for lowering BP and should be favored over diet-only modifications. 10.4070/kcj.2017.0349
    New Insights about How to Make an Intervention in Children and Adolescents with Metabolic Syndrome: Diet, Exercise vs. Changes in Body Composition. A Systematic Review of RCT. Albert Pérez Enrique,Mateu Olivares Victoria,Martínez-Espinosa Rosa María,Molina Vila Mariola D,Reig García-Galbis Manuel Nutrients OBJECTIVE:To record which interventions produce the greatest variations in body composition in patients &le;19 years old with metabolic syndrome (MS). METHOD:search dates between 2005 and 2017 in peer reviewed journals, following the PRISMA method (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses). The selection criteria were: diagnostic for MS or at least a criterion for diagnosis; randomized clinical trials, &le;19 years of age; intervention programs that use diet and/or exercise as a tool (interventions showing an interest in body composition). RESULTS:1781 clinical trials were identified under these criteria but only 0.51% were included. The most frequent characteristics of the selected clinical trials were that they used multidisciplinary interventions and were carried out in America. The most utilized parameters were BMI (body mass index) in kg/m² and BW (body weight) in kg. CONCLUSIONS:Most of the clinical trials included had been diagnosed through at least 2 diagnostic criteria for MS. Multidisciplinary interventions obtained greater changes in body composition in patients with MS. This change was especially prevalent in the combinations of dietary interventions and physical exercise. It is proposed to follow the guidelines proposed for patients who are overweight, obese, or have diabetes type 2, and extrapolate these strategies as recommendations for future clinical trials designed for patients with MS. 10.3390/nu10070878
    Exercise, diet and educational interventions for metabolic syndrome in persons with schizophrenia: A systematic review. Gurusamy Jothimani,Gandhi Sailaxmi,Damodharan Dinakaran,Ganesan Venkatasubramanian,Palaniappan Marimuthu Asian journal of psychiatry INTRODUCTION:Individuals with major psychotic disorders such as schizophrenia are at increased risk for developing metabolic syndrome due to lifestyle- and treatment-related factors. Numerous interventions have been tested in inpatient and outpatient mental health settings to decrease risk factors. Diet and exercise represent the mainstay of weight loss treatment. With this background the review aimed to evaluate the effects of psychoeducation, diet and physical activity interventions on reduction of metabolic syndrome risk factors such as BMI, Body weight, biochemical profiles in schizophrenia. METHODS:The authors conducted database searches of PsychINFO, MEDLINE, Pubmed, Proquest, EBSCO and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and manual searches from 1968 to 2017. Search indentified 11 studies that met the inclusion criteria. Study quality was critically appraised by 2 reviewers using established criteria. The outcome measures were body mass index, body weight, waist circumference, lipid profile, fasting glucose. RESULTS:Interventions led to significant weight reduction (8 studies), reduced body mass index (5 studies), decreased waist circumference (4 studies) and lower blood glucose levels (5 studies). Dietician and nurse led interventions (6 studies). The studies showed non pharmacological interventions were effective in reducing risk factors. CONCLUSION:This review was able to demonstrate effectiveness of peychoeducation, diet and physical activity interventions were helpful to decrease and manage antipsychotic-induced weight gain. Results showed lifestyle interventions are safer and effective for promoting decrease or maintenance of weight and it can be delivered at low cost, safe and improves quality of life. 10.1016/j.ajp.2018.06.018
    Improving health through diet and exercise in children. Rush Elaine,Coppinger Tara European journal of clinical nutrition 10.1038/s41430-018-0209-8
