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    Hyperuricemia as risk factor for coronary heart disease incidence and mortality in the general population: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Braga Federica,Pasqualetti Sara,Ferraro Simona,Panteghini Mauro Clinical chemistry and laboratory medicine Previous meta-analyses reported no significant or weak association between hyperuricemia (HU) and coronary heart disease (CHD). We updated the literature search, systematically reviewing retrieved papers. The peer-reviewed literature published from 1965 to December 2014 was searched using Medline and Embase. We included prospective cohort studies involving adults (sample size ≥100) with no cardiovascular disease (CVD) and a follow-up of at least 1 year. Studies were excluded if they considered as outcome the CVD incidence/mortality without separately reporting data on CHD, did not adjusted for major confounders and if the 95% confidence interval (CI) for risk ratio (RR) was not available. Relative risk or hazard ratio estimates, with the corresponding CIs, were obtained. For CHD incidence 12 populations were included (457,915 subjects [53.7% males]). For CHD mortality seven populations were included (237,433 subjects [66.3% males]). The overall combined RR were 1.206 (CI 1.066-1.364, p=0.003) for CHD incidence and 1.209 (CI 1.003-1.457, p=0.047) for CHD mortality, respectively. Subgroup analysis showed a marginal (incidence) and not significant (mortality) association between HU and CHD in men, but an increased risk for CHD incidence and mortality in hyperuricemic women (RR 1.446, CI 1.323-1.581, p<0.0001, and RR 1.830, CI 1.066-3.139, p=0.028, respectively). The risk markedly increases for urate concentrations >7.0 mg/dL. HU appears to increase the risk of CHD events in the general population, mainly in adult women. This finding requires, however, further investigation. 10.1515/cclm-2015-0523
    Hyperuricemia and risk of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Gong Shulan,Song Jiqing,Wang Luan,Zhang Shuaiqing,Wang Yangang European journal of gastroenterology & hepatology BACKGROUND:Previous studies have suggested a possible association between hyperuricemia and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), but the risk of NAFLD in individuals with hyperuricemia had not been fully quantified. A systematic review and meta-analysis of relevant studies was carried out to estimate the influence of hyperuricemia on the risk of NAFLD. METHODS:PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and Wanfang databases were searched for cohort or cross-sectional studies assessing the association between hyperuricemia and NAFLD. Relative risks (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were pooled using a random-effects model to estimate the impact of hyperuricemia on the risk of NAFLD. RESULTS:Thirteen studies from 12 articles were finally included in the meta-analysis. There were a total of 117,712 participants and 28,446 (24.2%) NAFLD cases. Individuals with hyperuricemia had an obviously increased risk of NAFLD compared with those without hyperuricemia (RR=1.79, 95% CI 1.55-2.07, P<0.001). Increased risk of NAFLD was obviously associated with hyperuricemia in both men (RR=1.26, 95% CI 1.15-1.37, P<0.001) and women (RR=2.01, 95% CI 1.58-2.56, P<0.001). Subgroup analyses further identified the robustness of the association between hyperuricemia and NAFLD. CONCLUSION:Hyperuricemia is associated with an increased risk of NAFLD in Asian populations. Further prospective cohort studies are needed to assess the impact of hyperuricemia on the risk of NAFLD in Western countries. 10.1097/MEG.0000000000000507
    Gender impact on the correlations between subclinical thyroid dysfunction and hyperuricemia in Chinese. Zhang Jianping,Meng Zhaowei,Zhang Qing,Liu Li,Song Kun,Tan Jian,Li Xue,Jia Qiang,Zhang Guizhi,He Yajing Clinical rheumatology Overt hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism can lead to hyperuricemia. However, few data are available regarding the association between subclinical thyroid dysfunction and hyperuricemia, especially from the perspective of gender impact. This study aimed to investigate the association between subclinical thyroid disorders and hyperuricemia with emphasized focuses on differences resulting from different gender. Eleven thousand four hundred forty-six healthy subjects (6870 male, 4576 female) were enrolled in this cross-sectional study, with exclusions of known thyroid, renal, hepatic, gastrointestinal, or oncological diseases. Clinical data including anthropometric measurements, thyroid function, uric acid, renal and liver function were collected. The associations between thyroid function and hyperuricemia of males and females were analyzed separately. Prevalence of hyperuricemia was substantially higher in male (23.17%) than that in female (9.11%). Serum uric acid was correlated well with various factors, especially with creatinine, whose coefficients were 0.283 and 0.386 for males and females. The significantly elevated risk for hyperuricemia was observed in mild hypothyroidism male participants with an odd ratio of 1.49 (1.10-2.02), whereas no statistical risk was found in female. No meaningful risk was found in mild hyperthyroidism participants. Estimated glomerular filtration rate was significantly depressed in both genders with mild hypothyroidism, while obviously increased in both genders with mild hyperthyroidism. For hyperuricemia, mild hypothyroidism is a risk factor in males while it is not in females. This difference could be caused by the protective effect of estrogen in females. Monitoring serum uric acid in subclinical hypothyroidism is more necessary in males. 10.1007/s10067-015-2867-4
    Hyperuricemia and the risk for coronary heart disease morbidity and mortality a systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis. Li Min,Hu Xiaolan,Fan Yingli,Li Kun,Zhang Xiaowei,Hou Wenshang,Tang Zhenyu Scientific reports Considerable controversy exists regarding the association between hyperuricemia and coronary heart disease (CHD). Therefore, we performed a systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of prospective studies to examine the controversy. Prospective cohort studies with relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for CHD according to serum uric acid levels in adults were eligible. A random-effects model was used to compute the pooled risk estimate. The search yielded 29 prospective cohort studies (n = 958410 participants). Hyperuricemia was associated with increased risk of CHD morbidity (adjusted RR 1.13; 95% CI 1.05 to 1.21) and mortality (adjusted RR 1.27; 95% CI 1.16 to 1.39). For each increase of 1 mg/dl in uric acid level, the pooled multivariate RR of CHD mortality was 1.13 (95% CI 1.06 to 1.20). Dose-response analysis indicated that the combined RR of CHD mortality for an increase of 1 mg uric acid level per dl was 1.02 (95% CI 0.84 to 1.24) without heterogeneity among males (P = 0.879, I(2) = 0%) and 2.44 (95% CI 1.69 to 3.54) without heterogeneity among females (P = 0.526, I(2) = 0%). The increased risk of CHD associated with hyperuricemia was consistent across most subgroups. Hyperuricemia may increase the risk of CHD events, particularly CHD mortality in females. 10.1038/srep19520
    A Body Shape Index and Body Roundness Index: Two new body indices for detecting association between obesity and hyperuricemia in rural area of China. Zhang Naijin,Chang Ye,Guo Xiaofan,Chen Yintao,Ye Ning,Sun Yingxian European journal of internal medicine OBJECTIVE:The first objective was to examine whether A Body Shape Index (ABSI) and Body Roundness Index (BRI) can identify hyperuricemia in rural China. The second aim was to compare the relative strength of association between anthropometric indices and hyperuricemia. METHODS:A total of 11,345 participants were involved in this cross-sectional study. Obesity measurements included BMI, WC, WHtR, ABSI and BRI. According to the statistical distribution of serum uric acid (SUA), we split our study population in sex-specific tertiles of SUA. RESULTS:After adjusting for confounding variables, BRI (linear regression: 0.170; AUC: 0.641; OR: 1.459) showed more powerful predictive ability for hyperuricemia than BMI (linear regression: 0.151; AUC: 0.630; OR: 1.108), while having a similar predictive power for hyperuricemia as WHtR (linear regression: 0.191; AUC: 0.656; OR: 1.067) and WC (linear regression: 0.209; AUC: 0.658; OR: 1.047) in the female group, but not in the male group. However, ABSI (A) (linear regression: 0.089 for women, 0.121 for men; AUC: 0.589 for women, 0.578 for men; OR: 1.027 for women, 1.034 for men) and ABSI (B) (linear regression: 0.118 for women, 0.121 for men; AUC: 0.607 for women, 0.578 for men; OR: 1.049 for women, 1.034 for men) had the lowest predictive power for hyperuricemia in both sex categories. CONCLUSIONS:ABSI, BRI, BMI, WC and WHtR were all significantly associated with hyperuricemia in both sexes. In addition, BRI rather than ABSI showed a superior predictive ability for identifying hyperuricemia than BMI in female and similar capabilities as those of WC and WHtR in the female, but not in the male gender. 10.1016/j.ejim.2016.01.019
    Association between high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and hyperuricemia. Yang Tuo,Ding Xiang,Wang Yi-Lun,Zeng Chao,Wei Jie,Li Hui,Xiong Yi-Lin,Gao Shu-Guang,Li Yu-Sheng,Lei Guang-Hua Rheumatology international The aim of the study was to examine the cross-sectional association between high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and hyperuricemia (HU). The hsCRP was measured by latex turbidity method. Uric acid was detected on Beckman Coulter AU 5800. HU was defined as uric acid ≥416 μmol/L for the male population and ≥360 μmol/L for the female population. A multivariable logistic analysis model was applied to test the association after adjusting for a number of potential confounding factors. A total of 1935 subjects were included in this study. According to the multivariable regression model, the relative odds of the prevalence of HU were increased by 0.56 times in the third quintile (OR 1.56, 95 % CI 1.03-2.38, P = 0.04), 0.55 times in the fourth quintile (OR 1.55, 95 % CI 1.01-2.36, P = 0.04) and 0.96 times in the fifth quintile (OR 1.96, 95 % CI 1.29-2.98, P < 0.01) of hsCRP comparing with the lowest quintile, and P for trend was smaller than 0.01. In the male population, a positive association existed in the highest quintile of hsCRP (OR 1.66, 95 % CI 1.04-2.66, P = 0.04), and P for trend was 0.07. In the female population, the multivariable-adjusted ORs (95 % CI) of HU in the fourth and fifth quintile of hsCRP were 3.02 (95 % CI 1.09-8.35, P = 0.03) and 3.66 (95 % CI 1.36-9.89, P = 0.01), respectively, and P for trend was smaller than 0.01. The findings of this cross-sectional study suggest that the hsCRP level is positively associated with the prevalence of HU. Level of evidence Cross-sectional study, Level III. 10.1007/s00296-016-3429-z
    Metabolically healthy obesity also has risk for hyperuricemia among Chinese general population: A cross-sectional study. Chen Yintao,Zhang Naijin,Sun Guozhe,Guo Xiaofan,Yu Shasha,Yang Hongmei,Zheng Liqiang,Sun Yingxian Obesity research & clinical practice INTRODUCTION:The metabolically healthy obese (MHO) refers to obese individuals with a favorable metabolic profile. It is unknown whether metabolically healthy status in persons with obesity or overweight decreases the risk of hyperuricemia. This study aims to explore the association of MHO with risk of hyperuricemia. METHODS:We performed a cross-sectional study including 11,435 (5300 men and 6135 women) general population aged ≥35 years in Liaoning Province. Anthropometric measurements, laboratory examinations and self-reported information on lifestyle factors were collected by trained personnel. Metabolically healthy overweight/obesity was defined according to body mass index and ATP-III criterion of metabolically healthy status. Hyperuricemia was defined as SUA ≥7mg/dl (420mmol/L) in men or ≥6mg/dl (360mmol/L) in women. Logistic regression analyses were performed to explore the association between overweight/obesity with different metabolic status and risk of hyperuricemia. RESULTS:Among total subjects, 470 (4.2%) were metabolically healthy obese (MHO) and 1567 (14.0%) were metabolically unhealthy obese (MUO). For metabolically healthy female participants, the prevalence of hyperuricemia with overweight was similar to with a normal BMI (2.5% vs. 3.1%, P=0.314). Multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that MHO (OR=2.48, 95% CI: 1.81-3.41) and MUO (OR=4.81, 95% CI: 3.97-5.83) were significantly associated with hyperuricemia. However, the odds ratio in females with metabolically healthy overweight was 0.85 (95% CI: 0.53-1.37). CONCLUSIONS:Metabolically healthy might decline the risk of hyperuricemia, but overweight and obesity with metabolically healthy had also strong associations with hyperuricemia, except in females with metabolically healthy overweight. 10.1016/j.orcp.2016.03.008
    Hyperuricemia and coronary heart disease mortality: a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. Zuo Tian,Liu Xuehui,Jiang Lu,Mao Shuai,Yin Xin,Guo Liheng BMC cardiovascular disorders BACKGROUND:Hyperuricemia may be associated with an increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality; however, the results from prospective studies are conflicting. The objective of this study was to assess the association between hyperuricemia and risk of CHD mortality by performing a meta-analysis. METHODS:Pubmed and Embase were searched for relevant prospective cohort studies published until July 2015. Studies were included only if they reported data on CHD mortality related to hyperuricemia in a general population. The pooled adjusted relative risk (RR) was calculated using a random-effects model. RESULTS:A total of 14 studies involving 341 389 adults were identified. Hyperuricemia was associated with an increased risk of CHD mortality (RR: 1.14; 95 % CI: 1.06-1.23) and all-cause mortality (RR: 1.20; 95 % CI: 1.13-1.28). For each increase of 1 mg/dl of serum uric acid (SUA), the overall risks of CHD and all-cause mortality increased by 20 and 9 %, respectively. According to the gender subgroup analyses, hyperuricemia increased the risk of CHD mortality in women (RR: 1.47; 95 % CI: 1.21-1.73) compared to men (RR: 1.10; 95 % CI: 1.00-1.19). The risk of all-cause mortality was greater in women. CONCLUSIONS:Hyperuricemia may modestly increase the risk of CHD and all-cause mortality. Future research is needed to determine whether urate-lowering therapy has beneficial effects for reducing CHD mortality. 10.1186/s12872-016-0379-z
    Comparative efficacy and safety of urate-lowering therapy for the treatment of hyperuricemia: a systematic review and network meta-analysis. Li Shu,Yang Hongxi,Guo Yanan,Wei Fengjiang,Yang Xilin,Li Daiqing,Li Mingzhen,Xu Weili,Li Weidong,Sun Li,Gao Ying,Wang Yaogang Scientific reports The prevalence of hyperuricemia and gout has been increasing, but the comparative effectiveness and safety of different treatments remain uncertain. We aimed to compare the effectiveness and safety of different treatments for hyperuricemia using network meta-analysis methodology. We systematically reviewed fifteen randomized controlled trials (involving 7,246 patients through January 2016) that compared the effects of different urate-lowering drugs (allopurinol, benzbromarone, febuxostat, pegloticase and probenecid) on hyperuricemia. Drug efficacy and safety, as outcomes, were measured by whether the target level of serum urate acid was achieved and whether any adverse events occurred, respectively. We derived pooled effect sizes expressed as odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). The efficacy and safety of the drugs were ranked by cumulative ranking probabilities. Our findings show that febuxostat, benzbromarone, probenecid, pegloticase, and allopurinol were all highly effective at reducing the risk of hyperuricemia compared to placebo. Febuxostat had the best efficacy and safety compared to the other drugs. Furthermore, febuxostat 120 mg QD was more effective at achieving urate-lowering targets (OR: 0.17, 95% CI: 0.12-0.24) and safer (OR: 0.72, 95% CI: 0.56-0.91) than allopurinol. 10.1038/srep33082
    Fructose intake and risk of gout and hyperuricemia: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. Jamnik Joseph,Rehman Sara,Blanco Mejia Sonia,de Souza Russell J,Khan Tauseef A,Leiter Lawrence A,Wolever Thomas M S,Kendall Cyril W C,Jenkins David J A,Sievenpiper John L BMJ open BACKGROUND:The prevalence of hyperuricemia and gout has increased in recent decades. The role of dietary fructose in the development of these conditions remains unclear. OBJECTIVE:To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies investigating the association fructose consumption with incident gout and hyperuricemia. DESIGN:MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library were searched (through September 2015). We included prospective cohort studies that assessed fructose consumption and incident gout or hyperuricemia. 2 independent reviewers extracted relevant data and assessed study quality using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. We pooled natural-log transformed risk ratios (RRs) using the generic inverse variance method. Interstudy heterogeneity was assessed (Cochran Q statistic) and quantified (I statistic). The overall quality of the evidence was assessed using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach. RESULTS:2 studies involving 125 299 participants and 1533 cases of incident gout assessed the association between fructose consumption and incident gout over an average of 17 years of follow-up. No eligible studies assessed incident hyperuricemia as an outcome. Fructose consumption was associated with an increase in the risk of gout (RR=1.62, 95% CI 1.28 to 2.03, p<0.0001) with no evidence of interstudy heterogeneity (I=0%, p=0.33) when comparing the highest (>11.8% to >11.9% total energy) and lowest (<6.9% to <7.5% total energy) quantiles of consumption. LIMITATIONS:Despite a dose-response gradient, the overall quality of evidence as assessed by GRADE was low, due to indirectness. There were only two prospective cohort studies involving predominantly white health professionals that assessed incident gout, and none assessed hyperuricemia. CONCLUSIONS:Fructose consumption was associated with an increased risk of developing gout in predominantly white health professionals. More prospective studies are necessary to understand better the role of fructose and its food sources in the development of gout and hyperuricemia. PROTOCOL REGISTRATION NUMBER:NCT01608620. 10.1136/bmjopen-2016-013191
    Hyperuricemia and contrast-induced acute kidney injury: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Zuo Tian,Jiang Lu,Mao Shuai,Liu Xuehui,Yin Xin,Guo Liheng International journal of cardiology BACKGROUND:Hyperuricemia may be associated with an increased risk of contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI). In recent years, studies about the relationship between them gradually appeared. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to investigate whether hyperuricemia is an independent risk factor for CI-AKI. METHODS:Relevant studies were searched in PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, and CBM (Chinese Biomedical Literature database) databases until April 18, 2016, without language restriction. Observational studies evaluating serum uric acid (SUA) levels and CI-AKI risks were included. The pooled odds ratio was calculated to assess the association between hyperuricemia and risk of CI-AKI using a random-effects model. RESULTS:Eighteen relevant studies involving a total of 13,084 patients met our inclusion criteria. Presence of hyperuricemia was associated with an increased risk of CI-AKI development regardless of whether the effect size was adjusted or not (unadjusted OR: 2.08, 95% CI: 1.63-2.64; adjusted OR: 1.68, 95% CI: 1.38-2.04). In-hospital mortality and cases of renal replacement therapy were significantly different between subjects with hyperuricemia and normouricemia undergoing coronary angiography (CAG) and/or percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). CONCLUSION:Hyperuricemia is independently associated with the occurrence of CI-AKI and it significantly increases the in-hospital mortality and the risk of renal replacement therapy among the patients after CAG and/or PCI. Future research is needed to determine whether urate-lowering therapy has beneficial effects for reducing the incidence of CI-AKI and in-hospital adverse events. 10.1016/j.ijcard.2016.09.033
