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    Effect of High-Flow Nasal Oxygen vs Standard Oxygen on 28-Day Mortality in Immunocompromised Patients With Acute Respiratory Failure: The HIGH Randomized Clinical Trial. Azoulay Elie,Lemiale Virginie,Mokart Djamel,Nseir Saad,Argaud Laurent,Pène Frédéric,Kontar Loay,Bruneel Fabrice,Klouche Kada,Barbier François,Reignier Jean,Berrahil-Meksen Lilia,Louis Guillaume,Constantin Jean-Michel,Mayaux Julien,Wallet Florent,Kouatchet Achille,Peigne Vincent,Théodose Igor,Perez Pierre,Girault Christophe,Jaber Samir,Oziel Johanna,Nyunga Martine,Terzi Nicolas,Bouadma Lila,Lebert Christine,Lautrette Alexandre,Bigé Naike,Raphalen Jean-Herlé,Papazian Laurent,Darmon Michael,Chevret Sylvie,Demoule Alexandre JAMA Importance:High-flow nasal oxygen therapy is increasingly used for acute hypoxemic respiratory failure (AHRF). Objective:To determine whether high-flow oxygen therapy decreases mortality among immunocompromised patients with AHRF compared with standard oxygen therapy. Design, Setting, and Participants:The HIGH randomized clinical trial enrolled 776 adult immunocompromised patients with AHRF (Pao2 <60 mm Hg or Spo2 <90% on room air, or tachypnea >30/min or labored breathing or respiratory distress, and need for oxygen ≥6 L/min) at 32 intensive care units (ICUs) in France between May 19, 2016, and December 31, 2017. Interventions:Patients were randomized 1:1 to continuous high-flow oxygen therapy (n = 388) or to standard oxygen therapy (n = 388). Main Outcomes and Measures:The primary outcome was day-28 mortality. Secondary outcomes included intubation and mechanical ventilation by day 28, Pao2:Fio2 ratio over the 3 days after intubation, respiratory rate, ICU and hospital lengths of stay, ICU-acquired infections, and patient comfort and dyspnea. Results:Of 778 randomized patients (median age, 64 [IQR, 54-71] years; 259 [33.3%] women), 776 (99.7%) completed the trial. At randomization, median respiratory rate was 33/min (IQR, 28-39) vs 32 (IQR, 27-38) and Pao2:Fio2 was 136 (IQR, 96-187) vs 128 (IQR, 92-164) in the intervention and control groups, respectively. Median SOFA score was 6 (IQR, 4-8) in both groups. Mortality on day 28 was not significantly different between groups (35.6% vs 36.1%; difference, -0.5% [95% CI, -7.3% to +6.3%]; hazard ratio, 0.98 [95% CI, 0.77 to 1.24]; P = .94). Intubation rate was not significantly different between groups (38.7% vs 43.8%; difference, -5.1% [95% CI, -12.3% to +2.0%]). Compared with controls, patients randomized to high-flow oxygen therapy had a higher Pao2:Fio2 (150 vs 119; difference, 19.5 [95% CI, 4.4 to 34.6]) and lower respiratory rate after 6 hours (25/min vs 26/min; difference, -1.8/min [95% CI, -3.2 to -0.2]). No significant difference was observed in ICU length of stay (8 vs 6 days; difference, 0.6 [95% CI, -1.0 to +2.2]), ICU-acquired infections (10.0% vs 10.6%; difference, -0.6% [95% CI, -4.6 to +4.1]), hospital length of stay (24 vs 27 days; difference, -2 days [95% CI, -7.3 to +3.3]), or patient comfort and dyspnea scores. Conclusions and Relevance:Among critically ill immunocompromised patients with acute respiratory failure, high-flow oxygen therapy did not significantly decrease day-28 mortality compared with standard oxygen therapy. Trial Registration:clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT02739451. 10.1001/jama.2018.14282