    Fecal microbiota transplantation confers beneficial metabolic effects of diet and exercise on diet-induced obese mice. Lai Zi-Lun,Tseng Ching-Hung,Ho Hsiu J,Cheung Cynthia K Y,Lin Jian-Yong,Chen Yi-Ju,Cheng Fu-Chou,Hsu Yao-Chun,Lin Jaw-Town,El-Omar Emad M,Wu Chun-Ying Scientific reports Diet and exercise are conventional methods for controlling body weight and are linked to alterations in gut microbiota. However, the associations of diet, exercise, and gut microbiota in the control of obesity remain largely unknown. In the present study, using 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing and fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT), normal fat diet (NFD), exercise and their combination resulted in improved metabolic profiles in comparison to sedentary lifestyle with high fat diet (HFD). Moreover, diet exerted more influence than exercise in shaping the gut microbiota. HFD-fed mice receiving FMT from NFD-exercised donors not only showed remarkably reduced food efficacy, but also mitigated metabolic profiles (p < 0.05). The transmissible beneficial effects of FMT were associated with bacterial genera Helicobacter, Odoribacter and AF12 and overrepresentation of oxidative phosphorylation and glycolysis genes. Our findings demonstrate that the beneficial effects of diet and exercise are transmissible via FMT, suggesting a potential therapeutic treatment for obesity. 10.1038/s41598-018-33893-y
    Perceived Diet and Exercise Behaviors Among Social Network Members With Personal Lifestyle Habits of Public Housing Residents. Gudzune Kimberly A,Peyton Jennifer,Pollack Craig Evan,Young J Hunter,Levine David M,Latkin Carl A,Clark Jeanne M Health education & behavior : the official publication of the Society for Public Health Education Our objective was to characterize the relationship between public housing residents' diet/exercise habits with similar behaviors among their social network. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of randomly selected households in Baltimore, Maryland, from August 2014 to August 2015. Adult heads of household completed questions on diet, exercise, and perceived habits among network members. Our dependent variables were high added sugar intake (≥39.9 teaspoons/day), high fruit/vegetable intake (≥6.1 servings/day), and being physically active (≥moderately activity). Our network exposures were proportion of members perceived to daily consume (1) sugar-sweetened beverages, (2) sweets, (3) fruits, and (4) vegetables, as well as to weekly exercise (1) vigorously or (2) moderately. We used multivariate logistic regression to examine associations between habits with relevant network exposures. Our sample included 266 adults with mean age of 44.5 years, 86.1% women and 95.5% African American. We found a statistically significant association between study participants' high daily intake of added sugar with perceived network exposure to daily sugar-sweetened beverages (odds ratio [OR] = 1.10, 95% confidence interval [CI] [1.02, 1.20]) and daily sweets (OR = 1.10, 95% CI [1.02, 1.20]). Greater network exposure to weekly vigorous exercise was significantly associated with personally being physically active (OR = 1.15, 95% CI [1.04, 1.28]), but not network exposure to weekly moderate exercise. Among public housing residents, associations exist between individuals' and perceived networks' lifestyle habits of high added sugar foods consumption and vigorous exercise, which may hold promise for future social network interventions. 10.1177/1090198118757985
    The Prediabetes Diet Plan: How to Reverse Prediabetes and Prevent Diabetes Through Healthy Eating and Exercise. McDermott James,Rentzepis Peter,Kwon Jeemin Clinical diabetes : a publication of the American Diabetes Association 10.2337/cd18-0073
    Impacts of Diet and Exercise on Maternal Gut Microbiota Are Transferred to Offspring. Bhagavata Srinivasan Shyam Prakaash,Raipuria Mukesh,Bahari Hasnah,Kaakoush Nadeem O,Morris Margaret J Frontiers in endocrinology It is well established that maternal exercise during pregnancy improves metabolic outcomes associated with obesity in mothers and offspring, however, its effects on the gut microbiota of both mother and offspring, are unknown. Here, we investigated whether wheel running exercise prior to and during pregnancy and prolonged feeding of an obesogenic diet were associated with changes in the gut microbiomes of Sprague-Dawley rat dams and their offspring. Female rats were fed either chow or obesogenic diet, and half of each diet group were given access to a running wheel 10 days before mating until delivery, while others remained sedentary. 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing was used to assess gut microbial communities in dams and their male and female offspring around the time of weaning. Statistical analyses at the operational taxonomic unit (OTU) level revealed that maternal obesogenic diet decreased gut microbial alpha diversity and altered abundances of bacterial taxa previously associated with obesity such as and in dams, and their offspring of both sexes. Distance based linear modeling revealed that the relative abundances of OTUs were associated with adiposity measures in both dams and offspring. We identified no marked effects of maternal exercise on the gut microbiota of obesogenic diet dams or their offspring. In