    Hyperuricemia protects against low bone mineral density, osteoporosis and fractures: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Veronese Nicola,Carraro Sara,Bano Giulia,Trevisan Caterina,Solmi Marco,Luchini Claudio,Manzato Enzo,Caccialanza Riccardo,Sergi Giuseppe,Nicetto Davide,Cereda Emanuele European journal of clinical investigation BACKGROUND:Serum uric acid (SUA) accounts for about 50% of extracellular antioxidant activity, suggesting that hyperuricemia may have a protective role in diseases characterized by high levels of oxidative stress, such as osteoporosis. We aimed to meta-analyse data regarding bone mineral density (BMD), osteoporosis and fractures in people with higher SUA vs. lower SUA concentrations. MATERIALS AND METHODS:Two investigators conducted a literature search using PubMed and Scopus, without language restrictions. Standardized mean differences (SMDs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used for BMD; risk ratios (RRs) and adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for cross-sectional data. Most possible adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) were used to assess the association between baseline SUA and incident fractures. RESULTS:Of 1405 initial hits, 19 studies were eligible including a total of 55 859 participants. Subjects with higher SUA levels had significantly higher BMD values for the spine (six studies; SMD = 0·29; 95% CI: 0·22-0·35; I = 47%), total hip (seven studies; SMD = 0·29; 95% CI: 0·24-0·34; I = 33%) and femoral neck (six studies; SMD = 0·25; 95% CI: 0·16-0·34; I = 71%). Simple correlation analyses substantially confirmed these findings. An increase of one standard deviation in SUA levels reduced the number of new fractures at follow-up (three studies; HR = 0·83; 95% CI: 0·74-0·92; I = 0%). No significant differences between men and women emerged, although data about women were limited. CONCLUSIONS:Hyperuricemia was found independently associated with BMD and fractures, supporting a protective role for uric acid in bone metabolism disorders. 10.1111/eci.12677
    Relationship between cigarette smoking and hyperuricemia in middle-aged and elderly population: a cross-sectional study. Yang Tuo,Zhang Yi,Wei Jie,Zeng Chao,Li Liang-Jun,Xie Xi,Wang Yi-Lun,Xie Dong-Xing,Li Hui,Yang Cui,Lei Guang-Hua Rheumatology international The aim of the study was to estimate the cross-sectional association between cigarette smoking and the prevalence of hyperuricemia (HU) in the middle-aged and elderly males and females. A total of 3415 males and 2932 females were included in this study. HU was defined as SUA≥ 416 mmol/L for males and ≥360 mmol/L for females. The smoking status was classified into four categories based on daily smoking habit: (1) 0/day; (2) 1-10/day; (3) 11-20/day; and (4) >20/day. Multivariable logistic regressions were conducted to examine the aforementioned association. The prevalence of HU in the male and female sample was 25.0 and 10.0 %, respectively. In male subjects, the prevalence of HU in smokers (22.8 %) was significantly lower than that in non-smokers (26.5 %) (p = 0.016). Meanwhile, with adjustment for potential confounding factors, the prevalence of HU in smokers was still lower (OR = 0.83, 95 % CI 0.70-0.98, P = 0.033). Furthermore, a significantly inverse association between smoking status and HU was observed in the multivariable model. The multivariable-adjusted OR (95 % CI) for HU in the second, third and fourth category of smoking status was 0.84 (95 % CI 0.66-1.06), 0.90 (95 % CI 0.69-1.18) and 0.76 (95 % CI 0.58-0.99), respectively, compared with that in the first category. A clear trend (P for trend was 0.036) was observed. However, there was no significant association between cigarette smoking and HU in female subjects (P for trend was 0.739). This study indicated an inverse association between cigarette smoking and the prevalence of HU in the middle-aged and elderly male population, independent of some major confounding factors. The findings of this study expect further prospective studies to confirm the causal relationship. 10.1007/s00296-016-3574-4
    Waist-to-Height Ratio Is a Better Predictor of Hyperuricemia than Body Mass Index and Waist Circumference in Chinese. Huang Zhi-Pei,Huang Bi-Xia,Zhang Hui,Zhu Ming-Fan,Zhu Hui-Lian Annals of nutrition & metabolism OBJECTIVE:Our study aimed to compare the predictive value of waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) for hyperuricemia with body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC). METHODS:This is a cross-sectional study of 9,206 South China residents (male/female: 4,433/4,773) aged 18-89 years recruited during years 2009-2010 and 2014-2015. Anthropometric measurements, serum uric acid, blood pressure, and plasma glucose, lipid, lipoprotein, and transferase levels were measured. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve and logistic regression analyses were applied to evaluate the predictive values of anthropometric indices for hyperuricemia. RESULTS:The prevalence of hyperuricemia increased significantly with higher quartiles of WHtR in both genders. The best cutoff points of WHtR to predict hyperuricemia are 0.52 for men and 0.49 for women and differed between different BMI and WC stratums. Although there was no significant difference between the area under the ROC curves, subjects in the top quartile of WHtR were at a highest risk of hyperuricemia (p for linear trend <0.001) and the adjusted ORs of WHtR (2.24-2.77 in men and 2.66-4.95 in women) were higher than those of BMI or WC in the multivariable regression model. CONCLUSIONS:WHtR was an independent and better predictor of hyperuricemia compared with BMI and WC. 10.1159/000504282
    Hyperuricemia in US Population with Heart Failure: Causal or Incidental Bystander? Ruocco Gaetano,Palazzuoli Alberto Cardiorenal medicine 10.1159/000503058
    Associations of multiple exposures to persistent toxic substances with the risk of hyperuricemia and subclinical uric acid levels in BIOAMBIENT.ES study. Arrebola Juan Pedro,Ramos Juan José,Bartolomé Mónica,Esteban Marta,Huetos Olga,Cañas Ana I,López-Herranz Ana,Calvo Eva,Pérez-Gómez Beatriz,Castaño Argelia, Environment international Hyperuricemia is becoming a serious public health issue, which is highly influenced by environmental factors, although there is still controversial information on the potential influence of the exposure to Persistent Toxic Substances (PTSs) in the general population. In this study we aimed to assess the association. PTS exposure with uric acid homeostasis in a sample of the Spanish population. Participants were recruited during 2009-2010 in all the main geographical areas of Spain. Exposure to 34 PTSs was estimated by chemical analyses of serum levels of 6 Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs, n = 950), 13 Organochlorine Pesticides (OCPs, n = 453), 6 Perfluoroalkyl Substances (PFAs, n = 755), 7 Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs, n = 365), urinary Cadmium (n = 926), and Lead in whole blood (n = 882). The two study outcomes were defined as the prevalence of hyperuricemia in the study population and uric acid levels, the latter only in individuals with no previous diagnosis of hyperuricemia. Statistical analyses were performed by means of binomial logistic regression and linear regression, and mixture effects were screened using Weighted Quantile Sum Regression (WQS). Serum concentrations of γ-HCH, o,p´-DDE, PCB-138, PCB-153, PFOA, and urinary Cadmium were associated with an increased risk of hyperuricemia, while PBDE-153 showed an inverse association with the effect. Furthermore, exposure to Cadmium, PCB-138, and to PCB-153 was positively associated with uric acid levels. Results were consistent after lipid adjustment or standardization. WQS analyses revealed a major contribution of PCB-153 within the PCB mixture on both the risk of hyperuricemia and uric acid levels. Sensitivity analyses were performed by adjusting for dietary habits, fasting glucose and estimated glomerular filtration rate. Overall, we found novel associations between human exposure to mixtures of PTSs and disturbances in uric acid homeostasis. However, we cannot completely rule out potential residual confounding effect or reversed-causality related to the cross-sectional design. 10.1016/j.envint.2018.12.030
    Hypertriglyceridemia and hyperuricemia: a retrospective study of urban residents. Hou Yan-Long,Yang Xiao-Lan,Wang Chun-Xia,Zhi Li-Xia,Yang Mei-Juan,You Chong-Ge Lipids in health and disease BACKGROUND:The aim of this study was to determine the association between hypertriglyceridemia and hyperuricemia (HUA). METHODS:The study was conducted in 3884 subjects who had not received medication enrolled as a baseline. Each participant received at least three annual health check-ups between 2011 and 2017. The risk of hyperuricemia was assessed in four Quartiles (Q1 to Q4) according to TG levels using multivariate-adjusted logistic regression models. RESULTS:The total incidence rate of HUA was 62.3/1000 person-years. In the univariate analysis, the risk of hyperuricemia in people with hypertriglyceridemia was 2.353 times that of normal triglycerides, with a 95% confidence interval of (2.011, 2.754), and the risk of hyperuricemia in men was 1.86 times of female, and the 95% confidence interval is (1.634, 2.177). After adjusting the potential confounders, the relative risk RR of TG at Q2 Q3 Q4 was 1.445 (95%CI:1.114, 1.901), 2.075 (1.611, 2.674), 2.972 (2.322, 3.804). CONCLUSIONS:TG is an independent risk factor for hyperuricemia. As the level of TG increases, the risk of HUA increases. 10.1186/s12944-019-1031-6
    The Prevalence of Hyperuricemia Sharply Increases from the Late Menopausal Transition Stage in Middle-Aged Women. Cho Sung Kweon,Winkler Cheryl A,Lee Soo-Jin,Chang Yoosoo,Ryu Seungho Journal of clinical medicine The impact of menopausal transition on change of serum uric acid level remains unknown. The present study evaluated the relationship of menopausal stages with prevalent hyperuricemia in middle-aged women. This cross-sectional study included 58,870 middle-aged Korean women, aged ≥40, who participated in a health examination from 2014 to 2016. Menopausal stages were obtained with a standardized, self-administered questionnaire and were categorized according to the criteria of the Stages of Reproductive Aging Workshop (STRAW+10). Hyperuricemia was defined as a serum uric acid level of ≥6 mg/dL. The prevalence of hyperuricemia increased as menopausal stage increased. The multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) for prevalent hyperuricemia comparing early transition, late transition, and post-menopause to pre-menopause were 1.19 (0.80⁻1.77), 2.13 (1.35⁻3.36), and 1.65 (1.33⁻2.04), respectively. This association was stronger among non-obese compared to obese participants and in those with low high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) levels (<1.0 mg/L) compared to those with elevated hsCRP levels of ≥1.0 mg/L ( for interaction = 0.01). In this large sample of middle-aged women, the prevalence of hyperuricemia significantly increased from the menopausal stage of late transition, independent of potential confounders. Appropriate preventive strategies for reducing hyperuricemia and its related consequences should be initiated prior to menopause. 10.3390/jcm8030296
    Flow-mediated dilation can be used to predict incident hypertension in patients with hyperuricemia. Han Chunli,Xian Zhanchao,Zou Yang,Liao Zhiyong,Yang Rongfeng,Zou Chunxia,Wang Xiaoqing,Sun Yan Archives of medical science : AMS Introduction:The aim of the study was to evaluate whether flow-mediated dilation (FMD) can be used to predict incident hypertension in patients with hyperuricemia. Material and methods:Normotensive participants with and without hyperuricemia at baseline were prospectively enrolled. Flow-mediated dilation was assessed at baseline, and after 1 year's follow-up the incidence of hypertension was compared between those with and without hyperuricemia. The predictive value of baseline FMD for incident hypertension among hyperuricemia patients was evaluated. Results:A total of 222 participants were included. Mean systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP) was 129.5 ±8.4 mm Hg and 78.3 ±7.9 mm Hg. Mean serum uric acid (UA) level was 4.4 ±2.8 mg/dl. Mean FMD was 5.1 ±2.7%. Compared to normal UA group, hyperuricemia group had higher proportion of male (58.4% vs. 61.2%), higher systolic BP (125.4 ±7.9 mm Hg vs. 132.1 ±7.3 mm Hg), serum high sensitivity C-reactive protein (3.9 ±2.2 mg/dl vs. 4.5 ±3.0 mg/dl) and UA (3.5 ±1.4 mg/dl vs. 5.7 ±0.7 mg/dl) levels, but lower mean FMD (5.6 ±2.4% vs. 4.8 ±2.0%) ( < 0.05 for all comparisons). No participant in normal UA group developed hypertension, while in hyperuricemia group, 6 participants developed hypertension. In hyperuricemia participants, after adjusted for covariates, per 1-standard deviation decrease in baseline FMD remained significantly associated with 15% increased risk of incident hypertension. Conclusions:Patients with hyperuricemia have an increased risk of developing hypertension, and low baseline FMD in hyperuricemia patients is associated with significantly increased risk of incident hypertension. 10.5114/aoms.2018.73856
    Dose-response relationship between higher serum calcium level and higher prevalence of hyperuricemia: A cross-sectional study. Liu Zhichen,Ding Xiang,Wu Jing,He Hongyi,Wu Ziying,Xie Dongxing,Yang Zidan,Wang Yilun,Tian Jian Medicine The aim of the study was to examine the relationship between serum calcium (Ca) levels and the prevalence of hyperuricemia (HU).The data included in this analysis were extracted from a population-based study conducted at the Xiangya Hospital Health Management Centre. Serum Ca levels were measured using the Arsenazo III method. HU was defined as the uric acid ≥416 μmol/L for male subjects, and ≥360 μmol/L for female subjects. The association between serum Ca levels and the prevalence of HU was evaluated using logistic and spline regression.The present study included a total of 6337 subjects. The overall prevalence of HU for the target population was 17.5%. Compared with the lowest quintile, the odds ratios adjusted by age, sex, body mass index, smoking, and drinking for HU were 1.51 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.20-1.91], 1.43 (95% CI: 1.13-1.82), 2.02 (95% CI: 1.61-2.54), and 2.54 (95% CI: 2.02-3.18) for the second, third, fourth, and fifth quintiles of serum Ca levels, respectively (P for trend <.001), and a positive dose-response relationship was observed. Similar results were observed for men and women, respectively. The findings were not materially altered by the adjustment for further potential confounders.Subjects with higher serum Ca levels are subject to a higher prevalence of HU in a dose-response relationship manner. 10.1097/MD.0000000000015611
    Hyperuricemia in Children and Adolescents: Present Knowledge and Future Directions. Kubota Masaru Journal of nutrition and metabolism Recent evidence suggests that hyperuricemia is an important condition in children and adolescents, particularly in association with noncommunicable diseases. This review aims to summarize our current understanding of this condition in pediatric patients. An analysis of serum uric acid reference values in a healthy population indicates that they increase gradually with age until adolescence, with differences between the sexes arising at about 12 years of age. This information should be taken into consideration when defining hyperuricemia in studies. Gout is extremely rare in children and adolescents, and most patients with gout have an underlying disease. The major causes of hyperuricemia are chronic conditions, including Down syndrome, metabolic or genetic disease, and congenital heart disease, and acute conditions, including gastroenteritis, bronchial asthma (hypoxia), malignant disorders, and drug side effects. The mechanisms underlying the associations between these diseases and hyperuricemia are discussed, together with recent genetic information. Obesity is a major cause of hyperuricemia in otherwise healthy children and adolescents. Obesity is often accompanied by metabolic syndrome; hyperuricemia in obese children and adolescents is associated with the components of metabolic syndrome and noncommunicable diseases, including hypertension, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and chronic kidney disease. Finally, strategies for the treatment of hyperuricemia, including lifestyle intervention and drug administration, are presented. 10.1155/2019/3480718
    Prevalence and risk factors associated with hyperuricemia among working population at high altitudes: a cross-sectional study in Western China. Shen Yang,Wang Yanling,Chang Chun,Li Suning,Li Weihao,Ni Bingying Clinical rheumatology Chronic exposure to high altitude may lead to hyperuricemia. We investigated the prevalence of hyperuricemia and its risk factors among employees in high-altitude areas. A cross-sectional survey with cluster sampling was performed at 23 worksites on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. Subjects were evaluated by using questionnaires, anthropometric and laboratory measurements, and abdominal ultrasound. A multilevel logistic regression model and restricted cubic spline were used to explore the associated factors of hyperuricemia. Of the 4198 employees included in the study, the age-standardized prevalence of hyperuricemia was 28.1% (95% confidence interval (CI) 26.7-29.5), with 31.9% (95%CI 30.2-33.6) in men and 17.9% (95%CI 15.7-20.1) in women. Hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and a meat-food pattern were positively associated with hyperuricemia in both sexes, while diabetes, shift work, body mass index, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, and low intake of fruits and vegetables were significantly associated with hyperuricemia only in men. Furthermore, a nonlinear dose-response association between the number of cardiovascular risk factors (CRFs) and hyperuricemia was observed. Compared with those having 0 CRFs, the full-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95%CIs for 1, 2, and ≥ 3 CRFs were 1.76 (95%CI 1.25-2.47), 2.54 (95%CI 1.81-3.55), and 3.05 (95%CI 2.16-4.31) in men, respectively, and 2.13 (95%CI 1.43-3.17), 2.78 (95%CI 1.71-4.53), and 3.13 (95%CI 1.50-6.55) in women, respectively. Hyperuricemia is common in employees at high-altitude areas. However, working at higher altitudes does not mean necessarily higher risk of hyperuricemia, as dietary factors and clustered CRFs are more significant. Thus, workplace-based lifestyle modifications should be promoted. 10.1007/s10067-018-4391-9
    Serum Phosphate and the Risk of New-Onset Hyperuricemia in Hypertensive Patients. Cao Jingjing,Zhang Jingping,Li Qinqin,Jiang Chongfei,Song Yun,Liu Chengzhang,Liu Lishun,Wang Binyan,Li Jianping,Zhang Yan,Cui Yimin,Huo Yong,Wang Xiaobin,Tang Genfu,Xu Xiping,Qin Xianhui Hypertension (Dallas, Tex. : 1979) The relationship of serum phosphate and new-onset hyperuricemia remains uncertain. We aimed to evaluate the relationship of serum phosphate with the risk of new-onset hyperuricemia, and to examine any possible effect modifiers in hypertensive patients. This is a post hoc analysis of the Uric Acid substudy of the CSPPT (China Stroke Primary Prevention Trial). A total of 10 612 participants with normal uric acid levels (<357 μmol/L [6 mg/dL]) at baseline were included in the current study. The primary outcome was new-onset hyperuricemia, which was defined as a uric acid concentration ≥417 μmol/L (7 mg/dL) in men or ≥357 μmol/L (6 mg/dL) in women. During a median follow-up of 4.4 years, 1663 (15.7%) participants developed new-onset hyperuricemia. Overall, there was a significant inverse association between serum phosphate and the risk of new-onset hyperuricemia (per SD increment; odds ratio, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.66-0.76). When serum phosphate was assessed as quartiles, a significantly lower risk of new-onset hyperuricemia was found in participants in quartile 4 (≥1.4 mmol/L; odds ratio, 0.48; 95% CI, 0.40-0.57) compared with those in quartile 1 (<1.2 mmol/L). Similar results were found in males and females. In summary, there was an inverse association between serum phosphate and the risk of new-onset hyperuricemia in hypertensive adults. 10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.119.12633
    Age-related and gender-stratified differences in the association between high triglyceride and risk of hyperuricemia. Zhang Lei,Wan Qilin,Zhou Yuemin,Xu Jing,Yan Chengyun,Ma Yuanyuan,Xu Minglong,He Ruili,Li Yanming,Zhong Xiaoming,Cheng Guanchang,Lu Yuquan Lipids in health and disease BACKGROUND:Elevated serum uric acid is commonly associated with high triglyceride. However, the relation of triglyceride and hyperuricemia in different gender and age groups is currently not well understood. This study aimed to evaluate age- and gender-related association of high triglyceride with hyperuricemia in a subgroup of Chinese population. METHODS:We retrospectively analyzed physical examination data of 24,438 subjects (12,557 men and 11,881 women) in Kaifeng, China. The alanine aminotransferase, γ-glutamyl transpeptidase, serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglyceride and serum uric acid were measured in all subjects. The triglyceride was categorized into < 1.21, 1.21 ~, 1.7 ~, 2.83 ~ and >  5.6 mmol/L subgroups, and odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) of hyperuricemia were calculated by logistic regression analysis. RESULTS:Univariate and age-adjusted analyses showed that high triglyceride was positively associated with hyperuricemia (p <  0.01). Further age-stratified analysis showed that the positive association was significant in the 20 ~, 30 ~, 40 ~, 50 ~, 60 ~ and 80 ~ age groups in men. In women, no statistically significant was found in 60 ~ and 70 ~ age groups. CONCLUSION:High triglyceride is positively associated with hyperuricemia in both men and women, and this association is age-related, especially in women. 10.1186/s12944-019-1077-5