    Stratified and prognostic value of admission lactate and severity scores in patients with community-acquired pneumonia in emergency department: A single-center retrospective cohort study. Zhou Haijiang,Lan Tianfei,Guo Shubin Medicine BACKGROUND:Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a potentially life-threatening condition. The aim of this study is to investigate the stratified and prognostic value of admission lactate and severity scores (confusion, urea >7 mmol/L, respiratory rate ≥30/min, blood pressure <90 mm Hg systolic and/or ≤60 mm Hg diastolic, and age ≥65 years [CURB65], pneumonia severity index [PSI], sequential organ failure assessment [SOFA], qSOFA) in patients with CAP in emergency department. METHODS:Adult patients diagnosed with CAP admitted between January 2017 and January 2019 were enrolled and divided into severe CAP (SCAP) group and nonSCAP (NSCAP) group according to international guidelines, death group, and survival group according to 28-day prognosis. Predicting performance of parameters above was compared using receiver operating characteristic curves and logistic regression model. Cox proportional hazard regression model was used to identify variables independently associated with 28-day mortality. RESULTS:A total of 350 patients with CAP were enrolled. About 196 patients were classified as SCAP and 74 patients died after a 28-day follow-up. The levels of CURB65, PSI, SOFA, qSOFA, and admission lactate were higher in the SCAP group and death group. SOFA showed advantage in predicting SCAP, while qSOFA is superior in predicting 28-day mortality. The combination of SOFA and admission lactate outperformed other combinations in predicting SCAP, and the combination of qSOFA and lactate showed highest superiority over other combinations in predicting 28-day mortality. CONCLUSION:The SOFA is a valuable predictor for SCAP and qSOFA is superior in predicting 28-day mortality. Combination of qSOFA and admission lactate can improve the predicting performance of single qSOFA. 10.1097/MD.0000000000017479
    Usefulness of midregional pro-adrenomedullin as a marker of organ damage and predictor of mortality in patients with sepsis. Bernal-Morell Enrique,García-Villalba Eva,Vera Maria Del Carmen,Medina Blanca,Martinez Monica,Callejo Victoria,Valero Salvador,Cinesi Cesar,Piñera Pascual,Alcaraz Antonia,Marin Irene,Muñoz Angeles,Cano Alfredo The Journal of infection BACKGROUND:Midregional proadrenomedullin (MR-proADM) is a prognostic biomarker in patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and sepsis. In this paper, we examined the ability of MR-proADM to predict organ damage and long-term mortality in sepsis patients, compared to that of procalcitonin, C-reactive protein and lactate. METHODS:This was a prospective observational cohort, enrolling severe sepsis or septic shock patients admitted to internal service department. The association between biomarkers and 90-day mortality was assessed by Cox regression analysis and Kaplan-Meier curves. The accuracy of biomarkers for mortality was determined by area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) analysis. RESULTS:A total of 148 patients with severe sepsis, according to the criteria of the campaign to survive sepsis, were enrolled. Eighty-five (57.4%) had sepsis according to the new criteria of Sepsis-3. MR-proADM showed the best AUROC to predict sepsis as defined by the Sepsis-3 criteria (AUROC of 0.771, 95% CI 0.692-0.850, p <0.001) and was the only marker independently associated with Sepsis-3 criteria (OR = 4.78, 95% CI 2.25-10.14; p < 0.001) in multivariate analysis. MR-proADM was the biomarker with the best AUROC to predict mortality in 90 days (AUROC of 0.731, CI 95% 0.612-0.850, p <0.001) and was the only marker that kept its independence [hazard ratio (HR) of 1.4, 95% CI 1.2-1.64, p <0.001] in multivariate analysis. The cut-off point of MR-proADM of 1.8 nmol/L (HR of 4.65, 95% CI 6.79-10.1, p < 0.001) was the one that had greater discriminative capacity to predict 90 days mortality. All patients with MR-proADM concentrations ≤0.60 nmol/L survived up to 90 days. In patients with SOFA ≤ 6, the addition of MR-proADM to SOFA score increased the ability of SOFA to identify non-survivors, AUROC of 0.65 (CI 95% 0.537-0.764) and AUROC of 0.700 (CI 95% 0.594-0.800), respectively (p < 0.05 for both). CONCLUSIONS:MR-proADM is a good biomarker in the early identification of high risk septic patients and may contribute to improve the predictive capacity of SOFA scale, especially when scores are low. 10.1016/j.jinf.2017.12.003