contrast, maternal exercise decreased gut microbial alpha diversity and altered the abundance of 88 microbial taxa in offspring of control dams. Thirty of these taxa were altered in a similar direction in offspring of sedentary obesogenic vs. control diet dams. In particular, the relative abundances of OTUs were decreased in offspring of both exercised control dams and sedentary obesogenic diet dams, and associated with blood glucose concentrations and adiposity measures. Analyses of predicted bacterial metabolic pathways inferred decreased indole alkaloid biosynthesis in offspring of both obesogenic diet and exercised control dams. Our data suggest that maternal exercise prior to and during pregnancy resulted in gut dysbiosis in offspring of control dams. Importantly, alterations in the maternal gut microbiota by obesogenic diet or obesity were transferred to their offspring. 10.3389/fendo.2018.00716
    Differential effects of high-fat diet and exercise training on bone and energy metabolism. Picke Ann-Kristin,Sylow Lykke,Møller Lisbeth L V,Kjøbsted Rasmus,Schmidt Felix N,Steejn Mikkel Wermer,Salbach-Hirsch Juliane,Hofbauer Christine,Blüher Matthias,Saalbach Anja,Busse Björn,Rauner Martina,Hofbauer Lorenz C Bone Bone microarchitecture and strength are impaired by obesity and physical inactivity, but the underlying molecular regulation of bone metabolism in response to these factors is not well understood. Therefore, we analyzed bone and energy metabolism in male mice fed a high-fat or standard chow diet for 12 weeks with or without free access to running wheels. High-fat diet (HFD) mimicked the human condition of obesity and insulin resistance, including symptoms such as elevated serum glucose and insulin levels and reduced insulin-stimulated glucose uptake into muscle and adipose tissue. Interestingly, HFD also decreased (-44%) glucose uptake into bone marrow. Bone mass was reduced (-45%) by HFD due to a diminished (-45%) bone remodeling rate. Bone matrix quality aspects, such as biomechanical stability, were additionally decreased. Concurrently, the bone marrow adiposity increased (+63%) in response to a HFD. Further, we detected elevated expression of the Wnt signaling inhibitor dickkopf-1 (Dkk-1, +42%) in mice fed a HFD, but this was not reflected in serum samples obtained from obese humans. In mice, exercise attenuated the adverse effects of HFD by reversing the glucose uptake into bone marrow, improving the bone mass and bone matrix quality while decreasing the bone marrow adiposity. This data shows that exercise prevents some, but not all of the negative effects of HFD on bone health and suggests that insulin signaling in bone marrow and Dkk-1 signaling may be involved in the pathogenesis of bone loss induced by HFD. 10.1016/j.bone.2018.07.015
    Preventing or Delaying Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus with Diet and Exercise. Crawford-Faucher Amy American family physician
    Compensation in response to energy deficits induced by exercise or diet. Doucet É,McInis K,Mahmoodianfard S Obesity reviews : an official journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity Obesity is an extremely resilient condition. Weight loss is most challenging, and weight recidivism is rampant. There is accumulating evidence highlighting that energy deficits meant to produce increased mobilization of energy stores trigger a number of somewhat persistent adaptations that together increase the drive to eat and decrease energy output. These adaptations ostensibly enable a context where the likelihood of energy compensation is heightened. In fact, energy compensation is present for both diet and exercise induced energy deficits although at different magnitudes. For the most part, the energy compensation in response to exercise induced energy deficits seems to be larger. Interestingly, energy compensation appears to be greater for longer interventions, an effect independent of whether the energy deficit is induced through diet or exercise. The latter suggests that the increased drive to eat and the reduced energy expenditure that accompany weight loss might be successfully fought off initially. However, with time there seems to be increasing erosion of the behaviours that initially opposed adaptations to weight loss and increased energy compensation progressively sets in. Under such conditions, it would seem prudent to propose weight loss targets that align with a level of behaviour modifications that can be sustained indefinitely. 10.1111/obr.12783