    Usefulness of Triglyceride-glucose Index for estimating Hyperuricemia risk: Insights from a general Population. Shi Wenrui,Xing Liying,Jing Li,Tian Yuanmeng,Liu Shuang Postgraduate medicine : Hyperuricemia is a metabolic abnormality that has cast an enormous burden on global healthcare. Previous studies have revealed the close association between insulin resistance and hyperuricemia. Therefore, monitoring insulin sensitivity may be a possible way to prevent hyperuricemia. Recent studies have demonstrated the usefulness of triglyceride-glucose index (TyG) as a simple surrogate of insulin resistance. Hence, our study aimed to explore the impact of TyG on hyperuricemia and its value to improve the risk stratification and prevention of hyperuricemia. : This cross-sectional study included 6466 subjects (mean age: 59.57 years, 60.19% females) from northeast China between September 2017 to May 2018. TyG was determined as ln[fasting TG(mg/dL)×FPG(mg/dL)/2]. Hyperuricemia was defined as serum uric acid ≥ 357 μmol/L for females and ≥ 417 μmol/L for males. : The prevalence of hyperuricemia was 5.24%. In the full model, each SD increment of TyG caused a 12.528 μmol/L elevation of serum urate concentration and a 54.1% additional risk for hyperuricemia. When dividing TyG into quartiles, the top quartile had a 2.730 times risk for hyperuricemia than the bottom one. Moreover, smooth curve fitting demonstrated this association was linear. Additionally, subgroup analysis revealed the association was robust to several risk factors of hyperuricemia. Finally, AUC displayed an improvement when introducing TyG into clinical risk factors (0.751 vs 0.772, p < 0.001), category-free net reclassification index (0.304, 95% CI: 0.195-0.413, P < 0.001) and integrated discrimination index (0.009, 95% CI: 0.004-0.013, P < 0.001) also showed the improvement from TyG. : Our work revealed the linear and robust association between TyG and hyperuricemia. Furthermore, our results suggest the importance of simultaneous glycemic and lipids control in the prevention of hyperuricemia. Most importantly, our findings implicate the value of TyG to optimize the risk stratification and prevention of hyperuricemia. 10.1080/00325481.2019.1624581
    Hyperuricemia and gout are associated with cancer incidence and mortality: A meta-analysis based on cohort studies. Xie Yuxiu,Xu Peng,Liu Kang,Lin Shuai,Wang Meng,Tian Tian,Dai Cong,Deng Yujiao,Li Na,Hao Qian,Zhou Linghui,Dai Zhijun,Guo Hui Journal of cellular physiology The association between hyperuricemia or gout and cancer risk has been investigated in various published studies, but their results are conflicting. We conducted a meta-analysis to investigate whether hyperuricemia or gout was associated with the cancer incidence and mortality. Linear and nonlinear trend analyses were conducted to explore the dose-response association between them. The pooled relative risk (RR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were used to evaluate cancer risk. A total of 24 articles (33 independent studies) were eligible for inclusion. When compared participants with the highest SUA (hyperuricemia) levels and those with the lowest SUA levels, the pooled RR was 1.08 (95% CI, 1.04-1.12), it was significantly associated among males but not among females (males, RR = 1.07; 95% CI, 1.03-1.11; females, RR = 1.06; 95% CI, 0.96-1.17). Hyperuricemia increased total cancer mortality (RR = 1.15; 95% CI, 1.05-1.26), but a significant association was observed in females rather than in males (females: RR = 1.26; 95% CI, 1.09-1.45; males, RR = 1.02; 95% CI, 0.80-1.30). Linear relationships of SUA levels with overall cancer incidence (p for nonlinearity = 0.238) and overall cancer mortality (p for nonlinearity = 0.263) were identified. However, 1 mg/dL increment in SUA levels was weakly significant in overall cancer incidence (RR = 1.01; 95% CI, 1.01-1.01) but not associated with overall cancer mortality (RR = 1.01; 95% CI, 0.99-1.03). Gout was significantly associated with increased cancer incidence (RR = 1.19; 95% CI, 1.12-1.25). In conclusion, Hyperuricemia or gout was associated with higher cancer incidence and mortality. Though a potential linear relationship between them was found, we'd better treat this result with caution. 10.1002/jcp.28138
    Vascular Consequences of Hyperuricemia and Hypouricemia. Albert Daniel,Scudder Paige N,Bagley Pamela,Saag Kenneth G Rheumatic diseases clinics of North America There are more than 10,000 articles in the literature published since 1999 that appear in a search of hyperuricemia and hypouricemia for vascular events. Systematic reviews were reviewed for this time frame, numbering approximately 300 articles in addition to more than 400 reports of randomized clinical trials published since 2017. In summary, the epidemiologic associations of hyperuricemia and hypouricemia with vascular disease are confounded by comorbid conditions. The interventional data are suggestive of a relationship of gout and vascular disease and to a lesser extent hyperuricemia and hypertension; however, more interventional studies are necessary to confirm these relationships. 10.1016/j.rdc.2019.04.005
    Association of dietary fiber intake with hyperuricemia in U.S. adults. Sun Yongye,Sun Jianping,Zhang Peipei,Zhong Feng,Cai Jing,Ma Aiguo Food & function Current evidence on the relationship between dietary fiber intake and risk of hyperuricemia is limited. The aim of the present study was to examine their associations in the U.S. general adult population. Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2009 to 2014 were used. Dietary fiber intake was extracted through two 24 h dietary recall interviews. Hyperuricemia was defined by cut-off values of 7.0 mg dL for men and 6.0 mg dL for women. Multivariable logistic regression models and restricted cubic spline models were applied to explore the associations between dietary intakes of total, cereal, fruit and vegetable fiber and the risk of hyperuricemia. A total of 12 869 participants aged 20 years or older were included in the present study. The multivariable odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) of hyperuricemia for the highest vs. lowest quartile intake of total fiber were 0.58 (0.46-0.74), 0.61 (0.52-0.74) for cereal fiber, 0.94 (0.76-1.16) for fruit fiber and 0.95 (0.76-1.18) for vegetable fiber. The inverse associations between dietary intakes of total fiber and cereal fiber and the risk of hyperuricemia were observed in men. In stratified analysis by age (<45 years, ≥45 years), the inverse association between total fiber intake and the risk of hyperuricemia was consistent, while cereal fiber intake was only inversely associated with hyperuricemia among participants <45 years old. Dose-response analyses showed that the risk of hyperuricemia was associated with dietary intake of total fiber in a nonlinear manner, whereas the relationship was linear for cereal fiber intake. In conclusion, dietary intakes of total fiber and cereal fiber were inversely associated with the risk of hyperuricemia in the U.S. adult population. 10.1039/c8fo01917g
    Risk of Thyroid Disorders in Patients with Gout and Hyperuricemia. Xu Jian,Wang Bin,Li Qian,Yao Qiuming,Jia Xi,Song Ronghua,Zhang Jin-An Hormone and metabolic research = Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung = Hormones et metabolisme The risk of thyroid autoimmunity and thyroid dysfunction among patients with gout and hyperuricemia has not been well defined. This study was undertaken to examine the impact of gout and hyperuricemia on risk of thyroid disorders including thyroid autoimmunity and thyroid dysfunction. A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the risk of thyroid autoimmunity and thyroid dysfunction related to gout and hyperuricemia, which included 115 gout patients, 439 hyperuricemic patients, and 2 254 individuals without gout and hyperuricemia. A systematic review and meta-analysis of 14 observational studies was also done to systematically evaluate the risk of thyroid dysfunction among patients with gout and hyperuricemia. Findings from the cross-sectional study suggested a significantly increased risk of hypothyroidism among female gout patients (OR=2.44, 95% CI 1.15-5.17, p=0.02). Besides, gout could also substantially increase risk of Hashimoto's thyroiditis in women (OR=3.15, 95% CI 1.53-6.49, p=0.002). The meta-analysis proved a considerably increased risk of hypothyroidism among both gout patients (OR=1.51, 95% CI 1.23-1.85, p<0.001) and hyperuricemic patients (OR=1.34, 95% CI 1.11-1.61, p=0.002). Moreover, this meta-analysis also suggested that gout could also significantly increase the risk of hyperthyroidism (OR=1.25, 95% CI 1.06-1.48, p=0.01). The findings from the study suggest increasing risk of hypothyroidism and Hashimoto's thyroiditis among gout patients. Moreover, gout but not hyperuricemia is linked to increased risk of hyperthyroidism. More studies are warranted to elucidate the influence of gout and hyperuricemia on thyroid disorders. 10.1055/a-0923-9184
    Hyperuricemia Associated with Thiazide Diuretics in Hypertensive Adults. Raja Ravi,Kavita Fnu,Amreek Fnu,Shah Ali,Sayeed Khalid A,Sehar Alina Cureus Introduction Thiazide diuretics are essential first-line anti-hypertensive drugs which not only maintain blood pressure but also reduce stroke and congestive heart failure associated with morbidity and mortality in hypertensive patients. However, thiazide diuretics are associated with elevated serum uric acid (SUA) levels. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of thiazide diuretic use on their SUA levels among hypertensive individuals of Pakistan. Methods In this cross-sectional, prospective study, adult hypertensive patients were recruited. They were divided into two groups - thiazide diuretic group and non-thiazide group. Demographic characteristics, hypertension-related characteristics, and SUA levels were included. Data were then entered and analysed using SPSS for Windows version 22.0 (IBM Corp., Armonk, NY, USA). Results In the thiazide group, 24.5% were hyperuricemic as compared to 15.3% in the non-thiazide group (p=0.03). The overall mean SUA levels in the thiazide group were significantly higher than those in the non-thiazide group (5.9 ± 2.1 vs. 5.3 ± 2.7 mg/dL; p=0.02). Males in the thiazide group also showed a similar pattern (5.9 ± 2.3 vs. 5.1 ± 2.1 mg/dL; p=0.02); however, the differences were insignificant in females. Patients using thiazide diuretics for one to three years were more non-hyperuricemic than hyperuricemic (p=0.000). Among hyperuricemic patients, 36.5% were taking thiazides for three to four years and 46% were taking them for more than four years (p<0.05). Conclusion Hyperuricemia is a more common occurrence in thiazide diuretic users as compared to non-users. The overall sample, and men using thiazide diuretics, reported a higher mean SUA as compared to non-users. As the years of thiazide usage advanced, the number of hyperuricemic participants also significantly increased. 10.7759/cureus.5457
    Relationship between carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity and uric acid in subjects with hypertension and hyperuricemia. Liu Jinbo,Wang Kuanting,Liu Huan,Zhao Hongwei,Zhao Xiaoxiao,Lan Yang,Huang Wei,Wang Hongyu Endocrine journal Increasing of arterial stiffness is the pathophysiological characteristic of hypertension. Carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (CF-PWV) is an index of arterial stiffness. Serum uric acid has been found to be involved the development of hypertension. We investigated the relationship between CF-PWV and serum uric acid in subjects with hypertension and hyperuricemia. 651 subjects (M/F 271/380) were divided into four groups, group 1: subjects without hypertension and hyperuricemia; group 2: hypertension subjects without hyperuricemia; group 3: hyperuricemia subjects without hypertension; group 4: subjects with hypertension and hyperuricemia. CF-PWV was measured by Complior apparatus. Results showed that levels of CF-PWV (10.75 ± 2.03 vs. 10.06 ± 1.98 m/s, p < 0.001) and serum uric acid (319.33 ± 80.12 vs. 298.78 ± 74.88 umol/L, p = 0.001) were significantly higher in hypertensive (groups 2 + 4) group than in normotensive (groups 1 + 3) group. CF-PWV was significantly higher in group 4 than group 1, group 2 and group 3 (ANOVA analysis: F = 13.348, p < 0.001; 11.78 ± 2.10 vs. 9.98 ± 1.98, 10.52 ± 1.93, 10.56 ± 1.99 m/s, all p < 0.05, respectively). There was positive correlation between CF-PWV and serum uric acid in entire study group (r = 0.187, p < 0.001), even after adjusting for gender, body mass index, systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (r = 0.100, p = 0.015). Multiple linear regressions showed that SBP, age, benzbromarone, statin and serum uric acid were independent associating factors of CFPWV in all subjects (β = 0.310, p < 0.001; β = 0.330, p < 0.001; β = 0.172, p = 0.002; β = -0.143, p = 0.006; β = 0.126, p = 0.027; respectively). In conclusions, CF-PWV was significantly higher in hypertension subjects with hyperuricemia compared to hypertension without hyperuricemia subjects, and serum uric acid was an independent associating factor of CF-PWV. 10.1507/endocrj.EJ18-0570
    Neck circumference is associated with hyperuricemia: a cross-sectional study. Shen Xiuhua,Wu Shouling,Xu Renying,Wu Yuntao,Li Junjuan,Cui Liufu,Shu Rong,Gao Xiang Clinical rheumatology BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE:Neck circumference (NC) is associated with metabolic abnormalities, independent of other obesity indices. However, data are limited regarding the potential relation between NC and serum uric acid (UA) concentrations. Therefore, we evaluated the cross-sectional association between NC and UA concentration, and odds of having hyperuricemia in a community-based cohort. SUBJECTS AND METHODS:The current study included 87,782 participants (16,317 women and 71,465 men, 52.2 ± 14.1 y) of the Kailuan Study. NC and UA concentration were measured in 2014. We used generalized linear model to investigate the association between NC and serum UA concentration and logistic regression model to investigate the association between NC and likelihood of having hyperuricemia (≥ 7 mg/dl in men and ≥ 6 mg/dl in women), adjusting for demographic factor, anthropometric indices, plasma lipid profiles, blood glucose, blood pressure, physical exercise, snoring, smoking, diet quality, and alcohol consumption. RESULTS:Higher NC was associated with higher serum UA concentration, and higher odds of hyperuricemia in both men and women after adjusting for potential confounders (both p < 0.001). Each additional 5-cm increase in NC was associated with 6% higher likelihood of having hyperuricemia (adjusted OR = 1.06; 95% CI 1.02, 1.1) in men and 17% in women (adjusted OR = 1.17; 95% CI 1.06, 1.28) (p interaction = 0.01). Similar pattern was observed after excluding participants who reported use of anti-hypertensive drugs, participants with obesity or higher waist circumference, and participants with history of gout and chronic kidney diseases. CONCLUSIONS:Higher NC was associated with higher serum UA concentration and higher risk of hyperuricemia in Chinese adult population. CLINICAL TRIAL NUMBER:Kailuan Study (ChiCTR-TNRC-11001489). 10.1007/s10067-019-04541-1
    Gender effect of hyperuricemia on the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD): A clinical analysis and mechanistic study. Xu Keyang,Zhao Xu,Fu Xiaoqing,Xu Kechen,Li Zhaoyi,Miao Liangbin,Li Yan,Cai Zhaobin,Qiao Liang,Bao Jianfeng Biomedicine & pharmacotherapy = Biomedecine & pharmacotherapie BACKGROUND AND AIMS:Hyperuricemia is a risk factor for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), however, the effect of gender on the hyperuricemia-related NAFLD development remains unclear. Here, we evaluated the clinical characteristics of NAFLD patients with hyperuricemia, and experimentally recapitulated this condition in male rats in order to gain insights on the possible impact of gender on the development of NAFLD in patients with hyperuricemia. METHODS:The clinical characteristics of 238 NAFLD patients, together with the impacts of hyperuricemia on the major parameters related to the development of NALFD were analysed. In animal studies, NAFLD with hyperuricemia was induced in male SD rats using high-yeast high-fat diet containing potassium oxonate. The impact of uric acids on liver pathology, and the expression patterns of key molecules involved in the development of NAFLD, including silent information regulator 1 (SIRT1), nuclear factor kappa B subunit p65 (NF-κB p65), fork-head box class O-3a (FOXO3a), androgen receptor (AR), and xanthine oxidase (XO) were analysed. RESULTS:Male NAFLD patients with hyperuricemia displayed more frequent and extensive liver injury than those in female patients. In male rats, hyperuricemia was associated with increased levels of insulin, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and triglyceride (TG). At the molecular level, hyperuricemia was associated with decreased expression of SIRT1 and its phosphorylation, phosphorylation of FOXO3a, increased expression of AR and XO, and deacetylation of NF-κB P65. CONCLUSIONS:Hyperuricemia is a compounding factor for NAFLD, particularly in males. The severer hepatic injury observed in male NAFLD patients may be attributed to the suppression of SIRT1 signalling induced by hyperuricemia. 10.1016/j.biopha.2019.109158
    Hyperuricemia is associated with impaired intestinal permeability in mice. Xu Daxing,Lv Qiulan,Wang Xiaofeng,Cui Xuena,Zhao Peng,Yang Xiaomin,Liu Xiu,Yang Wan,Yang Guanpin,Wang Guangtao,Wang Pengjun,Wang Zenglan,Li Zhiyuan,Xing Shichao American journal of physiology. Gastrointestinal and liver physiology Hyperuricemia is associated with many metabolic diseases. However, the underlying mechanism remains unknown. The gut microbiota has been demonstrated to play significant roles in the immunity and metabolism of the host. In the present study, we constructed a hyperuricemic mouse model to investigate whether the metabolic disorder caused by hyperuricemia is related to intestinal dysbiosis. A significantly increased intestinal permeability was detected in hyperuricemic mice. The difference in microflora between wild-type and hyperuricemic mice accompanies the translocation of gut microbiota to the extraintestinal tissues. Such a process is followed by an increase in innate immune system activation. We observed increased LPS and TNF-α levels in the hyperuricemic mice, indicating that hyperuricemic mice were in a state of low-grade systemic inflammation. In addition, hyperuricemic mice presented early injury of parenteral tissue and disordered lipid metabolism. These findings suggest that intestinal dysbiosis due to an impaired intestinal barrier may be the key cause of metabolic disorders in hyperuricemic mice. Our findings should aid in paving a new way of preventing and treating hyperuricemia and its complications. Hyperuricemia is associated with many metabolic diseases. However, the underlying mechanism remains unknown. We constructed a hyperuricemic mouse model to explore the relationship between intestinal dysbiosis and metabolic disorder caused by hyperuricemia. 10.1152/ajpgi.00151.2019
    Impaired intestinal barrier function in a mouse model of hyperuricemia. Guo Yingjie,Li Hailong,Liu Zhen,Li Changgui,Chen Yunqing,Jiang Chen,Yu Yanan,Tian Zibin Molecular medicine reports Previous studies have demonstrated the effects of hyperuricemia on the damage to target organs, including the kidneys, joints and the heart. However, it is unclear whether hyperuricemia results in damage to the intestines. The aim of the present study was to investigate intestinal barrier dysfunction in a mouse model of hyperuricemia constructed by knocking out the urate oxidase (Uox) gene. The morphology of the intestine was assessed via hematoxylin and eosin, and alcian blue staining. The serum and intestinal tissue levels of uric acid, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)‑α and interleukin (IL)‑6, in addition to the presence of uremic toxins in the serum, were assessed. The levels of diamine oxidase (DAO), D‑lactate (D‑LAC) and endotoxins in the serum, which are markers of the intestinal permeability, were measured using ELISA. The expression of the intestinal tight junction proteins zona occludens‑1 (ZO‑1) and occludin were detected by reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction, western blotting and immunohistochemical analysis. The Uox‑knockout mice spontaneously developed hyperuricemia. Histopathological analysis indicated notable intestinal defects including sparse villi, mucosal edema and a declining mucus layer in hyperuricemic mice. The expression levels of ZO‑1 and occludin in the intestines were downregulated, and the serum levels of DAO, D‑LAC and endotoxins were higher in the hyperuricemic mice, compared with control mice. The serum and intestinal tissue levels of IL‑6 and TNF‑α were significantly increased. Additionally, the expression levels of the serum uremic toxins, serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen were significantly increased in hyperuricemic mice compared with the control mice, while only a marked increase in indoxyl sulfate (IS) and p‑cresol sulfate was reported. Collectively, the results of the present study suggested that intestinal barrier dysfunction and subsequent enhanced intestinal permeability may occur as a result of hyperuricemia in mice. Furthermore, we proposed that the loss of intestinal epithelium barrier function may be associated with uric acid‑induced inflammatory responses; however, further investigation is required. 10.3892/mmr.2019.10586