    Chronic Liver Failure-Sequential Organ Failure Assessment is better than the Asia-Pacific Association for the Study of Liver criteria for defining acute-on-chronic liver failure and predicting outcome. Dhiman Radha K,Agrawal Swastik,Gupta Tarana,Duseja Ajay,Chawla Yogesh World journal of gastroenterology AIM:To compare the utility of the Chronic Liver Failure-Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (CLIF-SOFA) and Asia-Pacific Association for the Study of Liver (APASL) definitions of acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) in predicting short-term prognosis of patients with ACLF. METHODS:Consecutive patients of cirrhosis with acute decompensation were prospectively included. They were grouped into ACLF and no ACLF groups as per CLIF-SOFA and APASL criteria. Patients were followed up for 3 mo from inclusion or mortality whichever was earlier. Mortality at 28-d and 90-d was compared between no ACLF and ACLF groups as per both criteria. Mortality was also compared between different grades of ACLF as per CLIF-SOFA criteria. Prognostic scores like CLIF-SOFA, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE)-II, Child-Pugh and Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) scores were evaluated for their ability to predict 28-d mortality using area under receiver operating curves (AUROC). RESULTS:Of 50 patients, 38 had ACLF as per CLIF-SOFA and 19 as per APASL criteria. Males (86%) were predominant, alcoholic liver disease (68%) was the most common etiology of cirrhosis, sepsis (66%) was the most common cause of acute decompensation while infection (66%) was the most common precipitant of acute decompensation. The 28-d mortality in no ACLF and ACLF groups was 8.3% and 47.4% (P = 0.018) as per CLIF-SOFA and 39% and 37% (P = 0.895) as per APASL criteria. The 28-d mortality in patients with no ACLF (n = 12), ACLF grade 1 (n = 11), ACLF grade 2 (n = 14) and ACLF grade 3 (n = 13) as per CLIF-SOFA criteria was 8.3%, 18.2%, 42.9% and 76.9% (χ(2) for trend, P = 0.002) and 90-d mortality was 16.7%, 27.3%, 78.6% and 100% (χ(2) for trend, P < 0.0001) respectively. Patients with prior decompensation had similar 28-d and 90-d mortality (39.3% and 53.6%) as patients without prior decompensation (36.4% and 63.6%) (P = NS). AUROCs for 28-d mortality were 0.795, 0.787, 0.739 and 0.710 for CLIF-SOFA, APACHE-II, Child-Pugh and MELD scores respectively. On multivariate analysis of these scores, CLIF-SOFA was the only significant independent predictor of mortality with an odds ratio 1.538 (95%CI: 1.078-2.194). CONCLUSION:CLIF-SOFA criteria is better than APASL criteria to classify patients into ACLF based on their prognosis. CLIF-SOFA score is the best predictor of short-term mortality. 10.3748/wjg.v20.i40.14934
    Liver transplantation in the critically ill: a multicenter Canadian retrospective cohort study. Karvellas Constantine J,Lescot Thomas,Goldberg Peter,Sharpe Michael D,Ronco Juan J,Renner Eberhard L,Vahidy Hina,Poonja Zafrina,Chaudhury Prosanto,Kneteman Norman M,Selzner Markus,Cook Earl F,Bagshaw Sean M, Critical care (London, England) INTRODUCTION:Critically ill cirrhosis patients awaiting liver transplantation (LT) often receive prioritization for organ allocation. Identification of patients most likely to benefit is essential. The purpose of this study was to examine whether the Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score can predict 90-day mortality in critically ill recipients of LT and whether