    Short-term and long-term ketogenic diet therapy and the addition of exercise have differential impacts on metabolic gene expression in the mouse energy-consuming organs heart and skeletal muscle. Shimizu Kozue,Saito Hazuki,Sumi Kanako,Sakamoto Yuri,Tachi Yoichi,Iida Kaoruko Nutrition research (New York, N.Y.) Although a ketogenic diet (KD) is used to treat various metabolic diseases, the organ-specific metabolic changes that occur in response to a KD remain unclear. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that duration of KD consumption and regular exercise in addition to KD consumption affect metabolic fuel selection at gene levels in heart and skeletal muscle. Six-week-old male C57BL/6J mice were divided into 2 groups, one fed a standard diet and the other fed a KD, and maintained for either 4 weeks (short term) or 12 weeks (long term). The long-term group was further divided into 2 subgroups, and mice in 1 of the 2 groups had an exercise load 5 days a week. Body weight decreased significantly in the KD groups during the first few weeks only. Plasma ketone levels rose and muscle glycogen levels declined significantly in the KD groups, but these changes were less severe in the KD plus exercise group. KD consumption decreased the expression of genes related to glucose utilization in heart and skeletal muscle; however, this decrease did not occur with KD consumption plus exercise. Long-term but not short-term KD consumption increased the expression of genes related to lipid utilization, regardless of exercise. In the KD groups, the expression of genes related to ketolysis was suppressed, and that of genes related to ketogenesis was increased. These results indicate that KD exposure and pairing a KD with exercise have differential impacts on energy substrate selection at gene expression levels in energy-consuming organs, the heart and skeletal muscle. 10.1016/j.nutres.2018.09.004
    Structured diet and exercise guidance in pregnancy to improve health in women and their offspring: study protocol for the Be Healthy in Pregnancy (BHIP) randomized controlled trial. Perreault Maude,Atkinson Stephanie A,Mottola Michelle F,Phillips Stuart M,Bracken Keyna,Hutton Eileen K,Xie Feng,Meyre David,Morassut Rita E,Prapavessis Harry,Thabane Lehana, Trials BACKGROUND:Evidence from epidemiological and animal studies support the concept of programming fetal, neonatal, and adult health in response to in utero exposures such as maternal obesity and lifestyle variables. Excess gestational weight gain (GWG), maternal physical activity, and sub-optimal and excess nutrition during pregnancy may program the offspring's risk of obesity. Maternal intake of dairy foods rich in high-quality proteins, calcium, and vitamin D may influence later bone health status. Current clinical practice guidelines for managing GWG are not founded on randomized trials and lack specific "active intervention ingredients." The Be Healthy in Pregnancy (BHIP) study is a randomized controlled trial (RCT) designed to test the effectiveness of a novel structured and monitored Nutrition + Exercise intervention in pregnant women of all pre-pregnancy weight categories (except extreme obesity), delivered through prenatal care in community settings (rather than in hospital settings), on the likelihood of women achieving recommended GWG and a benefit to bone status of offspring and mother at birth and six months postpartum. METHODS:The BHIP study is a two-site RCT that will recruit up to 242 participants aged > 18 years at 12-17 weeks of gestation. After baseline measures, participants are randomized to either a structured and monitored Nutrition + Exercise (intervention) or usual care (control) program for the duration of their pregnancy. The primary outcome of the study is the percent of women who achieve GWG within the Institute of Medicine (IOM) guidelines. The secondary outcomes include: (1) maternal bone status via blood bone biomarkers during pregnancy; (2) infant bone status in cord blood; (3) mother and infant bone status measured by dual-energy absorptiometry scanning (DXA scan) at six months postpartum; (4) other measures including maternal blood pressure, blood glucose and lipid profiles, % body fat, and postpartum weight retention; and (5) infant weight z-scores and fat mass at six months of age. DISCUSSION:If effective, this RCT will generate high-quality evidence to refine the nutrition guidelines during pregnancy to improve the likelihood of women achieving recommended GWG. It will also demonstrate the importance of early nutrition on bone health in the offspring. TRIAL REGISTRATION:ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01689961 Registered on 21 September 2012. 10.1186/s13063-018-3065-x