    Visceral adipose accumulation increased the risk of hyperuricemia among middle-aged and elderly adults: a population-based study. Huang Xiaolin,Jiang Xiaohong,Wang Long,Chen Lu,Wu Yang,Gao Pei,Hua Fei Journal of translational medicine BACKGROUND:The role of body fat distribution in uric acid metabolism is still ambiguity. We aimed to investigate the independent contribution of visceral adipose measured by visceral adiposity index and lipid accumulation product and liver fat assessed by fatty liver index to the risk of hyperuricemia. METHODS:We conducted a cross-sectional study involving 1284 participants aged ≥ 40 years old recruited from communities in Zhonglou district, Changzhou. Each participant completed a standard questionnaire, and provided blood samples for biochemical measurements. Visceral adiposity index, fatty liver index and lipid accumulation product were calculated by simple anthropometric and functional parameters. Hyperuricemia was defined as serum uric acid ≥ 420 μmol/l for males and ≥ 360 μmol/l for females. RESULTS:The prevalence of hyperuricemia was 15.9% and gradually increased across tertiles of adiposity-based indices. The visceral adipose-based measurements (visceral adiposity index, fatty liver index, lipid accumulation product) had better power to discriminate hyperuricemia than body mass index (BMI), waist circumference and neck circumference, and visceral adiposity index exhibited the highest power, with the area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (AUROC) of 0.662 (0.636-0.688). Multivariate logistic regression found 1.49-fold, 2.21-fold and 2.12-fold increased risk of hyperuricemia with 1-unit increment of visceral adiposity index, fatty liver index, and lipid accumulation product, respectively. Compared to tertile 1, the odds ratios of hyperuricemia for the second tertile and the third tertile of visceral adiposity index were 1.57 (1.00-2.50) and 3.11 (1.96-4.94), those of fatty liver index were 1.64 (1.05-2.68) and 3.58 (1.94-6.01), and those of lipid accumulation product were 1.93 (1.19-3.15) and 3.53 (2.05-6.09), respectively. However, no significant associations of BMI, waist circumference and neck circumference with hyperuricemia were observed. CONCLUSIONS:Visceral adipose accumulation increased the risk of hyperuricemia, independently of BMI, waist circumference and neck circumference, among middle-aged and elderly Chinese adults. 10.1186/s12967-019-2074-1
    Association of hyperuricemia and pulmonary hypertension: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Uk Kang Tae,Park Kyu Yong,Kim Hyun Jung,Ahn Hyeong Sik,Yim Shin-Young,Jun Jae-Bum Modern rheumatology To investigate the association of hyperuricemia with pulmonary hypertension (PH) in term of subsequent development, severity, and prognosis of PH. The authors systematically reviewed articles from databases and conducted meta-analyses as follows: (1) association of serum uric acid (UA) levels with the presence of PH; (2) association between serum UA levels and subsequent development of PH, in terms of odds ratio of the development of PH; and (3) association of serum UA levels with severity and prognosis of PH, in terms of pulmonary arterial pressure and hazard ratio of death. Twenty-six studies published between 1999 and 2017 were included. The level of serum UA was higher in subjects with PH than subjects without PH and this finding was observed regardless of status of diuretics use or renal function. The odds ratio of the development of PH was 2.32 (95% CI, 1.05-5.15) in subjects with hyperuricemia. Pulmonary arterial pressure among subjects with PH was also higher in subjects with hyperuricemia than subjects with normouricemia. There was a 19% increased hazard ratio of death (95% CI, 1.06-1.33) among patients with PH who had hyperuricemia. Hyperuricemia is associated with the subsequent development, worse severity and poor prognosis of PH. 10.1080/14397595.2018.1537555
    Asymptomatic hyperuricemia and incident stroke in elderly Chinese patients without comorbidities. Tu W,Wu J,Jian G,Lori J,Tang Y,Cheng H,Wu X,Wang N European journal of clinical nutrition BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES:Hyperuricemia is usually associated with other comorbidities; so it is difficult to distinguish the effects of hyperuricemia from other coexisting comorbidities in patients who suffer a stroke. SUBJECT/METHODS:Data for this study were collected from the patients of Kangjian Community Health Center of Shanghai. Selected participants ≥65 years of age were available at enrollment (2009-2013). Subjects were excluded if they had hypertension, diabetes mellitus, pre-existing cardiovascular disease, or hyperlipidemia. Further, patients who were overweight or obese, had gout or drug-treated hyperuricemia, or had chronic kidney disease were also excluded. Cox regression was used in order to assess the hazard ratio (HR) for the incidence of stroke events between hyperuricemic and normouricemic patients. RESULTS:A total of 3243 subjects without comorbidities (70.8 ± 6.0 years) were followed for 35.5 ± 3.0 months. Hyperuricemia conferred increased cumulative incident stroke events (6.9 versus 3.1%, odds ratio [OR] = 2.27, 95% confidence index [CI] 1.52-3.37, p < 0.001). Male and female hyperuricemic subjects also showed a significantly higher incident stroke incidence than normouricemic subjects (6.1 versus 2.7%, OR = 2.34, 95% CI 1.31-4.18, p = 0.003 and 7.6 versus 3.7%, OR = 2.16, 95% CI 1.25-3.72, p = 0.005, respectively). Cox regression showed that hyperuricemia independently predicted incident stroke risk (HR = 2.32, 95%CI 1.56-3.45). CONCLUSION:Asymptomatic hyperuricemia carried a significant risk of stroke events in Chinese elderly without comorbidities. 10.1038/s41430-019-0405-1
    Association between anemia and hyperuricemia: results from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Eun Yeonghee,Han Kyung-Do,Kim Da Hye,Kim In Young,Park Eun-Jung,Lee Seulkee,Cha Hoon-Suk,Koh Eun-Mi,Lee Jaejoon,Kim Hyungjin Scientific reports Hyperuricemia and anemia share several comorbidities, but the association between the two conditions remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between hyperuricemia and anemia. Data of 10794 subjects from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey conducted in 2016-2017 were analyzed using multivariate logistic regression analyses. An association between anemia and hyperuricemia was not evident in subjects without chronic kidney disease (CKD). In patients with CKD, anemia increased the risk of hyperuricemia by 2-fold. This association remained significant when adjusting for the glomerular filtration rate. In subgroup analyses, the association of anemia with hyperuricemia was significant in subjects aged ≥65 years, and in those with diabetes or hypertension. Subgroup analyses of CKD patients showed similar results. In the current study using data from Korean representative samples, anemia in subjects with CKD was associated with a 2-fold increase in the risk of hyperuricemia, which remained significant even after adjustment for renal function. 10.1038/s41598-019-55514-y
    Risk Factors For Hyperuricemia In Chinese Centenarians And Near-Centenarians. Han Qiu-Xia,Zhang Dong,Zhao Ya-Li,Liu Liang,Li Jing,Zhang Fu,Luan Fu-Xin,Liu Dong-Wei,Liu Zhang-Suo,Cai Guang-Yan,Chen Xiang-Mei,Zhu Han-Yu Clinical interventions in aging Purpose:Hyperuricemia is an important potential pathogenic factor for hypertension, cardiovascular disease and stroke. The current study aimed to investigate the prevalence of hyperuricemia and its relationship to lifestyle characteristics and dietary habits in centenarians and near-centenarians. Patients and methods:In total, 966 centenarians and 788 near-centenarians were included. Community-based surveys were conducted to collect information about lifestyle. Blood examinations were performed using enzymatic assays. T-tests and χ2 tests were used to investigate significant indicators of hyperuricemia, and multivariate logistic regression was used to analyze the related risk factors. A comprehensive analysis of nineteen modifiable factors, including lifestyle characteristics, dietary habits, general characteristics and blood test indexes, was conducted. Results:The prevalence of hyperuricemia was 29.02%. The percentage of men, waist circumference (WC), waist-hip ratio, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), levels of total protein (TP), alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, serum homocysteine, serum uric acid, serum urea and serum creatinine, passive smoking, alcohol consumption, snoring, preference for fried flavors, and meat, seafood and vegetable consumption were significantly different between the hyperuricemia group and the normouricemia group (p<0.05). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that WC (OR=1.020), eGFR (OR=0.960), TP level (OR=1.038), serum urea level (OR=1.154), passive smoking (OR=2.589), snoring (OR=2.003), meat consumption (OR=2.506), seafood consumption (OR=1.422) and vegetable consumption (OR=0.521) were significantly associated with the risk of hyperuricemia (p<0.05). Conclusion:Low eGFR and vegetable consumption, high WC, TP, and serum urea levels, passive smoking, snoring, and high meat and seafood consumption were independent risk factors for hyperuricemia. It is recommended that people at high risk for hyperuricemia should actively limit their intake of fried food, alcohol and purine-rich food, increase their intake of fresh vegetables, actively treat sleep apnea syndrome, avoid passive smoking, maintain a healthy WC and seek to improve their kidney and liver function. 10.2147/CIA.S223048
    Hyperuricemia and Hypertension: Links and Risks. Stewart Douglas J,Langlois Valerie,Noone Damien Integrated blood pressure control Hyperuricemia has long been recognized to be associated with increased cardiovascular risk, including risk of developing hypertension. Epidemiological findings suggest that the link with hypertension is stronger in children and adolescents. Uric acid acts as a strong antioxidant compound in the extracellular environment but has pro-inflammatory effects within the intracellular setting. A chronic phase of microvascular injury is known to occur after prolonged periods of hyperuricemia. This is proposed to contribute to afferent arteriolopathy and elevation of blood pressure that may become unresponsive to uric acid-lowering therapies over time. Studies have struggled to infer direct causality of hyperuricemia due to a vast number of confounders including body mass index. The aim of this review is to present the available data and highlight the need for large scale prospective randomized controlled trials in this area. At present, there is limited evidence to support a role for uric acid-lowering therapies in helping mitigate the risk of hypertension. 10.2147/IBPC.S184685
    The Further Negative Effect of Hyperuricemia on Left Ventricular Structure and Function in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Transthoracic 3D Speckle Tracking Imaging Study. Wang Qingqing,Tan Kaibin,Xia Hongmei,Gao Yunhua Metabolic syndrome and related disorders The aims of this study were to explore the left ventricular (LV) structural abnormality and its risk factors in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients with or without hyperuricemia (HU) and to compare their LV function using three-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography (3DSTE). Eighty T2DM patients with preserved LV ejection fraction were included, 40 of whom had HU as co-morbidity. Forty age- and gender-matched controls were also recruited. The risk factors and corresponding diagnostic values for LV remodeling (LVR) were, respectively, determined using multifactor logistic regression and area under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUC). LV global longitudinal strain (GLS), global circumferential strain (GCS), global area strain (GAS), and global radial strain (GRS) were measured by 3DSTE. LV morphology constituent ratio showed significant differences among groups ( = 0.0001). Compared with the controls, more abnormal LV patterns were found in the two T2DM groups, while LV hypertrophy was the most prevalent in those with T2DM and HU. Fasting plasma glucose and serum uric acid were two significant risk factors for LVR in T2DM patients (AUC values: 0.678 and 0.672). The patients with T2DM alone had significantly lower GLS than the controls ( < 0.05). The patients with T2DM and HU had significantly lower GLS, GCS, GAS, and GRS than the controls (all  < 0.01), and they also had significantly lower GLS, GCS, and GAS than the patients with T2DM alone (all  < 0.05). Conventional echocardiography combined with 3DSTE could detect subclinical LV structural abnormality and dysfunction in T2DM patients with or without HU. 10.1089/met.2019.0048
    The association between hyperuricemia and coronary artery calcification development: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Liang Ling,Hou Xianghua,Bainey Kevin R,Zhang Yanlin,Tymchak Wayne,Qi Zhongquan,Li Weihua,Banh Hoan Linh Clinical cardiology Hyperuricemia coincides with coronary artery calcification (CAC) development, but the role of serum uric acid (SUA) as a risk factor for CAC remains unclear. The objective of this study was to gain an insight into the association between SUA and CAC in adults by performing a meta-analysis. MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, and EBSCO (CINAHL) were searched for relevant observational studies published until 2 June 2019. Studies were included only if they reported data on CAC presence (Agatston score > 0) or progression related to hyperuricemia in subclinical adult patients. The pooled estimates of crude and adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated to evaluate the association between CAC presence or progression and hyperuricemia. A total of 11 studies were identified involving 11 108 adults. The pooled OR based on the frequency of CAC presence showed that patients in the high SUA group had 1.806-fold risk for developing CAC (95% CI: 1.491-2.186) under the minimal threshold of hyperuricemia (more than 6 mg/dL or 357 μmoL/L). When SUA levels were analyzed as categorical variables, the pooled estimate of adjusted ORs was 1.48 (95% CI: 1.23-1.79) for CAC presence. Additionally, for each increase of 1 mg/dL of SUA level, the risk of CAC progression was increased by 31% (95% CI: 1.15-1.49) with an average follow-up duration ranged from 4.6 to 6.1 years. Hyperuricemia is closely associated with increased risk of CAC development and CAC progression in asymptomatic patients. 10.1002/clc.23266
    Population Impact Attributable to Modifiable Risk Factors for Hyperuricemia. Choi Hyon K,McCormick Natalie,Lu Na,Rai Sharan K,Yokose Chio,Zhang Yuqing Arthritis & rheumatology (Hoboken, N.J.) OBJECTIVE:To examine modifiable risk factors in relation to the presence of hyperuricemia and to estimate the proportion of hyperuricemia cases in the general population that could be prevented by risk factor modification, along with estimates of the variance explained. METHODS:Using data obtained from 14,624 adults representative of the US civilian noninstitutionalized population, we calculated adjusted prevalence ratios for hyperuricemia, population attributable risks (PARs), and the variance explained according to the following 4 factors: body mass index (BMI; ≥25 kg/m ), alcohol intake, nonadherence to a Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet, and diuretic use. RESULTS:BMI, alcohol intake, adherence to a DASH-style diet, and diuretic use were all associated with serum urate levels and the presence of hyperuricemia in a dose-dependent manner. The corresponding PARs of hyperuricemia cases for overweight/obesity (prevalence 60%), nonadherence to a DASH-style diet (prevalence 82%), alcohol use (prevalence 48%), and diuretic use (prevalence 8%) were 44% (95% confidence interval [95% CI] 41%, 48%), 9% (95% CI 3%, 16%), 8% (95% CI 5%, 11%), and 12% (95% CI 11%, 14%), respectively, whereas the corresponding variances explained were 8.9%, 0.1%, 0.5%, and 5.0%. Our simulation study showed the variance nearing 0% as exposure prevalence neared 100%. CONCLUSION:In this nationally representative study, 4 modifiable risk factors (BMI, the DASH diet, alcohol use, and diuretic use) could be used to individually account for a notable proportion of hyperuricemia cases. However, the corresponding serum urate variance explained by these risk factors was very small and paradoxically masked their high prevalences, providing real-life empirical evidence for its limitations in assessing common risk factors. 10.1002/art.41067
    White blood cell count and the incidence of hyperuricemia: insights from a community-based study. Liu Jian,Shen Pingyan,Ma Xiaobo,Yu Xialian,Ni Liyan,Hao Xu,Wang Weiming,Chen Nan Frontiers of medicine Hyperuricemia (HUA) is a risk factor for chronic kidney disease (CKD). The relationship between HUA and white blood cell (WBC) count remains unknown. A sampling survey for CKD was conducted in Sanlin community in 2012 and 2014. CKD was defined as proteinuria in at least the microalbuminuric stage or an estimated GFR of 60 mL/(min∙1.73 m). HUA was defined as serum uric acid > 420 μmol/L in men and > 360 μmol/L in women. This study included 1024 participants. The prevalence of HUA was 17.77%. Patients with HUA were more likely to have higher levels of WBC count, which was positively associated with HUA prevalence. This association was also observed in participants without CKD, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, or obesity. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that WBC count was independently associated with the risk for HUA in male and female participants. Compared with participants without HUA, inflammatory factors such as high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, tumor necrosis factor-α, and interleukin 6 increased in participants with HUA. Hence, WBC count is positively associated with HUA, and this association is independent of conventional risk factors for CKD. 10.1007/s11684-017-0579-7
    Association between dairy product consumption and hyperuricemia in an elderly population with metabolic syndrome. Mena-Sánchez Guillermo,Babio Nancy,Becerra-Tomás Nerea,Martínez-González Miguel Á,Díaz-López Andrés,Corella Dolores,Zomeño Maria D,Romaguera Dora,Vioque Jesús,Alonso-Gómez Ángel M,Wärnberg Julia,Martínez José A,Serra-Majem Luís,Estruch Ramon,Bernal Rosa,Lapetra José,Pintó Xavier,Tur Josep A,Lopez-Miranda José,Cano-Ibáñez Naomi,Gaforio Jose J,Matía-Martín Pilar,Daimiel Lidia,Caro José L Llisterri,Vidal Josep,Vázquez Clotilde,Ros Emili,Arellano Ana Garcia,Palau Antoni,Fernández-Carrión Rebeca,Pérez-Vega Karla A,Morey Marga,de la Hera Manoli García,Vaquero-Luna Jessica,Carmona-González Francisco J,Abete Itziar,Álvarez-Pérez Jacqueline,Casas Rosa,Fernández-García José C,Santos-Lozano José M,Corbella Emili,Sureda Antoni,Ruiz-Canela Miguel,Barragán Rocio,Goday Albert,Martín Marian,Altozano Rodado María C,Toledo Estefanía,Fitó Montse,Salas-Salvadó Jordi, Nutrition, metabolism, and cardiovascular diseases : NMCD BACKGROUND AND AIMS:The prevalence of hyperuricemia has increased substantially in recent decades. It has been suggested that it is an independent risk factor for weight gain, hypertension, hypertriglyceridemia, metabolic syndrome (MetS), and cardiovascular disease. Results from epidemiological studies conducted in different study populations have suggested that high consumption of dairy products is associated with a lower risk of developing hyperuricemia. However, this association is still unclear. The aim of the present study is to explore the association of the consumption of total dairy products and their subtypes with the risk of hyperuricemia in an elderly Mediterranean population with MetS. METHODS AND RESULTS:Baseline cross-sectional analyses were conducted on 6329 men/women (mean age 65 years) with overweight/obesity and MetS from the PREDIMED-Plus cohort. Dairy consumption was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire. Multivariable-adjusted Cox regressions were fitted to analyze the association of quartiles of consumption of total dairy products and their subtypes with the prevalence of hyperuricemia. Participants in the upper quartile of the consumption of total dairy products (multiadjusted prevalence ratio (PR) = 0.84; 95% CI: 0.75-0.94; P-trend 0.02), low-fat dairy products (PR = 0.79; 95% CI: 0.70-0.89; P-trend <0.001), total milk (PR = 0.81; 95% CI: 0.73-0.90; P-trend<0.001), low-fat milk (PR = 0.80; 95% CI: 0.72-0.89; P-trend<0.001, respectively), low-fat yogurt (PR = 0.89; 95% CI: 0.80-0.98; P-trend 0.051), and cheese (PR = 0.86; 95% CI: 0.77-0.96; P-trend 0.003) presented a lower prevalence of hyperuricemia. Whole-fat dairy, fermented dairy, and yogurt consumption were not associated with hyperuricemia. CONCLUSIONS:High consumption of total dairy products, total milk, low-fat dairy products, low-fat milk, low-fat yogurt, and cheese is associated with a lower risk of hyperuricemia. 10.1016/j.numecd.2019.09.023
    Abnormal metabolism of gut microbiota reveals the possible molecular mechanism of nephropathy induced by hyperuricemia. Pan Libin,Han Pei,Ma Shurong,Peng Ran,Wang Can,Kong Weijia,Cong Lin,Fu Jie,Zhang Zhengwei,Yu Hang,Wang Yan,Jiang Jiandong Acta pharmaceutica Sinica. B The progression of hyperuricemia disease is often accompanied by damage to renal function. However, there are few studies on hyperuricemia nephropathy, especially its association with intestinal flora. This study combines metabolomics and gut microbiota diversity analysis to explore metabolic changes using a rat model as well as the changes in intestinal flora composition. The results showed that amino acid metabolism was disturbed with serine, glutamate and glutamine being downregulated whilst glycine, hydroxyproline and alanine being upregulated. The combined glycine, serine and glutamate could predict hyperuricemia nephropathy with an area under the curve of 1.00. Imbalanced intestinal flora was also observed. , , , , and other conditional pathogens increased significantly in the model group, while and , the short-chain fatty acid producing bacteria, declined greatly. At phylum, family and genus levels, disordered nitrogen circulation in gut microbiota was detected. In the model group, the uric acid decomposition pathway was enhanced with reinforced urea liver-intestine circulation. The results implied that the intestinal flora play a vital role in the pathogenesis of hyperuricemia nephropathy. Hence, modulation of gut microbiota or targeting at metabolic enzymes, , urease, could assist the treatment and prevention of this disease. 10.1016/j.apsb.2019.10.007