it can predict receipt of LT among critically ill cirrhosis listed awaiting LT. METHODS:We performed a multicenter retrospective cohort study consisting of two datasets: (a) all critically-ill cirrhosis patients requiring intensive care unit (ICU) admission before LT at five transplant centers in Canada from 2000 through 2009 (one site, 1990 through 2009), and (b) critically ill cirrhosis patients receiving LT from ICU (n = 115) and those listed but not receiving LT before death (n = 106) from two centers where complete data were available. RESULTS:In the first dataset, 198 critically ill cirrhosis patients receiving LT (mean (SD) age 53 (10) years, 66% male, median (IQR) model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) 34 (26-39)) were included. Mean (SD) SOFA scores at ICU admission, at 48 hours, and at LT were 12.5 (4), 13.0 (5), and 14.0 (4). Survival at 90 days was 84% (n = 166). In multivariable analysis, only older age was independently associated with reduced 90-day survival (odds ratio (OR), 1.07; 95% CI, 1.01 to 1.14; P = 0.013). SOFA score did not predict 90-day mortality at any time. In the second dataset, 47.9% (n = 106) of cirrhosis patients listed for LT died in the ICU waiting for LT. In multivariable analysis, higher SOFA at 48 hours after admission was independently associated with lower probability of receiving LT (OR, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.82 to 0.97; P = 0.006). When including serum lactate and SOFA at 48 hours in the final model, elevated lactate (at 48 hours) was also significantly associated with lower likelihood of receiving LT (0.32; 0.17 to 0.61; P = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS:SOFA appears poor at predicting 90-day survival in critically ill cirrhosis patients after LT, but higher SOFA score and elevated lactate 48 hours after ICU admission are associated with a lower probability receiving LT. Older critically ill cirrhosis patients (older than 60) receiving LT have worse 90-day survival and should be considered for LT with caution. 10.1186/cc12508
    Poison severity score and sequential organ failure assessment score: Carbon monoxide poisoning prognosis. Wang Il Jae,Yeom Seok-Ran,Park Sung-Wook,Lee Sung-Hwa,Han Sang-Kyoon,Park Soon-Chang,Ryu Ji-Ho,Hwang Seong-Youn PloS one PURPOSE:We aimed to examine the utility of the Poison Severity Score (PSS) and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score as early prognostic predictors of short-term outcomes in patients with carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning. We hypothesized that both the PSS and the SOFA score would be useful prognostic tools. METHODS:This was retrospective observational study of patients with CO poisoning who presented to the emergency department and were admitted for more than 24 hours. We calculated PSS, the initial SOFA score, a second (2nd) SOFA score, and a 24-hour delta SOFA score. The primary outcome was reported as the cerebral performance category (CPC) scale score at discharge. We classified those with CPC 1-2 as the good outcome group and those with CPC 3-5 as the poor outcome group. RESULTS:This study included 192 patients: 174 (90.6%) belonged to the good outcome group, whereas 18 (9.4%) belonged to the poor outcome group. The PSS (1.00 [0.00, 1.00] vs 3.00 [3.00, 3.00], p < 0.001), initial SOFA (1.00 [0.00, 2.00] vs 4.00 [3.25, 6.00], p < 0.001), 2nd SOFA score (0.00 [0.00, 1.00] vs 4.00 [3.00, 7.00], p < 0.001), and 24-hour delta SOFA score (-1.00 [-1.00, 0.00] vs 0.00 [-1.00, 1.00], p = 0.047) of the good outcome group were significantly higher than those of the poor outcome group. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve for PSS and the initial SOFA and 2nd SOFA scores were 0.977 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.944-0.993), 0.945 (95% CI 0.903-0.973), and 0.978 (95% CI 0.947-0.994), respectively. CONCLUSION:The PSS, initial SOFA score, and 2nd SOFA score predict acute poor outcome accurately in patients with CO poisoning. 10.1371/journal.pone.0212025