    Short- and long-term effects of high-fat diet feeding and voluntary exercise on hepatic lipid metabolism in mice. Yoshimura Saki,Nakashima Shihoko,Tomiga Yuki,Kawakami Shotaro,Uehara Yoshinari,Higaki Yasuki Biochemical and biophysical research communications Exercise is an effective tool for improving high-fat diet induced fat accumulation in the liver. However, the process of fat accumulation in the liver and the efficacy of early intervention with exercise remain unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the short- and long-term effects of high-fat diet feeding and voluntary exercise on hepatic lipid metabolism in mice. Male C57BL/6J mice aged 6 weeks were randomly divided into two groups, the control group and high-fat diet feeding group, and fed a normal or high-fat diet for 12 weeks. After 6 weeks, mice in the high-fat diet feeding group were further divided into no exercise group and voluntary exercise training group, with mice in the exercise group provided a running wheel for 6 weeks. Body weight, food intake, and wheel rotation counts were measured every second day for 12 weeks. We found that voluntary exercise for 1 week (short-term exercise) significantly reduced fat accumulation in the liver by downregulating the expression of hepatic lipogenesis-associated proteins and upregulating the expression of hepatic lipolysis-associated proteins, as determined through western blotting and histology. Further, voluntary exercise for 6 weeks (long-term exercise) downregulated the expression of hepatic lipogenesis-associated proteins. These results suggest that hepatic lipogenesis and/or hepatic lipolysis mediate the beneficial effects of voluntary exercise on hepatic fat accumulation. 10.1016/j.bbrc.2018.11.026
    Endurance exercise prevents high-fat-diet induced heart and mobility premature aging and 2 expression decline in aging . Wen Deng-Tai,Zheng Lan,Yang Fan,Li Han-Zhe,Hou Wen-Qi Oncotarget High-Fat-Diet (HFD)-induced obesity is a major contributor to heart and mobility premature aging and mortality in both and humans. The 2 genes are closely related to aging, but there are few directed reports showing that whether HFD could inhibit the expression 2 genes. Endurance exercise can prevent fat accumulation and reverse HFD-induced cardiac dysfunction. Endurance also delays age-relate functional decline. It is unclear whether lifetime endurance exercise can combat lifetime HFD-induced heart and mobility premature aging, and relieve the harmful HFD-induced influence on the 2 gene and lifespan yet. In this study, flies are fed a HFD and trained from when they are 1 week old until they are 5 weeks old. Then, triacylglycerol levels, climbing index, cardiac function, lifespan, and 2 mRNA expressions are measured. We show that endurance exercise improves climbing capacity, cardiac contraction, and 2 expression, and it reduces body and heart triacylglycerol levels, heart fibrillation, and mortality in both HFD and aging flies. So, lifelong endurance exercise delays HFD-induced accelerated age-related locomotor impairment, cardiac dysfunction, death, and 2 expression decline, and prevents HFD-induced premature aging in . 10.18632/oncotarget.23292
    Effects of Exercise and Diet in Nonobese Asthma Patients-A Randomized Controlled Trial. Toennesen Louise Lindhardt,Meteran Howraman,Hostrup Morten,Wium Geiker Nina Rica,Jensen Camilla Bjoern,Porsbjerg Celeste,Astrup Arne,Bangsbo Jens,Parker Debbie,Backer Vibeke The journal of allergy and clinical immunology. In practice BACKGROUND:Behavioral interventions focusing on exercise and healthy diet improve asthma control in obese patients with asthma, but whether these interventions can lead to improvements in nonobese patients remains unclear. OBJECTIVES:In a randomized, controlled parallel-group design, we studied the effects of an 8-week intervention of either exercise (high-intensity interval training), diet (high protein/low glycemic index), or a combination of the 2, on asthma control and clinical outcomes in nonobese patients with asthma. METHODS:Nonobese adult patients with asthma (n = 149) were randomized to 1 of 4 groups: an exercise group, a diet group, an exercise + diet group, or a control group. Outcomes included Asthma Control Questionnaire (ACQ) score, asthma-related quality-of-life (Asthma-Related Quality-of-Life Questionnaire [AQLQ]) score, inflammatory cell counts in induced sputum, FEV, fractional exhaled nitric oxide, and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR). RESULTS:A total of 125 patients completed the study and were included in the data analysis. Patients in the exercise + diet group improved the ACQ score from 1.9 ± 0.7 to 1.0 ± 0.7 and the AQLQ score from 5.2 ± 0.8 to 6.2 ± 0.7, which was statistically significant when compared with changes in the control group (P < .05 and <.01, respectively). The exercise group and the diet group did not improve either the ACQ score or the AQLQ score significantly compared with the control group and there were no significant changes in sputum cell counts, FEV, fractional exhaled nitric oxide, or AHR within any groups following the intervention period. CONCLUSIONS:The combination of exercise and diet improves asthma control in nonobese patients, but does not affect AHR or airway inflammation. 10.1016/j.jaip.2017.09.028