    The relationship between self-reported habitual snoring and hyperuricemia among Chinese urban adults: a cross-sectional study. Xiong Xiaolu,He Fangfang,Sun Gongrui,Li Yizhuo,Shi Yanteng,Ge Xiaolong,Zheng Shasha,Xu Rong Sleep medicine BACKGROUND:Growing evidence suggests an independent relationship between habitual snoring and metabolic abnormalities. Currently, there are few data available on the association between snoring and hyperuricemia. Therefore, we evaluated the cross-sectional association between snoring and serum uric acid (UA) concentration and ascertain the effects of different snoring intensities on hyperuricemia among Chinese urban adults in Nanjing. METHODS:We performed a cross-sectional study including 7699 participants (4197 men and 3502 women) from Nanjing Drum Tower Hospital aged ≥18 years over a two year (ie, 2016-2018) period. All participants were divided into four groups based on Snoring scores. Questionnaires, physical examinations and biochemical tests were conducted. Hyperuricemia was defined as levels of serum UA > 6.8 mg/dL in males and >6.0 mg/dL in females. We used a generalized linear model to investigate the association between snoring and serum UA concentration and logistic regression model to investigate the association between snoring and likelihood of having hyperuricemia in the age-, sex-adjusted model and in a multivariable model adjusting for demographic factor, plasma lipid profiles, blood glucose, blood pressure, smoking, and alcohol consumption. RESULTS:The prevalence of hyperuricemia was 10.05% in the studied population and gradually increased across the snoring scores (P < 0.0001). We found that mild snoring, moderate, and severe snoring intensity were associated with high serum UA in the age-, sex-adjusted model and in a multivariable model adjusting for demographic and lifestyle/behavioral risk factors. The association was insisted with the addition of variables related to clinical outcomes such as diabetes, hypertension, and high-cholesterol levels. CONCLUSIONS:Our results showed self-reported habitual snoring was associated with higher serum UA concentration among Chinese urban adults. Findings of this study indicate the significance of early detection and treatment of snoring to prevent hyperuricemia. 10.1016/j.sleep.2019.11.1257
    Relationship between hyperuricemia and risk of coronary heart disease in a middle-aged and elderly Chinese population. Yang Ye,Tian Jian,Zeng Chao,Wei Jie,Li Liang-Jun,Xie Xi,Yang Tuo,Li Hui,Lei Guang-Hua The Journal of international medical research Objective To investigate the relationship between hyperuricemia and coronary heart disease (CHD) risk based on the Framingham risk score (FRS) in a middle-aged and elderly Chinese population. Methods This cross-sectional study enrolled patients undergoing routine check-ups at Xiangya Hospital between October 2013 and November 2014. Hyperuricemia was defined as uric acid ≥416 mmol/l for males and ≥360 mmol/l for females. A 10-year CHD risk was calculated from FRS. A multivariable logistic analysis model was used to evaluate associations. Results Of the 6347 patients, 3415 (53.8%) were male, 1543 (24.3%) had a CHD risk ≥10% (i.e. intermediate and high risk) and the prevalence of hyperuricemia was 18.1% ( n = 1148). After adjusting for potential confounding factors, the 10-year CHD risk was increased in patients with hyperuricemia compared with those without hyperuricemia by 0.28 times in the total population (odds ratio [OR] 1.28; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.09, 1.48), by 0.25 times in the male population (OR 1.25; 95% CI 1.06, 1.47) and by 2.76 times in the female population (OR 3.76; 95% CI 2.08, 6.79). Conclusion Hyperuricemia was positively associated with a 10-year risk of CHD suggesting that it might be an independent CHD risk factor in middle-aged and elderly individuals. 10.1177/0300060516673923
    Assessment of subclinical left ventricular changes in essential hypertensive patients with hyperuricemia: A three-dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiography study. Fang Xiaoyan,Pan Cuizhen,Chen Yongle,Sun Minmin,Zhang Zhuojun,Jiang Lindi,Wang Xiaolin,Shu Xianhong Clinical and experimental hypertension (New York, N.Y. : 1993) OBJECTIVE:To evaluate the effect of hyperuricemia (HU) on subclinical changes of left ventricle (LV) function and structure in patients with hypertension (HT) using three-dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiography (3DSTE) and to explore the relationships between serum uric acid (SUA) levels and three-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography (3DSTE) parameters in hypertensive and nonhypertensive patients with HU. METHODS:Four age- and sex-matched groups were studied: I: healthy controls, HT- HU- (n = 40); II: HT- HU+ (n = 40); III: HT+ HU- (n = 40); IV: HT+ HU+ (n = 44). Conventional echocardiography and 3DSTE were recorded. Relative wall thickness (RWT) and left ventricular mass index assessed by M-mode echocardiography (LVMi-M) were calculated. 3DSTE parameters including LV volumes and ejection fraction (EF), LVMi-3D, global longitudinal strain (GLS), and global circumferential strain (GCS) were compared. The relationships between SUA levels and 3DSTE parameters were investigated. RESULTS:Despite LV diameters, LV volumes and EF were similar among groups (all p > 0.05), GLS decreased and LVMi-3D increased from controls (group I) to patients with HU or HT alone (group II or III), and patients with both HU and HT (group IV) (all p < 0.05). SUA levels were significantly correlated with the absolute value of GLS (r = -0.461, p < 0.05) and LVMi-3D (r = 0.504, p < 0.05) in hypertensive and nonhypertensive patients with HU. CONCLUSIONS:HU may exacerbate LV systolic dysfunction and remodeling in hypertensive patients, which can be detected by 3DSTE. Early uric acid lowing treatment may be beneficial for hypertensive patients with HU. 10.1080/10641963.2016.1210626
    Hyperuricemia increases the risk of acute kidney injury: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Xu Xialian,Hu Jiachang,Song Nana,Chen Rongyi,Zhang Ting,Ding Xiaoqiang BMC nephrology BACKGROUND:Mounting evidence indicated that the elevated serum uric acid level was associated with an increased risk of acute kidney injury (AKI). Our goal was to systematically evaluate the correlation of serum uric acid (SUA) level and incidence of AKI by longitudinal cohort studies. METHODS:We searched electronic databases and the reference lists of relevant articles. 18 cohort studies with 75,200 patients were analyzed in this random-effect meta-analysis. Hyperuricemia was defined as SUA levels greater than 360-420 μmol/L (6-7 mg/dl), which was various according to different studies. Data including serum uric acid, serum creatinine, and incidence of AKI and hospital mortality were summarized using random-effects meta-analysis. RESULTS:The hyperuricemia group significantly exerted a higher risk of AKI compared to the controls (odds ratio OR 2.24, 95% CI 1.76-2.86, p < 0.01). Furthermore, there is less difference of the pooled rate of AKI after cardiac surgery between hyperuricemia and control group (34.3% vs 29.7%, OR 1.24, 95% CI 0.96-1.60, p = 0.10), while the rates after PCI were much higher in hyperuricemia group than that in control group (16.0% vs 5.3%, OR 3.24, 95% CI 1.93-5.45, p < 0.01). In addition, there were significant differences in baseline renal function at admission between hyperuricemia and control groups in most of the included studies. The relationship between hyperuricemia and hospital mortality was not significant. The pooled pre-operative SUA levels were higher in AKI group than that in the non-AKI group. CONCLUSIONS:Elevated SUA level showed an increased risk for AKI in patients and measurements of SUA may help identify risks for AKI in these patients. 10.1186/s12882-016-0433-1
    Hyperuricemia and overexcretion of uric acid increase the risk of simple renal cysts in type 2 diabetes. Han Ying,Zhang Mingliang,Lu Junxi,Zhang Lei,Han Junfeng,Zhao Fangya,Chen Haibing,Bao Yuqian,Jia Weiping Scientific reports Previous studies have discussed the relationship between simple renal cysts (SRC) and serum uric acid level in healthy individuals. We performed a cross-sectional study to evaluate the association between serum uric acid level and fractional excretion of uric acid (FEUA) and simple renal cysts in males and postmenopausal females with type 2 diabetes. The overall prevalence of SRC was 18.1% in our population. SRC prevalence was significantly higher in hyperuricemic than normouricemic subjects (27.3% vs. 16.8%, P < 0.001). Subjects who overexcreted uric acid had a higher prevalence of SRC than underexcretors (total population: 21.6% vs. 16.3%; normouricemic subjects: 19.8% vs. 13.7%; hyperuricemic subjects: 50.0% vs. 22.7%, all P-values < 0.05). Hyperuricemia (odds ratio [OR] 1.824, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.332-2.498, P < 0.001); FEUA (OR 1.046, 95% CI 1.002-1.091, P < 0.05); male gender (OR 1.922, 95% CI 1.489-2.480, P < 0.001); age (OR 1.049, 95% CI 1.035-1.064, P < 0.001); and albuminuria (OR 1.492, 95% CI 1.176-1.892, P < 0.01) were independent risk factors for SRC development. These findings suggested that hyperuricemia and high level of FEUA were both independent risk factors for SRC development in males and postmenopausal females with type 2 diabetes. Half of overproduction hyperuricemic patients had SRC. 10.1038/s41598-017-04036-6
    Association between the hyperuricemia and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease risk in a Chinese population: A retrospective cohort study. Yang Chao,Yang Shujuan,Xu Weiwei,Zhang Junhui,Fu Wenguang,Feng Chunhong PloS one Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a common chronic disease associated with high levels of serum uric acid (SUA). However, whether this relationship applies in obese subjects has been unclear, and no cohort study has previously been conducted in non-obese subjects. We therefore performed a retrospective cohort study among employees of seven companies in China to investigate whether hyperuricemia was independently associated with NAFLD in obese and non-obese subjects, respectively. A total of 2383 initially NAFLD-free subjects were followed up for four years, and 15.2% (363/2383) developed NAFLD. Hyperuricemia subjects had a higher cumulative incidence than did those with normouricemia (29.0% vs. 12.9%, P<0.001). Cox proportional hazard regression analyses showed that baseline hyperuricemia was significantly associated with risk of developing NAFLD in non-obese subjects. This relationship was significantly independent of baseline age, gender, metabolic syndrome components, and other clinical variables (RR = 1.389, 95%CI: 1.051-2.099). However, this association did not exist in obese subjects (RR = 1.010, 95%CI: 0.649-1.571). The independent effect of hyperuricemia on NAFLD was stronger in females (RR = 2.138, 95%CI: 1.050-4.355) than in males (RR = 1.435, 95%CI: 1.021-2.018). In conclusion, further studies are needed to explore the different mechanisms between obese and non-obese subjects, and the reason hyperuricemia raises NAFLD risk in females more than in males. 10.1371/journal.pone.0177249
    Hyperuricemia is not associated with severity of liver fibrosis in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Jaruvongvanich Veeravich,Ahuja Wasin,Wijarnpreecha Karn,Ungprasert Patompong European journal of gastroenterology & hepatology BACKGROUND:Uric acid is a natural antioxidant. Previous studies have suggested a protective role of hyperuricemia against liver fibrosis among patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). However, the results were conflicting. METHODS:MEDLINE and EMBASE databases were searched through August 2016 for studies that investigated the association between hyperuricemia and fibrosis stage among patients with biopsy-proven NAFLD. Pooled odds ratio and 95% confidence interval were calculated using a random-effects model, generic inverse variance method of DerSimonian and Laird. The between-study heterogeneity of effect size was quantified using the Q statistic and I. RESULTS:A total of five observational studies with 749 NAFLD patients were identified. Patients with NAFLD who had hyperuricemia were not significantly more likely or less likely to have advanced liver fibrosis (defined as fibrosis stage of ≥3) compared with patients with NAFLD who had normal serum uric with the pooled odds ratio of 0.72 (95% confidence interval: 0.34-1.53). The statistical heterogeneity was low with an I of 22% (Pheterogeneity=0.27). CONCLUSION:Significant protective role of hyperuricemia against the development of advanced liver fibrosis in patients with NAFLD was not observed in this meta-analysis. 10.1097/MEG.0000000000000865
    Hyperuricemia is associated with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease activity score in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Jaruvongvanich Veeravich,Ahuja Wasin,Wirunsawanya Kamonkiat,Wijarnpreecha Karn,Ungprasert Patompong European journal of gastroenterology & hepatology BACKGROUND:Hyperuricemia is a significant risk factor for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). It may also have an impact on the histologic severity of NAFLD. However, data on this association are limited. We conducted this meta-analysis to investigate the relationship of serum uric acid with liver histologic severity as determined by NAFLD activity score (NAS) in patients with NAFLD. PATIENTS AND METHODS:MEDLINE and EMBASE databases were searched through August 2016 for studies that investigated the association between hyperuricemia and NAS among patients with biopsy-proven NAFLD. Pooled odds ratio and 95% confidence interval were calculated using a random-effects model (generic inverse variance method). The between-study heterogeneity of effect size was quantified using the Q statistic and I. RESULTS:Five observational studies with 777 NAFLD patients were identified. Patients with NAFLD who had hyperuricemia had a high NAS (defined as score of ≥5) significantly more often than did those without hyperuricemia with a pooled odds ratio of 2.17 (95% confidence interval: 1.51-3.12). The statistical heterogeneity was low, with I of 16% (Pheterogeneity=0.31). CONCLUSION:In patients with NAFLD, hyperuricemia is associated with a higher degree of histological liver damage. Further studies are required to establish the role of uric acid-lowering therapy among these patients. 10.1097/MEG.0000000000000931
    Development of Nephrolithiasis in Asymptomatic Hyperuricemia: A Cohort Study. Kim Seolhye,Chang Yoosoo,Yun Kyung Eun,Jung Hyun-Suk,Lee Soo-Jin,Shin Hocheol,Ryu Seungho American journal of kidney diseases : the official journal of the National Kidney Foundation BACKGROUND:Although the association between gout and nephrolithiasis is well known, the relationship between asymptomatic hyperuricemia and the development of nephrolithiasis is largely unknown. STUDY DESIGN:Cohort study. SETTING & PARTICIPANTS:239,331 Korean adults who underwent a health checkup examination during January 2002 to December 2014 and were followed up annually or biennially through December 2014. PREDICTOR:Baseline serum uric acid levels of participants. OUTCOME:The development of nephrolithiasis during follow-up. MEASUREMENTS:Nephrolithiasis is determined based on ultrasonographic findings. A parametric Cox model was used to estimate the adjusted HRs of nephrolithiasis according to serum uric acid level. RESULTS:During 1,184,653.8 person-years of follow-up, 18,777 participants developed nephrolithiasis (incidence rate, 1.6/100 person-years). Elevated uric acid level was significantly associated with increased risk for nephrolithiasis in a dose-response manner (P for trend < 0.001) in men. This dose-response association was not observed in women. In male participants, multivariable-adjusted HRs for incident nephrolithiasis comparing uric acid levels of 6.0 to 6.9, 7.0 to 7.9, 8.0 to 8.9, 9.0 to 9.9, and ≥10.0mg/dL with uric acid levels < 6.0mg/dL were 1.06 (95% CI, 1.02-1.11), 1.11 (95% CI, 1.05-1.16), 1.21 (95% CI, 1.13-1.29), 1.31 (95% CI, 1.17-1.46), and 1.72 (95% CI, 1.44-2.06), respectively. This association was observed in all clinically relevant subgroups and persisted even after adjustment for homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein level. LIMITATIONS:Dietary information and computed tomographic diagnosis of nephrolithiasis were unavailable. CONCLUSIONS:In this large cohort study, increased serum uric acid level was modestly and independently associated with increased risk for the development of nephrolithiasis in a dose-response manner in apparently healthy men. 10.1053/j.ajkd.2017.01.053
    Temporal Relationship Between Hyperuricemia and Insulin Resistance and Its Impact on Future Risk of Hypertension. Han Tianshu,Lan Li,Qu Rongge,Xu Qian,Jiang Ruyue,Na Lixin,Sun Changhao Hypertension (Dallas, Tex. : 1979) Although hyperuricemia and insulin resistance significantly correlated, their temporal sequence and how the sequence influence on future risk of hypertension are largely unknown. This study assessed temporal relationship between uric acid and insulin resistance and its impact on future risk of hypertension by examining a longitudinal cohort including 8543 subjects aged 20 to 74 years from China, with an average follow-up of 5.3 years. Measurements of fasting uric acid, as well as fasting and 2-hour serum glucose and insulin, were obtained at baseline and follow-up. Indicators of hepatic and peripheral insulin resistance were calculated. Cross-lagged panel and mediation analysis were used to examine the temporal relationship between uric acid and insulin resistance and its impact on follow-up hypertension. After adjusting for covariates, the cross-lagged path coefficients ( values) from baseline uric acid to follow-up insulin resistance indices were significantly greater than path coefficients ( values) from baseline insulin resistance indices to follow-up uric acid (=0.110 versus =0.017; <0.001, for hepatic insulin resistance; =-0.208 versus =-0.021; <0.001, for peripheral insulin resistance). The path coefficients from baseline uric acid to follow-up insulin resistance indices in the hypertensive group were significantly greater than that in the normotensive group (<0.001 for the difference of values in the 2 groups). Insulin resistance partially mediated the effect of uric acid on subsequent hypertension, and the mediation effect of peripheral insulin resistance was significantly greater than that of hepatic insulin resistance (31.3% versus 13.2%; <0.001, for the difference of mediation effects). These findings provide evidence that higher uric acid levels probably precede insulin resistance, and peripheral insulin resistance likely plays a more important role in the development of hypertension than hepatic insulin resistance does. 10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.117.09508
    The role of hyperuricemia on vascular endothelium dysfunction. Zhen Haitao,Gui Fen Biomedical reports Hyperuricemia appears to be associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular disease and associated mortality. Population epidemiological data support a causal link between hyperuricemia and cardiovascular disease. Endothelium injury could be one of the potential mechanisms in hyperuricemia-induced cardiovascular disease. However, the specific role of uric acid (UA) in the impairment of vascular relaxation and its signal transduction pathway has not been examined. The authors investigated the role of UA on vascular relaxation, nitric oxide (NO) production and expression of proinflammatory cytokines. Brachial flow-mediated dilation and nitroglycerine-mediated dilation were measured by B-mode ultrasound with 10 megahertz linear-array transducer from 21 patients with hyperuricemia and 16 control subjects. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (ECs) were incubated with UA (5-15 mg/dl) with or without nuclear factor (NF)-κB inhibitor II. Hyperuricemia inhibited brachial flow-mediated dilation. While UA significantly inhibited NO expression with time course- and dose- dependent manner in the cultured ECs, 10 mg/dl UA also increased expression of inflammation cytokine interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8 and tumor necrosis factor-α in vitro. These abnormalities were associated with UA-induced activation of transcription factor NF-κB. Furthermore, NF-κB inhibitor II prevented UA-induced reduction of NO and increased inflammation cytokines. These data suggested hyperuricemia-induced endothelium injury and vascular dysfunction by a reduction of NO and expression of inflammatory cytokines through the NF-κB pathway. 10.3892/br.2017.966