    Serial evaluation of the SOFA score to predict outcome in critically ill patients. Ferreira F L,Bota D P,Bross A,Mélot C,Vincent J L JAMA CONTEXT:Evaluation of trends in organ dysfunction in critically ill patients may help predict outcome. OBJECTIVE:To determine the usefulness of repeated measurement the Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score for prediction of mortality in intensive care unit (ICU) patients. DESIGN:Prospective, observational cohort study conducted from April 1 to July 31, 1999. SETTING:A 31-bed medicosurgical ICU at a university hospital in Belgium. PATIENTS:Three hundred fifty-two consecutive patients (mean age, 59 years) admitted to the ICU for more than 24 hours for whom the SOFA score was calculated on admission and every 48 hours until discharge. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:Initial SOFA score (0-24), Delta-SOFA scores (differences between subsequent scores), and the highest and mean SOFA scores obtained during the ICU stay and their correlations with mortality. RESULTS:The initial, highest, and mean SOFA scores correlated well with mortality. Initial and highest scores of more than 11 or mean scores of more than 5 corresponded to mortality of more than 80%. The predictive value of the mean score was independent of the length of ICU stay. In univariate analysis, mean and highest SOFA scores had the strongest correlation with mortality, followed by Delta-SOFA and initial SOFA scores. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was largest for highest scores (0.90; SE, 0.02; P<.001 vs initial score). When analyzing trends in the SOFA score during the first 96 hours, regardless of the initial score, the mortality rate was at least 50% when the score increased, 27% to 35% when it remained unchanged, and less than 27% when it decreased. Differences in mortality were better predicted in the first 48 hours than in the subsequent 48 hours. There was no significant difference in the length of stay among these groups. Except for initial scores of more than 11 (mortality rate >90%), a decreasing score during the first 48 hours was associated with a mortality rate of less than 6%, while an unchanged or increasing score was associated with a mortality rate of 37% when the initial score was 2 to 7 and 60% when the initial score was 8 to 11. CONCLUSIONS:Sequential assessment of organ dysfunction during the first few days of ICU admission is a good indicator of prognosis. Both the mean and highest SOFA scores are particularly useful predictors of outcome. Independent of the initial score, an increase in SOFA score during the first 48 hours in the ICU predicts a mortality rate of at least 50%. 10.1001/jama.286.14.1754
    Effect of a Resuscitation Strategy Targeting Peripheral Perfusion Status vs Serum Lactate Levels on 28-Day Mortality Among Patients With Septic Shock: The ANDROMEDA-SHOCK Randomized Clinical Trial. Hernández Glenn,Ospina-Tascón Gustavo A,Damiani Lucas Petri,Estenssoro Elisa,Dubin Arnaldo,Hurtado Javier,Friedman Gilberto,Castro Ricardo,Alegría Leyla,Teboul Jean-Louis,Cecconi Maurizio,Ferri Giorgio,Jibaja Manuel,Pairumani Ronald,Fernández Paula,Barahona Diego,Granda-Luna Vladimir,Cavalcanti Alexandre Biasi,Bakker Jan, ,Hernández Glenn,Ospina-Tascón Gustavo,Petri Damiani Lucas,Estenssoro Elisa,Dubin Arnaldo,Hurtado Javier,Friedman Gilberto,Castro Ricardo,Alegría Leyla,Teboul Jean-Louis,Cecconi Maurizio,Cecconi Maurizio,Ferri Giorgio,Jibaja Manuel,Pairumani Ronald,Fernández Paula,Barahona Diego,Cavalcanti Alexandre Biasi,Bakker Jan,Hernández Glenn,Alegría Leyla,Ferri