    Metabolic Effects of Diet and Exercise in Patients with Moderate to Severe CKD: A Randomized Clinical Trial. Ikizler T Alp,Robinson-Cohen Cassianne,Ellis Charles,Headley Samuel A E,Tuttle Katherine,Wood Richard J,Evans Elizabeth Elspeth,Milch Charles M,Moody Kelsey Anne,Germain Michael,Limkunakul Chutatip,Bian Aihua,Stewart Thomas G,Himmelfarb Jonathan Journal of the American Society of Nephrology : JASN CKD is steadily increasing along with obesity worldwide. Furthermore, obesity is a proinflammatory risk factor for progression of CKD and cardiovascular disease. We tested the hypothesis that implementation of caloric restriction and aerobic exercise is feasible and can improve the proinflammatory metabolic milieu in patients with moderate to severe CKD through a pilot, randomized, 2×2 factorial design trial. Of 122 participants consented, 111 were randomized to receive caloric restriction and aerobic exercise, caloric restriction alone, aerobic exercise alone, or usual care. Of those randomized, 42% were women, 25% were diabetic, and 91% were hypertensive; 104 started intervention, and 92 completed the 4-month study. Primary outcomes were a change from baseline in absolute fat mass, body weight, plasma F-isoprostane concentrations, and peak oxygen uptake (VO). Compared with usual care, the combined intervention led to statistically significant decreases in body weight and body fat percentage. Caloric restriction alone also led to significant decreases in these measures, but aerobic exercise alone did not. The combined intervention and each independent intervention also led to significant decreases in F-isoprostane and IL-6 concentrations. No intervention produced significant changes in VO, kidney function, or urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio. In conclusion, 4-month dietary calorie restriction and aerobic exercise had significant, albeit clinically modest, benefits on body weight, fat mass, and markers of oxidative stress and inflammatory response in patients with moderate to severe CKD. These results suggest healthy lifestyle interventions as a nonpharmacologic strategy to improve markers of metabolic health in these patients. 10.1681/ASN.2017010020
    Physical exercise promotes memory capability by enhancing hippocampal mitochondrial functions and inhibiting apoptosis in obesity-induced insulin resistance by high fat diet. Park Hye-Sang,Cho Han-Sam,Kim Tae-Woon Metabolic brain disease A high-fat diet induces obesity in mice, leading to insulin resistance, decreased mitochondrial function, and increased apoptosis in the hippocampus, which eventually result in memory loss. The present study investigated the effect of physical exercise on memory, hippocampal mitochondrial function, and apoptosis in mice with in insulin resistance caused by obesity due to high-fat diet. Mice were randomly divided into four groups: control (CON), control and exercise (CON + EX), high fat diet (HFD), and high fat diet and exercise (HFD + EX). After receiving a high-fat (60%) diet for 20 weeks to induce obesity, the animals were subjected to an exercise routine 6 times per week, for 12 weeks. The exercise duration and intensity gradually increased over 4-week intervals. Hippocampal memory was examined using the step-down avoidance task. Mitochondrial function and apoptosis were also examined in the hippocampus and dentate gyrus. We found that obesity owing to a high-fat diet induced insulin resistance and caused a decrease in memory function. Insulin resistance also caused a decrease in mitochondrial function in the hippocampus by reducing Ca retention and O respiration, increasing the levels of HO, and Cyp-D, and mPTP opening. In addition, apoptosis in the hippocampus increased owing to decreased expression of Bcl-2 and increased expression of Bax, cytochrome c, and caspase-3 and TUNEL-positive cells. In contrast, physical exercise led to reduced insulin resistance, improved mitochondrial function, and reduced apoptosis in the hippocampus. The results suggest that physiological stimulations such as exercise improve hippocampal function and suppress apoptosis, potentially preventing the memory loss associated with obesity-induced insulin resistance. 10.1007/s11011-017-0160-8