    Gender difference on the relationship between hyperuricemia and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease among Chinese: An observational study. Yu Xiao-Long,Shu Long,Shen Xiao-Ming,Zhang Xiao-Yan,Zheng Pei-Fen Medicine Limited evidence is available regarding the association between serum uric acid (SUA) and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), especially in gender difference. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate gender difference on the association between SUA, hyperuricemia, and NAFLD in the Chinese population. A cross-sectional study was carried out in a group of 1006 Chinese adults aged between 45 and 59 years old, in the city of Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province who were attending their annual health examination in the period between July 2015 and March 2017. Face-to-face interviews were conducted using a written questionnaire. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to examine the associations between SUA, hyperuricemia, and NAFLD with adjustment of potential confounding variables. Wald tests were used to for heterogeneity between males and females. Body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist-hip ratio (WHR), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), triglycerides (TG), SUA, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), asparagine aminotransferase (AST), and the prevalence of hypertension, hyperuricemia, and NAFLD were significantly higher in male than in female (P < .05). Females had the significantly higher levels of total cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C). Simple correlation analysis showed that SUA was positively associated with BMI, WC, WHR, TG, ALT, AST and inversely associated with age and HDL-C. After adjusting for confounders, hyperuricemia was associated with an increased risk of NAFLD in both genders, with odds ratio (95%confidence interval) of 2.645 (1.213-5.768), 1.962 (1.051-3.661), respectively. There was a significant association in NAFLD found in males, compared with females (Wald = 118.589, df = 1, P < .0001).Our findings indicated that the association of SUA with NAFLD was much more closely related in males than in females. Males with hyperuricemia had the higher risk of NAFLD. Further longitudinal studies are needed to confirm these findings. 10.1097/MD.0000000000008164
    Neck Circumference, a Novel Indicator for Hyperuricemia. Jiang Jiajia,Cui Jia,Yang Xinghua,Wang Anping,Mu Yiming,Dong Liguang,Wang Shuyu,Gaisano Herbert,Dou Jingtao,He Yan Frontiers in physiology Waist circumference has been correlated with the risk of hyperuricemia. Whether neck circumference is also associated with hyperuricemia has not been assessed. This study aimed to investigate whether neck circumference is associated with hyperuricemia. This study population from Beijing is part of the larger China-wide Risk Evaluation of Cancers in Chinese Diabetic Individuals: a lONgitudinal (REACTION) study. For this Beijing sub-center cross-sectional study, a total of 8971 subjects were recruited. Gender-specific multivariable-adjusted regression analyses were conducted to analyze the association of neck circumference and waist circumference with hyperuricemia and the association of neck circumference with serum uric acid levels in the non-hyperuricemia population. After adjusting for confounding variables, regression analyses showed that neck circumference was positively associated with hyperuricemia [OR, 2.61 (1.86-3.67) for males and 3.27 (2.53-4.22) for females] in both genders; further, neck circumference was also positively associated with serum uric acid levels in non-hyperuricemia subjects [b, 2.58 (1.76-3.39) for males and 4.27 (3.70-4.84) for females] in both genders. Additionally, we demonstrated that neck circumference was similar to waist circumference in terms of the strength of association (OR, 3.03 for waist circumference vs. 2.61 for neck circumference in males, and 3.50 vs. 3.27 for females) with hyperuricemia and the ability to predict hyperuricemia (AUC, 0.63 for waist circumference vs. 0.61 for neck circumference in males, and 0.66 vs. 0.66 in females). Neck circumference is positively and independently associated with hyperuricemia in both genders and is also associated with serum uric acid levels in the non-hyperuricemia population. 10.3389/fphys.2017.00965
    Chicken or the Egg? Hyperuricemia, Insulin Resistance, and Hypertension. Dawson Jesse,Wyss Annick Hypertension (Dallas, Tex. : 1979) 10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.117.09685
    Role of Hyperhomocysteinemia and Hyperuricemia in Pathogenesis of Atherosclerosis. Zhao Junjie,Chen Hailin,Liu Ning,Chen Jun,Gu Youquan,Chen Jiangjun,Yang Kui Journal of stroke and cerebrovascular diseases : the official journal of National Stroke Association BACKGROUND:The mechanisms of hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy) and hyperuricemia (HUA) that promote atherosclerosis were seldom explored and always indefinite. Therefore, we will discuss some new reviews about the role of HHcy and HUA in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. METHODS:This study was conducted by reading a lot of literature, including basic research and clinical application research. RESULTS:HHcy is known as an independent risk factor for atherosclerosis. Possible mechanisms for the association between homocysteine and atherosclerosis include stimulating smooth muscle cell growth, reducing endothelial cell growth and endothelial cell relaxation, and decreasing synthesis of high-density lipoprotein. HUA causes endothelial dysfunction and thereby increases oxidative stress, inducing vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and reducing endothelial nitric oxide bioavailability. HUA plays a role in the development and pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome, hypertension, stroke, and atherosclerosis. CONCLUSIONS:Accelerated atherosclerosis may be a consequence of the combined effect of HHcy and HUA. 10.1016/j.jstrokecerebrovasdis.2016.10.012
    Associations of hyperuricemia and obesity with remission of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease among Chinese men: A retrospective cohort study. Yang Chao,Yang Shujuan,Feng Chunhong,Zhang Chuan,Xu Weiwei,Zhang Liyun,Yan Yixin,Deng Jiaqi,Ohore Okugbe Ebiotubo,Li Jing PloS one Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a common chronic disease that is associated with high serum uric acid (SUA) levels, although the effects of high SUA levels on NAFLD remission remain unclear. In addition, it is unclear whether obesity and high SUA levels have a combined effect on NAFLD remission. This retrospective cohort study evaluated male employees of seven Chinese companies and investigated the association between high SUA levels and NAFLD remission, as well as the potential combined effect of high SUA levels and obesity on NAFLD remission. The study followed 826 men with NAFLD for 4 years, and the NAFLD remission rate was 23.2% (192/826). Comparing to obese and non-obese individuals with normouricemia, individuals with hyperuricemia had significant higher values for total cholesterol, triglycerides, creatinine, and aspartate transaminase (all P < 0.05). Among non-obese individuals, hyperuricemia was associated with a lower NAFLD remission rate, compared to normouricemia (P < 0.001). However, no significant difference was observed between hyperuricemia and normouricemia among obese subjects (P > 0.05). Similar results were observed in the multivariate cox proportional hazard regression analyses. Compared to the normouricemia subjects, individuals with hyperuricemia had a significant lower likelihood of NAFLD remission (RR = 0.535, 95% CI: 0.312-0.916); and obese subjects had a significant lower likelihood of NAFLD remission than the non-obese individuals (RR = 0.635, 95% CI: 0.439-0.918). In addition, the interaction between hyperuricemia and obesity had a statistically significant effect on NAFLD remission (P = 0.048). In conclusion, hyperuricemia and obesity may be involved in NAFLD development and remission, with similar pathogenic mechanisms. Further studies are needed to confirm our findings and determine how to improve these individuals' conditions. 10.1371/journal.pone.0192396
    Hyperuricemia is an independent risk factor for psoriatic arthritis in psoriatic patients. Tsuruta Noriko,Imafuku Shinichi,Narisawa Yutaka The Journal of dermatology Psoriatic arthritis (PsA) is a spondyloarthritic condition mainly seen in patients with psoriasis. Psoriatic patients with plaques on the scalp, gluteal fold or nail lesions are known to develop PsA more frequently, but other markers for PsA have not yet been identified. To determine which psoriatic patients are at greatest risk of developing PsA, psoriasis vulgaris (PsV) patients who visited the Department of Dermatology, Fukuoka University Hospital in 2015 were enrolled. Patients with and without PsA were statistically compared with respect to age, sex, age at onset, body mass index (BMI), smoking and drinking habits, familial history of psoriasis and comorbidities. Of 331 patients (237 men, 94 women), 55 had PsA (17%; 39 men, 16 women). PsA patients had significantly higher frequencies of nail lesions (PsA vs PsV-only, 62% vs 29%; P < 0.0001) and hyperuricemia (PsA vs PsV-only, 22% vs 9%; P = 0.01). These were confirmed as independent risk factors for PsA by logistic regression analysis, with odds ratios of 5.05 for nail lesions (P < 0.0001) and 4.18 for hyperuricemia (P < 0.01). There was no difference in age at onset, sex, BMI and incidence of diabetes mellitus, hypertension or dyslipidemia. Hyperuricemia is also known to be more frequent in psoriatic subjects than the normal population. Uric acid crystals are a strong stimulator of innate immunity. Considering that none of our cohort had gouty arthritis, hyperuricemia may increase uric acid crystallization in and around joints, thereby inducing PsA in psoriatic subjects. Hyperuricemia appears to be an independent risk factor for PsA. 10.1111/1346-8138.13968
    Cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in patients with rheumatic disease: hyperuricemia, a forgotten puzzle piece? Mantovani Alessandro,Caimmi Cristian,Orsolini Giovanni Clinical rheumatology 10.1007/s10067-017-3881-5
    Association between vitamin C intake and risk of hyperuricemia in US adults. Sun Yongye,Sun Jianping,Wang Jianxun,Gao Tianlin,Zhang Huaqi,Ma Aiguo Asia Pacific journal of clinical nutrition BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES:The relationship between vitamin C intake and hyperuricemia among the general US adult population has seldom been reported; thus, the present study examined the associations of total vitamin C (dietary vitamin C plus supplementary vitamin C) and dietary vitamin C intake with the risk of hyperuricemia. METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN:Pooled data from three 2-year cycles (2007-2012) of the cross-sectional National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were used in the present study. Dietary intake data were extracted from two 24-hour dietary recall interviews. Logistic regression models were used to determine the associations between vitamin C intake and hyperuricemia risk. RESULTS:A total of 14885 adults aged 20 years or older (7269 men and 7616 women) were registered in the present study. The prevalence of hyperuricemia was 19.1%. Based on the lowest quartile of dietary vitamin C intake, multivariate adjusted odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals of hyperuricemia for quartiles 2-4 were 0.84 (0.74-0.95), 0.83 (0.73-0.94), and 0.72 (0.63-0.82), and those for total vitamin C intake were 0.87 (0.77-0.99), 0.85 (0.75-0.96), and 0.66 (0.58-0.76). Inverse associations between vitamin C intake and hyperuricemia were discovered in both men and women, even with or without covariate adjustments. CONCLUSIONS:Total vitamin C and dietary vitamin C intake are inversely associated with hyperuricemia in the general US adult population. 10.6133/apjcn.201811_27(6).0014
    Dietary factors and risk of gout and hyperuricemia: a meta-analysis and systematic review. Li Rongrong,Yu Kang,Li Chunwei Asia Pacific journal of clinical nutrition BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES:To evaluate the associations of dietary factors and the risk of gout and hyperuricemia. METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN:PubMed and Embase databases were searched from inception to June 2017 for eligible studies. Nineteen prospective cohort or cross-sectional studies with adequate sample sizes are included, all involving red meat, seafoods, alcohol, fructose, dairy products, soy foods, high-purine vegetables and coffee. RESULTS:Meta-analysis revealed several dietary associations with gout risk: red meat: OR 1.29 (95% CI 1.16-1.44); seafoods: OR 1.31 (95% CI 1.01-1.68); alcohol: OR 2.58 (95% CI 1.81-3.66); fructose: OR 2.14 (95% CI 1.65- 2.78); dairy products: OR 0.56 (95% CI 0.44-0.70); soy foods: OR 0.85 (95% CI 0.76-0.96); high-purine vegetables: OR 0.86 (95% CI 0.75-0.98); coffee: OR 0.47 (95% CI 0.37-0.59).Dietary association with hyperuricemia risk (red meat: OR 1.24 (95% CI 1.04-1.48); seafoods: OR 1.47 (95% CI 1.16-1.86); alcohol: OR 2.06 (95% CI 1.60-2.67); fructose: OR 1.85 (95% CI 1.66-2.07); dairy products: OR 0.50 (95% CI 0.37-0.66); soy foods: OR 0.70 (95% CI 0.56-0.88); high-purine vegetables ingestion: OR 1.10 (95% CI 0.88-1.39), P=0.39; coffee:OR0.76 in men (95% CI 0.55-1.06), OR 1.58 in women (95% CI 1.16-2.16). CONCLUSION:The risk of hyperuricemia and gout is positively correlated with the intake of red meat, seafoods, alcohol or fructose, and negatively with dairy products or soy foods. High-purine vegetables showed no association with hyperuricemia, but negative association with gout. Coffee intake is negatively associated with gout risk, whereas it may be associated with increased hyperuricemia risk in women but decreased risk in men. 10.6133/apjcn.201811_27(6).0022
    Dietary Magnesium Intake and Hyperuricemia among US Adults. Zhang Yiying,Qiu Hongbin Nutrients To assess the association between dietary magnesium intake and hyperuricemia in United States (US) adults, we extracted 26,796 US adults aged 20-85 years from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) in 2001-2014. All dietary intake was measured through 24 h dietary recall method. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to investigate the association between magnesium intake and hyperuricemia after adjusting for several important confounding variables. When compared to the lowest quintile (Q1), for male, adjusted odds ratios (ORs) of hyperuricemia in the second quintile (Q2) to the fifth quintile (Q5) of the magnesium intake were 0.83 (95% CI: 0.72-0.95), 0.74 (0.64-0.85), 0.78 (0.67-0.90), and 0.70 (0.58-0.84, for trend = 0.0003), respectively. For female, OR was 0.75 (0.62-0.90) in the fourth quintile (Q4) ( for trend = 0.0242). As compared to Q4 of magnesium intake (contains recommended amount), the relative odds of hyperuricemia were increased by 1.29 times in Q1 (OR = 1.29, 1.11-1.50) in male. The ORs were 1.33 (1.11-1.61) in Q1, 1.27 (1.07-1.50) in Q2 in female. Our results indicated that increased magnesium intake was associated with decreased hyperuricemia risk. It also indicated the importance of recommended dietary allowance (RDA) of magnesium and the potential function of magnesium intake in the prevention of hyperuricemia. 10.3390/nu10030296
    High-normal estimated glomerular filtration rate and hyperuricemia positively correlate with metabolic impairment in pediatric obese patients. Ricotti Roberta,Genoni Giulia,Giglione Enza,Monzani Alice,Nugnes Martina,Zanetta Sara,Castagno Matteo,Marolda Agostina,Bellomo Giorgio,Bona Gianni,Bellone Simonetta,Prodam Flavia PloS one BACKGROUND:Childhood obesity represents a major health concern worldwide due to its well established detrimental effect on cardiovascular and its potential negative effect on kidney functions. However, biomarkers that can help diagnose early stages of kidney damage in obese children represent an unmet clinical need. OBJECTIVES:In this study, we asked whether the prevalence of microalbuminuria, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) or hyperuricemia recorded in a wide cohort of obese children and adolescents would positively correlate with cardiometabolic dysfunction in these subjects. METHODS:We carried out a cross-sectional study on 360 obese children and adolescents between the ages of 3-18 years, enrolled in a tertiary care center. Clinical and biochemical evaluations including oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTTs) were performed on all patients. Microalbuminuria was defined as urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (u-ACR) of 30-300 mg/g. All data are expressed as mean ± standard deviation (SD), absolute values or percentages. Sex age-specific and eGFR SDs were used for statistical analyses. Serum uric acid ≥ 5.5 mg/dL was considered abnormal. RESULTS:The prevalence of microalbuminuria was 6.4%. Except for a lower insulinogenic-index, no correlations between microalbuminuria and cardiometabolic risk factors were detected. eGFR was < -1 SD and > 1 SD in 1.4% and 60.8% of subjects, respectively. Subjects with an eGFR > 1 SD had higher systolic blood pressure, liver enzymes, insulin resistance, glucose and insulin during OGTT, lower insulin sensitivity and a more prevalent microalbuminuria. Hyperuricemia (27.5%) increased the odds of hypertension, HDL ≤ 10th percentile and glucose ≥ 155.0 mg/dL after 60 minutes of OGTT. CONCLUSIONS:A worse cardiometabolic profile was observed in subjects with an eGFR > 1 SD compared to other subgroups. Therefore, pediatric obese patients with eGFR > 1 SD or hyperuricemia should be closely monitored for microalbuminuria and post-challenge glucose and insulin secretion, all potential indicators of renal dysfunction in these young patients. 10.1371/journal.pone.0193755
    The Dietary Fructose:Vitamin C Intake Ratio Is Associated with Hyperuricemia in African-American Adults. Zheng Zihe,Harman Jane L,Coresh Josef,Köttgen Anna,McAdams-DeMarco Mara A,Correa Adolfo,Young Bessie A,Katz Ronit,Rebholz Casey M The Journal of nutrition Background:A high fructose intake has been shown to be associated with increased serum urate concentration, whereas ascorbate (vitamin C) may lower serum urate by competing with urate for renal reabsorption. Objective:We assessed the combined association, as the fructose:vitamin C intake ratio, and the separate associations of dietary fructose and vitamin C intakes on prevalent hyperuricemia. Methods:We conducted cross-sectional analyses of dietary intakes of fructose and vitamin C and serum urate concentrations among Jackson Heart Study participants, a cohort of African Americans in Jackson, Mississippi, aged 21-91 y. In the analytic sample (n = 4576), multivariable logistic regression was used to examine the separate associations of dietary intakes of fructose and vitamin C and the fructose:vitamin C intake ratio with prevalent hyperuricemia (serum urate ≥7 mg/dL), after adjusting for age, sex, smoking, waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, estimated glomerular filtration rate, diuretic medication use, vitamin C supplement use, total energy intake, alcohol consumption, and dietary intake of animal protein. Analyses for individual dietary factors (vitamin C, fructose) were adjusted for the other dietary factor. Results:In the fully adjusted model, there were 17% greater odds of hyperuricemia associated with a doubling of the fructose:vitamin C intake ratio (OR: 1.17; 95% CI: 1.08, 1.28), 20% greater odds associated with a doubling of fructose intake (OR: 1.20; 95% CI: 1.08, 1.34), and 13% lower odds associated with a doubling of vitamin C intake (OR: 0.87; 95% CI: 0.78, 0.97). Dietary fructose and the fructose:vitamin C intake ratio were more strongly associated with hyperuricemia among men than women (P-interaction ≤ 0.04). Conclusion:Dietary intakes of fructose and vitamin C are associated with prevalent hyperuricemia in a community-based population of African Americans. 10.1093/jn/nxx054
    Markers of Iron Status Are Associated with Risk of Hyperuricemia among Chinese Adults: Nationwide Population-Based Study. Li Xiangping,He Tingchao,Yu Kai,Lu Qian,Alkasir Rashad,Guo Guifang,Xue Yong Nutrients BACKGROUND:Elevated serum uric acid (SUA) involved in iron metabolism, has been increasingly recognized as a risk factor for gout and cardiovascular diseases. The objective of this study was to examine the associations between markers of iron status with risk of hyperuricemia (HU) in Chinese adult population. METHODS:Data were extracted from the 2009 wave of the China Health and Nutrition Survey, consisting of 7946 apparently healthy adults. Serum ferritin (SF), transferrin, soluble transferrin receptors (sTfR), hemoglobin (Hb), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), and SUA were measured. Diet was assessed with three consecutive 24 h recalls. Demographic characteristics, smoking status, alcohol consumption, and physical activities were investigated using a structured questionnaire. Multilevel mixed-effects models were constructed to estimate the associations of SF, transferrin, sTfR, and Hb with SUA and the risk of HU. RESULTS:The crude prevalence of HU was 16.1%. SF, transferrin, and Hb levels were positively associated with SUA and the risk of HU after adjustment for cluster effects and potential confounders (all -trend < 0.05). Compared with participants in the lowest quartile of SF, those in the highest quartile had significantly higher SUA concentrations (β = 0.899 mg/dL, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.788, 1.010; < 0.001) and higher risk of HU (odds ratio (OR) = 3.086, 95% CI: 2.450, 3.888; < 0.001). Participants with the highest quartile of transferrin had significantly higher SUA concentrations (β = 0.488 mg/dL, 95% CI: 0.389, 0.587; < 0.001) and higher risk of HU (OR: 1.900; 95% CI: 1.579, 2.286; < 0.001) when compared with those with the lowest quartile. In male participants, those in the highest quartile of Hb had significantly higher risk of HU when compared to the reference group (OR: 1.401, 95% CI: 1.104, 1.777; < 0.01); however, this association was not found in female participants (OR: 1.093; 95% CI: 0.821, 1.455; = 0.544). CONCLUSION:SF, transferrin, and Hb levels were positively associated with the risk of HU, and additional studies are needed to confirm the findings, as well as to elucidate their underlying mechanisms. 10.3390/nu10020191