Giorgio,Rodriguez Nicolás,Holger Patricia,Soto Natalia,Pozo Mario,Bakker Jan,Cook Deborah,Vincent Jean-Louis,Rhodes Andrew,Kavanagh Bryan P,Dellinger Phil,Rietdijk Wim,Carpio David,Pavéz Nicolás,Henriquez Elizabeth,Bravo Sebastian,Valenzuela Emilio Daniel,Vera Magdalena,Dreyse Jorge,Oviedo Vanessa,Cid Maria Alicia,Larroulet Macarena,Petruska Edward,Sarabia Claudio,Gallardo David,Sanchez Juan Eduardo,González Hugo,Arancibia José Miguel,Muñoz Alex,Ramirez Germán,Aravena Florencia,Aquevedo Andrés,Zambrano Fabián,Bozinovic Milan,Valle Felipe,Ramirez Manuel,Rossel Victor,Muñoz Pilar,Ceballos Carolina,Esveile Christian,Carmona Cristian,Candia Eva,Mendoza Daniela,Sanchez Aída,Ponce Daniela,Ponce Daniela,Lastra Jaime,Nahuelpán Bárbara,Fasce Fabrizio,Luengo Cecilia,Medel Nicolas,Cortés Cesar,Campassi Luz,Rubatto Paolo,Horna Nahime,Furche Mariano,Pendino Juan Carlos,Bettini Lisandro,Lovesio Carlos,González María Cecilia,Rodruguez Jésica,Canales Héctor,Caminos Francisco,Galletti Cayetano,Minoldo Estefanía,Aramburu Maria Jose,Olmos Daniela,Nin Nicolás,Tenzi Jordán,Quiroga Carlos,Lacuesta Pablo,Gaudín Agustín,Pais Richard,Silvestre Ana,Olivera Germán,Rieppi Gloria,Berrutti Dolores,Ochoa Marcelo,Cobos Paul,Vintimilla Fernando,Ramirez Vanessa,Tobar Milton,García Fernanda,Picoita Fabricio,Remache Nelson,Granda Vladimir,Paredes Fernando,Barzallo Eduardo,Garcés Paul,Guerrero Fausto,Salazar Santiago,Torres German,Tana Cristian,Calahorrano José,Solis Freddy,Torres Pedro,Herrera Luís,Ornes Antonio,Peréz Verónica,Delgado Glenda,López Alexei,Espinosa Eliana,Moreira José,Salcedo Blanca,Villacres Ivonne,Suing Jhonny,Lopez Marco,Gomez Luis,Toctaquiza Guillermo,Cadena Zapata Mario,Orazabal Milton Alonso,Pardo Espejo Ruben,Jimenez Jorge,Calderón Alexander,Paredes Gustavo,Barberán José Luis,Moya Tatiana,Atehortua Horacio,Sabogal Rodolfo,Ortiz Guillermo,Lara Antonio,Sanchez Fabio,Hernán Portilla Alvaro,Dávila Humberto,Mora Jorge Antonio,Calderón Luis Eduardo,Alvarez Ingrid,Escobar Elena,Bejarano Alejandro,Bustamante Luis Alfonso,Aldana José Luis JAMA Importance:Abnormal peripheral perfusion after septic shock resuscitation has been associated with organ dysfunction and mortality. The potential role of the clinical assessment of peripheral perfusion as a target during resuscitation in early septic shock has not been established. Objective:To determine if a peripheral perfusion-targeted resuscitation during early septic shock in adults is more effective than a lactate level-targeted resuscitation for reducing mortality. Design, Setting, and Participants:Multicenter, randomized trial conducted at 28 intensive care units in 5 countries. Four-hundred twenty-four patients with septic shock were included between March 2017 and March 2018. The last date of follow-up was June 12, 2018. Interventions:Patients were randomized to a step-by-step resuscitation protocol aimed at either normalizing capillary refill time (n = 212) or normalizing or decreasing lactate levels at rates greater than 20% per 2 hours (n = 212), during an 8-hour intervention period. Main Outcomes and Measures:The primary outcome was all-cause mortality at 28 days. Secondary outcomes were organ dysfunction at 72 hours after randomization, as assessed by Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score (range, 0 [best] to 24 [worst]); death within 90 days; mechanical ventilation-, renal replacement therapy-, and vasopressor-free days within 28 days; intensive care unit and hospital length of stay. Results:Among 424 patients randomized (mean age, 63 years; 226 [53%] women), 416 (98%) completed the trial. By day 28, 74 patients (34.9%) in the peripheral perfusion group and 92 patients (43.4%) in the lactate group had died (hazard ratio, 0.75 [95% CI, 0.55 to 1.02]; P = .06; risk difference, -8.5% [95% CI, -18.2% to 1.2%]). Peripheral