    Hyperuricemia in Asian psoriatic arthritis patients. Lai Tin Lok,Yim Cheuk Wan,Wong Pui Yan,Leung Man Chi,Ng Woon Leung International journal of rheumatic diseases AIM:It is generally accepted that hyperuricemia is commonly associated with psoriatic arthritis (PsA). However, variations in ethnicity, diet and habitat may contribute to differences in prevalence and risk factors for hyperuricemia in PsA patients. Moreover, Asian specific data is deficient. The primary objective of the present study was to determine the prevalence of hyperuricemia among PsA patients. The secondary objective was to explore its associated risk factors. METHODS:This was a multi-center, cross-sectional observational study of 160 PsA patients from local Rheumatology clinics. Serum uric acid (SUA) level and other clinical parameters were measured and hyperuricemia was defined as SUA level greater or equal to 360 umol/L in females and 420 umol/L in males. RESULTS:Forty-nine of 160 patients (30.6%) had hyperuricemia, of which 32 were men, 17 were women. Among those with hyperuricemia, mean SUA level was 500.7 ± 95.9 umol/L and 427.8 ± 83.1 umol/L in males and females, respectively. Univariate analysis found: (i) overweight status; (ii) obesity; (iii) Psoriasis Area and Severity Index; (iv) body surface area; (v) severe skin involvement, as being potentially associated with hyperuricemia. Regression model identified overweight status increased the likelihood of hyperuricemia in PsA, with an odds ratio of 4.4 (95% CI: 2.0-9.5). Furthermore, there was moderately positive correlation (r = 0.37) between body mass index (BMI) and SUA level. No associations were found between arthritis conditions and duration, lipid profile, creatinine clearance; and hyperuricemia. CONCLUSION:A significant proportion of PsA patients had asymptomatic hyperuricemia. It was closely related with BMI, which represented metabolic dysregulation; but not with severity of skin disease, joint involvement or renal function. 10.1111/1756-185X.13265
    Positively increased visceral adiposity index in hyperuricemia free of metabolic syndrome. Gu Dongfeng,Ding Yanan,Zhao Yunfeng,Miao Shuzhai,Qu Qingshan Lipids in health and disease BACKGROUND:Visceral adiposity index (VAI) was closely associated with metabolic syndrome, however almost no research focused on VAI and hyperuricemia, therefore, this study was conducted to determine the relationship of VAI and hyperuricemia free of metabolic syndrome and estimate the power of VAI as predictor for hyperuricemia. METHODS:A cross-sectional research coming from a health check-up program was conducted. All participants were divided into four groups according to VAI quartiles. A multivariate logistic analysis was used to analyze the relationship between the quartiles and hyperuricemia. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was used to evaluate the accuracy of predictions for hyperuricemia. RESULTS:VAI was independent risk factor of hyperuricemia. The ORs of which in the upper quartile were 3.077 (95%CI 1.78-5.293), P = 0.000, in model 1, after adjusting for age, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, heart rate, fast plasma glucose, serum creatinine, triglyceride, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, and low density lipoprotein cholesterol; and 3.041 (95CI 1.767-5.233), P = 0.000, in model 2, after adjusting for the above plus physical activity, diet, smoking habits, alcohol consumption, hypertension and diabetes history. The area under the ROC curve (AUC) value of VAI was 0.618 (95%CI 0.572-0.665), P = 0.000; it was higher than WC, which was 0.556 (95%CI 0.508-0.604), P = 0.024, for hyperuricemia. CONCLUSIONS:VAI was associated with hyperuricemia among individuals free of metabolic syndrome, and also a powerful indicator. 10.1186/s12944-018-0761-1
    NAFLD and risk of cardiac arrhythmias: Is hyperuricemia a neglected pathogenic mechanism? Mantovani Alessandro Digestive and liver disease : official journal of the Italian Society of Gastroenterology and the Italian Association for the Study of the Liver 10.1016/j.dld.2018.02.002
    Association between Dietary Zinc Intake and Hyperuricemia among Adults in the United States. Zhang Yiying,Liu Yan,Qiu Hongbin Nutrients We aim to explore the associations between dietary zinc intake and hyperuricemia (HU) in United States (US) adults. 24,975 US adults aged 20 years or older from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) from 2001 to 2014 were stratified into quintiles based on zinc intake. All dietary intake measured through 24-h dietary recalls. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to examine the association between zinc intake and HU after adjustment for possible confounders. For males, compared with respondents consuming less than 7.33 mg zinc daily, the adjusted odds ratios (ORs) were 0.83 (95% CI, 0.71, 0.97) among those consuming 10.26⁻13.54 mg zinc daily, 0.78 (95% CI, 0.63⁻0.96) among those consuming 18.50 mg or greater, and for the trend was 0.0134. For females, compared with respondents consuming less than 5.38 mg zinc daily, the OR was 0.78 (95% CI, 0.63, 0.97) among those consuming 9.64⁻12.93 mg zinc daily, and for the trend was 0.3024. Our findings indicated that dietary zinc intake is inversely associated with HU in US men and women, independent of some major confounding factors. 10.3390/nu10050568
    Folate, Vitamin B6 and Vitamin B12 Intake in Relation to Hyperuricemia. Zhang Yiying,Qiu Hongbin Journal of clinical medicine To assess the association between intake of folate, vitamin B6, and vitamin B12 with hyperuricemia (HU) among adults from the United States (US), we extracted relevant data from 24,975 US adults aged 20⁻85 years from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) in 2001⁻2014. All dietary intake was evaluated by 24-h dietary recalls. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to explore the associations after adjustment for confounders. Compared to the lowest quintile (Q1), for males, adjusted odds ratios (ORs) of HU in Q2 to Q5 of folate (dietary folate equivalent, DFE) intake were 0.84 (95% CI, 0.73⁻0.96), 0.84 (0.73⁻0.97), 0.72 (0.62⁻0.84), and 0.64 (0.53⁻0.77), respectively ( for trend <0.0001). In females, adjusted ORs in Q2 to Q4 of folate (DFE) intake were 0.84 (95% CI, 0.71⁻0.99), 0.81 (0.68⁻0.96), and 0.82 (0.68⁻0.99), with a for trend of 0.1475. Our findings indicated the intakes of total folate, folic acid, food folate, folate (DFE), vitamin B12, but not vitamin B6, were inversely related to the risk of HU in males. A lower risk of HU with higher intakes of total folate, food folate, and folate (DFE) was found in females, but with no association between intakes of folic acid, vitamin B6, B12, and the risk of HU for females. 10.3390/jcm7080210
    Hyperuricemia is associated with atrial fibrillation prevalence in very elderly - a community based study in Chengdu, China. Huang Gang,Xu Rong-Hua,Xu Jun-Bo,Liu Ya,Liu Zhao-Hui,Xie Xue,Zhang Ting-Jie Scientific reports Hyperuricemia is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. However, in very elderly, the relationship between hyperuricemia and the prevalence of atrial fibrillation (AF) is not clear. This study aimed to investigate hyperuricemia and the risk of AF in community very elderly. In this cross-sectional study, 1056 very elderly in community were enrolled. Serum uric acid (SUA) were measured and rest 12-lead electrocardiogram was performed. Multiple logistic regression models were used to explore risk factors for AF in very elderly. Finally, 1038 participants were included in analysis and the mean age of the study participants were 83.6 ± 3.4 years (age range 80-100 years). The mean SUA level was 350.1 ± 84.5 µmol/L. The estimated prevalence of AF was 5.3%, and there was no significant sex difference (5.8% for men and 4.8% for women, p = 0.401). Multiple logistic regression found that participants with hyperuricemia (SUA >416 µmol/L in men and >357 µmol/L in women) had a higher risk (odds ratio: 2.080, 95% confidence interval: 1.103-4.202, P = 0.007) of suffering AF in very elderly Chinese. In conclusion, AF is relatively frequent in this community very elderly Chinese in Chengdu. Hyperuricemia is associated with the prevalence of AF in general very elderly. 10.1038/s41598-018-30321-z
    Hyperuricemia and dementia - a case-control study. Engel Bettina,Gomm Willy,Broich Karl,Maier Wolfgang,Weckbecker Klaus,Haenisch Britta BMC neurology BACKGROUND:There is evidence that uric acid may have antioxidant and neuroprotective effects and might therefore alter the risk for neurodegenerative diseases such as dementia. So far, the relation between serum uric acid (SUA) levels or hyperuricemia and dementia remains elusive. Most studies focused on the disease or SUA levels. Effects of anti-hyperuricemic treatment have not been considered yet. This study investigated the association between hyperuricemia and dementia taking into account anti-hyperuricemic treatment. METHODS:We used longitudinal German public health insurance data and analyzed the association between hyperuricemia with and without different treatment options and dementia in a case-control design. Applying logistic regression the analysis was adjusted for several potential confounders including various comorbidities and polypharmacy. RESULTS:We identified 27,528 cases and 110,112 matched controls of which 22% had a diagnosis of hyperuricemia or gout and 17% received anti-hyperuricemic drugs. For patients with a diagnosis of hyperuricemia we found a slightly reduced risk for dementia (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 0.94, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.89 to 0.98). The risk reduction was more pronounced for patients treated with anti-hyperuricemic drugs (adjusted OR 0.89, 95% CI 0.85 to 0.94, for regular treatment). CONCLUSIONS:Our results showed a slight reduction for dementia risk in patients with hyperuricemia, both with and without anti-hyperuricemic treatment. 10.1186/s12883-018-1136-y
    Serum uric acid levels and hyperuricemia in patients with psoriasis: a hospital-based cross-sectional study. Gui Xin-Yu,Jin Hong-Zhong,Wang Zhen-Jie,Xu Teng-Da Anais brasileiros de dermatologia A hospital-based cross-sectional study was performed, including 117 psoriatic patients and 117 controls matched for age, gender, and body mass index. Psoriatic patients had higher levels of serum uric acid (6.25 ± 1.62 vs 5.71 ± 1.35 mg/dl; P=0.019) and significantly greater prevalence of hyperuricemia (31.6% vs 16.2%; P=0.009) than individuals without psoriasis. Psoriatic patients had significantly higher serum uric acid than controls in subjects without metabolic syndrome. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that psoriasis can be a strong predictor of hyperuricemia (odds ratio 2.61; 95% confidence interval 1.34-5.00; P=0.004). 10.1590/abd1806-4841.20187547
    Relationships of Hyperhomocysteinemia and Hyperuricemia With Metabolic Syndrome and Renal Function in Chinese Centenarians. Fu Shihui,Yao Yao,Zhao Yali,Luan Fuxin Frontiers in endocrinology As the first time worldwide, this study aimed to investigate the relationships of hyperhomocysteinemia and hyperuricemia with metabolic syndrome (MetS) and renal function in Chinese centenarians. The China Hainan Centenarian Cohort Study was performed in 18 cities and counties of the Hainan Province. Home interview, physical examination, and blood analysis were performed on 808 centenarians following standard procedures. All centenarians had a median age of 102 (100-115) years. Prevalence of hyperhomocysteinemia and hyperuricemia was 91.6% (740 centenarians) and 28.5% (230 centenarians), respectively. The MetS was present in 117 centenarians (14.5%). In simple correlation analyses, hyperhomocysteinemia and hyperuricemia were significantly correlated with MetS and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) < 60 ml/min/1.73 m ( < 0.05 for all). Serum homocysteine levels were significantly correlated with GFR, waist circumference (WC), and triglyceride levels, while serum uric acid levels were significantly correlated with these variables plus high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels ( < 0.05 for all). In logistic regression analyses, hyperhomocysteinemia and hyperuricemia were significantly associated with MetS and GFR < 60 ml/min/1.73 m ( < 0.05 for all). In linear regression analyses, serum homocysteine levels were significantly associated with GFR, WC, and triglyceride, while serum uric acid levels were significantly associated with these variables plus HDL-C ( < 0.05 for all). Both hyperhomocysteinemia and hyperuricemia had important relationships with MetS and renal function in Chinese centenarians. Hyperuricemia and hyperhomocysteinemia that could help identify, while also affecting, the development of MetS and renal function may unfold complex relationships between MetS, renal function, and cardiovascular risk and provide effective prevention strategies for these conditions. 10.3389/fendo.2018.00502
    Roles of hyperuricemia in metabolic syndrome and cardiac-kidney-vascular system diseases. Wang Hongsha,Zhang Haifeng,Sun Lin,Guo Weiying American journal of translational research Uric acid is the final product of purine metabolism. Hyperuricemia is defined as a condition where the level of uric acid exceeds the normal range. The most well-known disease induced by hyperuricemia is gout. However, many studies have reported that hyperuricemia also plays important roles in cardiac-kidney-vascular system diseases and metabolic syndrome. Although hyperuricemia has been known for a long time, its pathophysiology remains poorly understood. In this review, we highlight studies on advanced pathological mechanisms for injuries induced by hyperuricemia, summarize epidemiological studies on hyperuricemia and its associated diseases, and take a brief look at hyperuricemia prevention.
    Probiotic supplements prevented oxonic acid-induced hyperuricemia and renal damage. García-Arroyo Fernando E,Gonzaga Guillermo,Muñoz-Jiménez Itzel,Blas-Marron Mónica G,Silverio Octaviano,Tapia Edilia,Soto Virgilia,Ranganathan Natarajan,Ranganathan Pari,Vyas Usha,Irvin Anthony,Ir Diana,Robertson Charles E,Frank Daniel N,Johnson Richard J,Sánchez-Lozada L Gabriela PloS one Hyperuricemia is highly prevalent and especially common in subjects with metabolic, cardiovascular and renal diseases. In chronic kidney disease, hyperuricemia is extremely common, and uric acid (UA) excretion relies on gut uricolysis by gut microbiota. Current therapy for lowering serum UA includes drugs that may produce undesired secondary effects. Therefore, this pilot study was designed to evaluate the potential of two probiotic supplements to reduce systemic uric acid concentrations. Secondary objectives were to assess whether the hypouricemic effect related to a therapeutic benefit on the hyperuricemia-induced renal damage and hypertension. Analysis of fecal microbiota was also performed. Groups of 6 rats each were followed for 5 weeks and allocated in the following treatment groups: C = Control; HU-ND = Oxonic acid-induced hyperuricemia (HU) +regular diet; HU-P = HU+placebo; HU-F1 = HU+ probiotics formula 1 and HU-F2 = HU+ probiotics formula 2. We confirmed that oxonic acid-induced hyperuricemia produced hypertension and renal functional and structural changes, along with modest changes in the overall composition of fecal microbiota. Both probiotic-containing diets prevented HU, elevated UA urinary excretion and intrarenal UA accumulation induced by oxonic acid. The hypouricemic effect conferred by probiotic supplementation also prevented the renal changes and hypertension caused by hyperuricemia. However, probiotic treatment did not restore the fecal microbiota. In conclusion, we demonstrated for the first time the ability of probiotics containing uricolytic bacteria to lower serum uric acid in hyperuricemic animals with beneficial consequences on blood pressure and renal disease. As probiotics supplements are innocuous for human health, we recommend clinical studies to test if probiotic supplements could benefit hyperuricemic individuals. 10.1371/journal.pone.0202901
    Xanthine oxidase inhibitors may prevent or slow chronic kidney disease even in the absence of hyperuricemia. Eleftheriadis Theodoros,Pissas Georgios,Liakopoulos Vassilios,Stefanidis Ioannis Kidney international 10.1016/j.kint.2018.06.019
    Association between the prevalence of hyperuricemia and reproductive hormones in polycystic ovary syndrome. Mu Liangshan,Pan Jiexue,Yang Lili,Chen Qianqian,Chen Ya,Teng Yili,Wang Peiyu,Tang Rong,Huang Xuefeng,Chen Xia,Yang Haiyan Reproductive biology and endocrinology : RB&E BACKGROUND:The prevalecne of hyperuricemia in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is still uncertain. We aimed to investigate the prevalence of hyperuricemia in PCOS and to determine the influence of reproductive hormones on uric acid concentration. METHODS:This retrospective cross-sectional study was performed at a large reproductive medicine center. Between March 2007 and October 2016, a total of 1,183 women with PCOS and 10,772 women without PCOS were included. PCOS was diagnosed according to the Rotterdam criteria. Anthropometric parameters, blood pressure, uric acid, reproductive hormones, glucose and lipids were measured in all subjects. RESULTS:The serum uric acid (SUA) level was higher in women with PCOS than in women without PCOS. The prevalence of hyperuricemia in women with PCOS (25.48%) was significantly higher than that in women without PCOS (8.74%). Analysis stratified for age and body mass index (BMI) showed that both the SUA level and the prevalence of hyperuricemia were higher in women with PCOS of different age and BMI groups than in women without PCOS. After adjusting for age, BMI and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), logistic regression analysis revealed that the luteinizing/follicle-stimulating hormone (LH/FSH) ratio (odds ratio (OR) = 1.20, 95% CI = 1.01-1.43) and testosterone level (OR = 1.56, 95% CI = 1.27-1.90) were positively associated with the prevalence of hyperuricemia in females with PCOS. CONCLUSIONS:The serum uric acid (SUA) level and the prevalence of hyperuricemia markedly increased in women with PCOS. The testosterone level was positively associated with the SUA level and the prevalence of hyperuricemia in females with PCOS. 10.1186/s12958-018-0419-x
    Utility of Serum Albumin for Predicting Incident Metabolic Syndrome according to Hyperuricemia. Lee You Bin,Jun Ji Eun,Lee Seung Eun,Ahn Jiyeon,Kim Gyuri,Jee Jae Hwan,Bae Ji Cheol,Jin Sang Man,Kim Jae Hyeon Diabetes & metabolism journal BACKGROUND:Serum albumin and uric acid have been positively linked to metabolic syndrome (MetS). However, the association of MetS incidence with the combination of uric acid and albumin levels has not been investigated. We explored the association of albumin and uric acid with the risk of incident MetS in populations divided according to the levels of these two parameters. METHODS:In this retrospective longitudinal study, 11,613 non-MetS participants were enrolled among 24,185 individuals who had undergone at least four annual check-ups between 2006 and 2012. The risk of incident MetS was analyzed according to four groups categorized by the sex-specific medians of serum albumin and uric acid. RESULTS:During 55,407 person-years of follow-up, 2,439 cases of MetS developed. The risk of incident MetS increased as the uric acid category advanced in individuals with lower or higher serum albumin categories with hazard ratios (HRs) of 1.386 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.236 to 1.554) or 1.314 (95% CI, 1.167 to 1.480). However, the incidence of MetS increased with higher albumin levels only in participants in the lower uric acid category with a HR of 1.143 (95% CI, 1.010 to 1.294). CONCLUSION:Higher levels of albumin were associated with an increased risk of incident MetS only in individuals with lower uric acid whereas higher levels of uric acid were positively linked to risk of incident MetS regardless of albumin level. 10.4093/dmj.2018.0012
    Relationship between oxidative stress and inflammation in hyperuricemia: Analysis based on asymptomatic young patients with primary hyperuricemia. Zhou You,Zhao Mingcai,Pu Zheyan,Xu Guoqiang,Li Xiangkun Medicine The average age of hyperuricemia patients has gradually decreased, but young patients with primary hyperuricemia often do not exhibit clinical symptoms and have not received sufficient attention. However, a lack of symptoms with primary hyperuricemia does not mean that high serum uric acid (UA) levels cannot lead to pathological effects, such as oxidative stress and inflammation, and the specific damage is still unclear. We aimed to determine the relationship between oxidative stress and inflammation to explore the possible role of pathological damage in asymptomatic young patients with primary hyperuricemia.A total of 333 participants were enrolled in our study: 158 asymptomatic young patients with primary hyperuricemia and 175 healthy persons from a health check-up population. Malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and general biochemical markers were measured.We found no differences in biochemical markers (fasting glucose, TG, TC, LDL-C, HDL-C, SCr, BUN, AST, and ALT) between the patients and healthy persons. Subsequent analyses of oxidative stress and inflammation revealed that the serum levels of MDA, IL-6, and TNF-α in the patients were significantly higher than those in the healthy control group (P < .001), and the SOD activity was significantly lower (P < .001). As the UA levels increased, MDA increased significantly and SOD decreased significantly; likewise, IL-6 and TNF-α increased significantly as the UA level increased. MDA showed a significant positive correlation with IL-6 (r = 0.367, P < .001) and TNF-α (r = 0.319, P < .001), and SOD was negatively correlated with IL-6 (r = -0.241, P < .01) and TNF-α (r = -0.308, P < .001). Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that UA (OR: 2.379, 95% CI: 1.698-3.286, P < .001; OR: 3.261, 95% CI: 1.729-3.857, P < .001; for IL-6 and TNF-α, respectively) and MDA (OR: 1.836, 95% CI: 1.283-2.517, P < .01; OR: 2.532, 95% CI: 1.693-3.102, P < .001; for IL-6 and TNF-α, respectively) were risk factors for high IL-6 and TNF-α and that SOD (OR: 0.517, 95% CI: 0.428-0.763, P < .01; OR: 0.603, 95% CI: 0.415-0.699, P < .001; for IL-6 and TNF-α, respectively) was a protective factor.In our study, some abnormal pathological effects were found in asymptomatic young patients with hyperuricemia, suggesting that in young hyperuricemia patients, oxidative stress, inflammation and the inflammatory response may be related to the oxidative stress induced by UA. Therefore, we should pay more attention to the pathological damage caused by these alterations. 10.1097/MD.0000000000013108
    Relationship between serum bilirubin levels s and the progression of renal function in patients with chronic kidney disease and hyperuricemia. Li Mengyuan,Li Xinhua,Liu Yan,Liu Xinying,Song Yaxiang,Zhao Jian,Mohan Chandra,Wu Tianfu,Peng Ai,Qin Ling Clinica chimica acta; international journal of clinical chemistry It is known that inflammation and oxidative stress have strong influences on chronic kidney disease (CKD). As an antioxidant, bilirubin is currently under extensive scrutiny. However, there are disagreements with regard to the oxidative and antioxidative roles of serum uric acid (SUA). This study aimed to investigate the relationship between serum bilirubin and the progression of renal function in CKD patients with hyperuricemia (HUA). This retrospective longitudinal study included 427 CKD patients. The endpoint was renal replacement therapy or death. Patients were divided into the following two groups according to the SUA level: HUA group (SUA ≥ 420 μmol/L for men; SUA ≥ 360 μmol/L for women) and normal uric acid level (NUA) group. A Cox proportional hazards model was used to evaluate the risk factors for renal outcomes in the two patient groups. The median follow-up time was 36 months. In the Cox regression analysis, the risk of renal outcomes in patients with serum indirect bilirubin (IBIL) levels >4.55 μmol/L was 0.15 times the risk in patients with serum IBIL levels ≤4.55 μmol/L (hazard ratio = 0.15, p = .013). Our findings suggest that a high serum IBIL level might be a protective factor for the progression of renal function in CKD patients with HUA. 10.1016/j.cca.2018.07.045
    Hyperuricemia and endothelial function: From molecular background to clinical perspectives. Maruhashi Tatsuya,Hisatome Ichiro,Kihara Yasuki,Higashi Yukihito Atherosclerosis Uric acid is the end product of purine metabolism catalyzed by xanthine oxidase in humans. In the process of purine metabolism, reactive oxygen species, including superoxide, are generated concomitantly with uric acid production, which may deteriorate endothelial function through the reaction of superoxide with nitric oxide (NO), leading to decreased NO bioavailability and increased production of peroxynitrite, a reactive oxidant. Therefore, xanthine oxidase may be a therapeutic target in the treatment of endothelial dysfunction. Indeed, clinical studies have shown that endothelial dysfunction is restored by treatment with a xanthine oxidase inhibitor in patients with cardiovascular risk factors. However, it has not been fully determined whether uric acid per se is an independent causal risk factor of endothelial dysfunction in humans. Although experimental studies have indicated that uric acid absorbed into endothelial cells via the activation of uric acid transporters expressed in endothelial cells causes endothelial dysfunction through increased oxidative stress and inflammation, an actual biological effect of uric acid on endothelial function in vivo has not been fully elucidated, in part, because of the difficulty in investigating the effect of uric acid alone on endothelial function due to the close associations of uric acid with other conventional cardiovascular risk factors and the complicated relationship between uric acid and endothelial function attributed to the potent antioxidant properties of uric acid. In this review, we focus on the relationship between uric acid and endothelial function from molecular to clinical perspectives. 10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2018.10.007
    Association of hyperuricemia with disease severity in chronic hepatitis C patients. Jang Tyng-Yuan,Yeh Ming-Lun,Huang Ching-I,Lin Zu-Yau,Chen Shinn-Cherng,Hsieh Meng-Hsuan,Dai Chia-Yen,Huang Jee-Fu,Huang Chung-Feng,Chuang Wan-Long,Yu Ming-Lung PloS one BACKGROUND/AIMS:Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is associated with extrahepatic manifestations such as metabolic abnormalities. The association between chronic hepatitis C (CHC) and uric acid levels has rarely been investigated. We aimed to evaluate the levels of serum uric acid in CHC patients. METHODS:Three hundred and seventy-three histologically confirmed CHC patients who were scheduled to receive antiviral therapy were consecutively enrolled, and 746 age- and sex-matched uninfected controls were included for comparison. Hyperuricemia was defined as a uric acid level > 7 mg/dL in men and > 6.0 mg/dL in women. RESULTS:Hyperuricemia was identified in 15.8% of the CHC patients. The uric acid levels did not differ between the CHC patients and the controls (5.54 ± 1.20 mg/dL vs. 5.45 ± 1.45 mg/dL, P = 0.3). Among the 373 CHC patients, the factors associated with hyperuricemia included body mass index (BMI) (OR/CI: 1.13/1.04-1.21, P = 0.003) and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) (OR/CI: 0.98/0.97-1.00, P = 0.02). Logistic regression analysis revealed that the factors associated with hyperuricemia in male patients included BMI (OR/CI: 1.12/1.05-1.30, P = 0.006) and advanced fibrosis (F3-4) (OR/CI: 0.27/0.09-0.83, P = 0.02), whereas the factors associated with hyperuricemia in female patients included eGFR (OR/CI: 0.97/0.95-0.99, P = 0.02) and diabetes (OR/CI: 3.03/1.11-8.25, P = 0.03). There was a significant decreasing trend of serum uric acid levels with the progression of fibrotic stages among male patients (6.21 ± 1.03 mg/dL 5.82 ± 1.16 mg/dL and 5.44 ± 1.28 mg/dL in stages F0-2, F3, and F4, respectively, trend P = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS:Hyperuricemia was inversely associated with liver disease severity in CHC male patients. 10.1371/journal.pone.0207043
    The effects of xanthine oxidase inhibitor in patients with chronic heart failure complicated with hyperuricemia: a prospective randomized controlled clinical trial of topiroxostat vs allopurinol-study protocol. Sakuma Masashi,Toyoda Shigeru,Arikawa Takuo,Koyabu Yota,Kato Toru,Adachi Taichi,Suwa Hideaki,Narita Jun-Ichi,Anraku Koetsu,Ishimura Kimihiko,Yamauchi Fumitake,Sato Yasunori,Inoue Teruo, Clinical and experimental nephrology BACKGROUND:Hyperuricemia has a close relationship with cardiovascular diseases including heart failure. However, it is controversial whether xanthine oxidase inhibition has benefits for patients with chronic heart failure. We designed the Effect of Xanthine Oxidase Inhibitor in Chronic Heart Failure Patients Complicated with Hyperuricemia study (Excited-UA study) to compare the beneficial effects between a novel xanthine oxidoreductase inhibitor, topiroxostat, and a conventional agent, allopurinol, in patients with chronic heart failure and hyperuricemia. We focus on serum N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) level, echocardiography-based cardiac function, vascular endothelial function, renal function, inflammation, and oxidative stress. METHODS:The excited-UA is a prospective, randomized, open-label, blinded-endpoint clinical trial designed to prove our hypothesis that topiroxostat is more effective than allopurinol in patients with chronic heart failure and hyperuricemia. A total of 140 patients with chronic heart failure and hyperuricemia (plasma brain natriuretic peptide level ≥ 40 pg/mL and serum uric acid level ≥ 7.0 mg/dL) are randomly assigned (ratio 1:1) into either the topiroxostat group (40-160 mg/day) or allopurinol group (100-300 mg/day), to achieve the target uric acid level of 6.0 mg/dL. According to the protocol, all patients are followed up annually for 24 weeks. The primary endpoint is percent change in serum NT-proBNP level at 24 weeks from baseline. CONCLUSIONS:The Excited-UA study would provide novel evidence for the clinical relevancy of xanthine oxidoreductase inhibitor treatment in patients with chronic heart failure and hyperuricemia. 10.1007/s10157-018-1599-6
    Effect of Oral Vitamin C Supplementation on High-Altitude Hyperuricemia in Young Men Initially Migrating to High Altitude: A Pilot Study. Peng Hui,Feng Dongfang,Wang Yingkai,Dong Zixi,Chen Qing,Zhang Lihong,Luo Ruigang,Chen Jinsong,Wang Anjun,Ma Shiwu High altitude medicine & biology OBJECTIVE:Clinical studies have shown that oral vitamin C supplementation can reduce serum uric acid levels in multiple populations and may also improve acute mountain sickness. However, it is unclear whether this protocol can improve high-altitude hyperuricemia. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the role of vitamin C supplementation on high-altitude hyperuricemia. METHODS:A preliminary prospective control study was performed in 2015. Young male army recruits (n = 66), who had recently arrived on the Tibetan Plateau for the first time, were recruited for study I. Subjects were assigned to either the vitamin C group, who took an oral daily dose of 500 mg vitamin C for 1 month, or the blank control group, who had no intervention. The levels of serum uric acid, serum creatinine, and blood urea nitrogen were monitored at baseline and at the end of 1 month. In a second study II in 2016 (n = 120), the effect of 500 mg/d vitamin C on high-altitude hyperuricemia was compared with 75 IU/d of vitamin E. RESULTS:In study I, the level of serum uric acid at 1 month was significantly higher than at baseline (436.1 ± 79.3 μmol/L vs. 358.0 ± 79.8 μmol/L, p < 0.001) and the prevalence of hyperuricemia was also significantly higher (63.6% [95% confidence interval, CI: 52.0%-75.2%] vs. 19.7% [95% CI: 10.1%-29.3%], p < 0.001). Both the level of serum uric acid (411.5 ± 74.2 μmol/L vs. 460.8 ± 54.8 μmol/L, p = 0.003) and the prevalence of hyperuricemia (48.5% [95% CI: 31.4%-65.6%] vs. 78.8% [95% CI: 64.9%-92.7%], p = 0.020) were significantly lower in the vitamin C group than in the blank control group. In study II, the levels of serum uric acid and the frequency of hyperuricemia also increased over 1 month and were similar in the vitamin C and the vitamin E groups at both baseline and 1 month (p > 0.05). The change in serum uric acid was positively correlated with both the changes in serum creatinine (r = 0.599, p < 0.001) and blood urea nitrogen (r = 0.207, p = 0.005). CONCLUSIONS:These findings indicate that healthy young men develop an increase in serum uric acid within a month of moving from low to high altitude. Oral vitamin C supplementation can safely reduce this increase at a low cost. 10.1089/ham.2018.0058
    White blood cell count: an independent predictor of coronary heart disease risk in middle-aged and elderly population with hyperuricemia. Chen Hu,Ding Xiang,Li Jiatian,Wu Ziying,Wang Yuqing,He Hongyi,Yang Zidan,Wu Jing,Wang Yilun,Xie Dongxing Medicine Previous studies have shown that hyperuricemia is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The aim of the study was to examine the association between white blood cell (WBC) count and coronary heart disease (CHD) risk in middle-aged and elderly population with hyperuricemia.Data included in this analysis were from a population-based cross-sectional study, that is, the Xiangya Hospital Health Management Center Study. Hyperuricemia was defined as uric acid ≥416 μmol/L in male population and ≥360 μmol/L in female population. The WBC count was classified into 3 categories based on the tertile distribution of the study population. Framingham risk scores calculated by the Adult Treatment Panel III charts were used to estimate 10-year CHD risk for each participant. The relationship between WBC count and CHD risk in patients with hyperuricemia was examined using the multivariable logistic analysis.A total of 1148 hyperuricemia patients (855 males and 293 females) aged from 40 to 85 years were included and 418 (36.4%) of them were defined with relatively high 10-year CHD risk. Compared with the lowest tertile, the crude odds ratios (ORs) of high 10-year CHD risk were 1.43 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.06-1.92) and 1.56 (95% CI 1.16-2.11) in the 2nd and 3rd tertiles of WBC count (P for trend = .004), and the multivariable adjusted ORs of high 10-year CHD risk were 1.39 (95% CI 1.03-1.89) and 1.47 (95% CI 1.08-2.00) in the 2nd and 3rd tertiles of WBC count (P for trend = .015).This study indicated that WBC count was associated with CHD risk in patients with hyperuricemia, suggesting that WBC count, an easily accessible biomarker, could probably predict CHD risk in middle-aged and elderly population with hyperuricemia. 10.1097/MD.0000000000013729
    Consumption of sugar sweetened beverages and dietary fructose in relation to risk of gout and hyperuricemia: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Ebrahimpour-Koujan Soraiya,Saneei Parvane,Larijani Bagher,Esmaillzadeh Ahmad Critical reviews in food science and nutrition Findings on the association of sugar sweetened beverages (SSB) and fructose intakes with gout and hyperuricemia have been conflicting. We aimed to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis on studies that examined the association of SSB and fructose consumption with gout and hyperuricemia in adults. We searched PubMed, Scopus and Google Scholar up to Aug 2017 for all relevant published papers assessing SSB and fructose intakes and risk of gout and hyperuricemia. After excluding non-relevant papers, 10 studies remained in our systematic. Meta-analysis on SSB consumption and risk of gout was done on three effect sizes from cohort studies and five effect sizes from case-control studies. For risk of hyperuricemia, the meta-analysis was done on six effect sizes from cross-sectional studies. All analyses were performed on ORs or RRs. We found an overall significant positive association between SSB consumption and risk of gout in both cohort (summary effect size: 1.35; 95% CI: 1.18-1.55) and case-control studies (summary effect size: 1.33; 95% CI: 1.06-1.66). Meta-analysis on cross-sectional studies revealed that SSB consumption was associated with 35% greater odds of hyperuricemia (summary effect size: 1.35; 95% CI: 1.19-1.52). No evidence of between-study heterogeneity as well as publication bias was found. Although the studies on fructose intake and risk of gout and hyperuricemia were included in our systematic review, we did not perform met-analysis on these studies due to insufficient number of publications. We found that SSB consumption was significantly associated with increased risk of gout and hyperuricemia in adult population. Further studies are needed to examine the association between dietary fructose intake and risk of gout and hyepruricemia. 10.1080/10408398.2018.1503155
    Higher triglyceride level predicts hyperuricemia: A prospective study of 6-year follow-up. Zhang Yuan,Wei Fengjiang,Chen Chen,Cai Chunyou,Zhang Kai,Sun Ning,Tian Jianli,Shi Wentao,Zhang Miaomiao,Zang Yong,Song Jiani,He Yukun,Feng Jiayi,Zhou Qianqian,Li Mengyan,Bai Pufei,Feng Shuzhi,Li Wei-Dong Journal of clinical lipidology BACKGROUND:Despite abundant evidence indicating that higher triglyceride (TG) levels are associated with increased risks of hyperuricemia (HUA), it is unclear whether TG levels can independently predict the incidence of HUA. OBJECTIVE:The aim of the study was to investigate whether TG is an independent risk factor of HUA in a cohort study. METHODS:We explored the relationship between TG levels and HUA in a dynamic cohort established in 2009. During the 6 years of follow-up, 5442 subjects without HUA were studied. We divided subjects into 4 groups based on baseline TG levels and used the Cox hazard regression model to estimate HUA risk by TG quartile, after adjustment for potential confounding factors. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis compared the risk of HUA incidence among individuals in each TG quartile. RESULTS:The incidence of HUA in this cohort was 25.9%. The hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) for HUA in the second, third, and fourth TG quartiles, compared with the first quartile, were 1.19 (1.01-1.40), 1.33 (1.13-1.57), and 1.62 (1.37-1.92), respectively. The Kaplan-Meier survival analysis suggested that higher TG levels predicted higher incidences of HUA in a dose-dependent relationship. Stratification analyses showed that the association between TG levels and the presence of HUA was more pronounced in individuals aged <50 years, of obese, with normal estimated glomerular filtration rate, and with hypertension. CONCLUSION:Our findings suggest that TG level is a significant and independent risk factor for HUA. 10.1016/j.jacl.2017.10.009
    Hyperuricemia is associated with an increased prevalence of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation in patients with type 2 diabetes referred for clinically indicated 24-h Holter monitoring. Mantovani A,Rigolon R,Civettini A,Bolzan B,Morani G,Bonapace S,Dugo C,Zoppini G,Bonora E,Targher G Journal of endocrinological investigation PURPOSE:Several studies have reported an association between hyperuricemia and increased risk of permanent atrial fibrillation (AF) in patients with and without type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Currently, no published data are available on the relationship between hyperuricemia and risk of paroxysmal AF. METHODS:We retrospectively evaluated 245 T2DM outpatients without pre-existing AF, cancer, cirrhosis and end-stage renal disease, who underwent a 24-h ECG-Holter monitoring for various clinical indications. Hyperuricemia was defined as a serum uric acid level >7 mg/dl for men and >6 mg/dl for women or allopurinol use. The diagnosis of paroxysmal AF was confirmed in affected individuals on the basis of 24-h ECG-Holter monitoring by experienced cardiologists. RESULTS:Hyperuricemia was observed in 59 (24.1%) patients, whereas paroxysmal AF was found in 11 (4.5%) patients. The prevalence of paroxysmal AF was higher in patients with hyperuricemia than in those without hyperuricemia (10.2 vs. 2.7%, p = 0.026). Logistic regression analysis showed that hyperuricemia was associated with an increased risk of prevalent paroxysmal AF. This association remained significant even after adjustment for age, metabolic syndrome and chronic kidney disease (adjusted-odds ratio 4.01, 95% CI 1.08-14.9; p = 0.039). Similar results were found when we used serum uric acid levels as a continuous measure. CONCLUSIONS:This study shows for the first time that hyperuricemia is independently associated with an approximately fourfold increased risk of prevalent paroxysmal AF in patients with T2DM. These findings may partly explain the increased risk of permanent atrial fibrillation and cardiovascular death observed among patients with hyperuricemia. 10.1007/s40618-017-0729-4
    Characteristic and Outcome of Psoriatic Arthritis Patients with Hyperuricemia. AlJohani Roa'A,Polachek Ari,Ye Justine Yang,Chandran Vinod,Gladman Dafna D The Journal of rheumatology OBJECTIVE:To determine the characteristics of patients with psoriatic arthritis (PsA) who have hyperuricemia (HUC) and their outcomes, especially cardiovascular (CVD) and kidney diseases. METHODS:Patients have been followed prospectively at the PsA clinic according to a standard protocol at 6- to 12-month intervals. We defined HUC in men > 450 mol/l or women > 360 mol/l. We matched patients with HUC based on sex and age ± 5 years with normal uric acid patients. Demographics information and disease characteristics were reviewed. Outcomes of patients with HUC, especially CVD and kidney diseases, were recorded. Conditional logistic regression was performed to determine factors independently associated with HUC in patients with PsA. RESULTS:There were 325 (31.9%) out of 1019 patients with PsA who had HUC. Of these, 318 cases were matched to 318 controls. There were 11 (3.4%) out of 325 patients with HUC who had gout. Patients with HUC had longer disease duration and a higher Psoriasis Area and Severity Index. They had more concurrent comorbidities, including CVD and metabolic diseases, as well as higher prevalence of kidney stones and higher creatinine. Only 1 patient with HUC was treated with allopurinol at first evaluation visit and 7 patients during followup. Over the followup, 163 of the 318 patients had persistent HUC (pHUC) for more than 2 visits. Patients with pHUC developed more myocardial infarction, heart failure, and renal impairment. Multivariate analysis showed an association between pHUC, PsA disease duration, and obesity. CONCLUSION:HUC is common in patients with PsA, especially in those with longer disease duration and obesity. Proper control of HUC and metabolic diseases may play a preventive role in improving PsA outcomes. 10.3899/jrheum.170384