perfusion-targeted resuscitation was associated with less organ dysfunction at 72 hours (mean SOFA score, 5.6 [SD, 4.3] vs 6.6 [SD, 4.7]; mean difference, -1.00 [95% CI, -1.97 to -0.02]; P = .045). There were no significant differences in the other 6 secondary outcomes. No protocol-related serious adverse reactions were confirmed. Conclusions and Relevance:Among patients with septic shock, a resuscitation strategy targeting normalization of capillary refill time, compared with a strategy targeting serum lactate levels, did not reduce all-cause 28-day mortality. Trial Registration:ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03078712. 10.1001/jama.2019.0071
    [Establishment of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome early warning score in patients with severe trauma and its clinical significance: a multicenter study]. Huang Wenjuan,Qin Song,Sun Yu,Yin Shangqi,Fan Xia,Huang Qi,Chen Tao,Liang Huaping Zhonghua wei zhong bing ji jiu yi xue OBJECTIVE:To explore the risk factors of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) in severe trauma patients, put forward a new warning scoring system of MODS, and to provide a more accurate scoring method for doctors to judge the clinical condition and prognosis of patients. METHODS:Clinical data of 342 patients with severe trauma admitted to intensive care unit (ICU) of the Affiliated Hospital of Zunyi Medical College and Daping Hospital of the Third Military Medical University from January 1st, 2015 to December 31st, 2016 were retrospectively analyzed. The patients were divided into MODS groups (n = 251) and non-MODS group (n = 91) according to clinical outcomes. The clinical data of patients, including gender, age, heart rate (HR) and blood pressure within 24 hours after admission to the hospital, indicators of blood routine and blood biochemistry, severity of disease, severity of trauma, whether received the emergency intubation or surgery within 24 hours or not, whether developed sepsis or acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) during hospitalization, were recorded, and univariate analysis was conducted. The indicators with statistical significance found by univariate analysis were enrolled in multivariate Logistic regression analysis, and the risk factors for MODS in patients with severe trauma were screened and assigned, and the final total score was MODS warning score. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was plotted to evaluate MODS warning score for predicting the occurrence of MODS in patients with severe trauma. RESULTS:Compared with non-MODS group, HR, Na, serum creatinine (SCr), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), injury severity score (ISS), new injury severity score (NISS), acute physiology and chronic health evaluation II (APACHE II) score and sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) score in MODS group were significantly increased, pH value, red blood cell (RBC), platelet (PLT), albumin (Alb) and Glasgow coma score (GCS) were remarkably decreased, and multiple injury, the patients with shock at admission, blood transfusion, central venous catheter, emergency intubation and infection were also increased, and more patients suffered from sepsis and ARDS. Multivariate Logistic regression analysis showed that the number of injured places equal or more than 2, shock at admission, APACHE II score ≥ 15, SOFA score ≥ 4 and APTT > 40 s were risk factors for MODS in patients with severe trauma, with total MODS warning score of 7.5. ROC curve analysis showed that the area under ROC curve (AUC) of MODS warning score for predicting MODS in patients with severe trauma was 0.822, which was significantly higher than that of APACHE II score (AUC = 0.698, P < 0.001), APTT (AUC = 0.693, P < 0.001) and SOFA score (AUC = 0.770, P = 0.025). When the cut-off value of MODS warning score was 2.5, the sensitivity was 61.35%, the specificity was 90.11%, and Youden index was 0.515. CONCLUSIONS:MODS warning score is composed of five factors, including the number of injured places, shock at admission, APACHE II score, SOFA score and APTT, which could be regarded as early warning score system for predicting MODS in patients with severe trauma. MODS warning score can be more comprehensive and timely to assess the possibility of MODS and prognosis of patients with severe trauma, and the prediction result is better than the single use of APTT, APACHE II or SOFA score. 10.3760/cma.j.issn.2095-4352.2018.01.008
    The role of propionic acid at diagnosis predicts mortality in patients with septic shock. Weng Jie,Wu He,Xu Zhe,Xi Haitao,Chen Chan,Chen Daqing,Gong Yuqiang,Hua Ying,Wang Zhiyi Journal of critical care PURPOSE:This study aims to assess the diagnostic and prognostic value of propionic acid in patients with septic shock on a medical intensive care unit (ICU). METHODS:Serum propionic acid and clinical common cytokines levels were measured within 24h after the diagnosis of sepsis, and the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) score, Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score, and Mortality were recorded in ICU. A 28-day and 90-day follow-up was performed for all patients. RESULTS:A total of 118 septic patients were enrolled in this study. The propionic acid was higher in patients with septic shock compared with sepsis. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that propionic acid was independent predictor of sepsis (odds ratio: 1.279; 95% confidence interval: 1.069-1.530; P=0.007) and septic shock (odds ratio: 1.859; 95% confidence interval: 1.342-2.576; P<0.001) and ICU mortality (odds ratio: 1.331; 95% confidence interval: 1.107-1.600; P=0.002), 28-day mortality (odds ratio: 1.259; 95% confidence interval: 1.046-1.514; P=0.015) and 90-day mortality (odds ratio: 1.304; 95% confidence interval: 1.092-1.558; P=0.003). The receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) analysis showed the areas under of propionic acid on ICU admission day for predicting sepsis and septic shock were 0.773 and 0.85 respectively, the areas under of propionic acid for predicting ICU mortality, 28-d and 90-d mortality were 0.779, 0.739 and 0.809 respectively. Using a PA cutoff of 0.053 and 0.095 for predicting sepsis and septic shock respectively, the sensitivity was 97.62% and 85.5%, and the specificity was 58% and 83.5%, respectively. Using a PA cutoff of 0.139 for predicting ICU mortality, 28- and 90-day mortality, the sensitivity was 69.39%, 67.44% and 69.09% respectively, and the specificity was 78.26%, 73.33% and 82.54% respectively. CONCLUSIONS:Propionic acid showed diagnostic capacity to diagnose septic shock and revealed prognostic information for mortality. 10.1016/j.jcrc.2017.08.009
    Derivation and validation of a new nutritional index for predicting 90 days mortality after ICU admission in a Korean population. Son Da-Hye,Kim Kyung-Sub,Lee Hye-Sun,Lee Ji-Won,Shin Cheung-Soo Journal of the Formosan Medical Association = Taiwan yi zhi BACKGROUND/PURPOSE:Predicting the mortality in patients admitted to the ICU is important for determining a treatment strategy and public health policy. Although many scores have been developed to predict the mortality, these scores were based on Caucasian population. We aimed to develop a new prognostic index, the New nutritional index (NNI), to predict 90-days mortality after ICU admission based on Korean population. METHODS:Patients (1453) who admitted intensive care unit (ICU) of the Gangnam Severance hospital were analyzed. After exclusion, 984 patients were randomly divided into internal (n = 702) and external validation (n = 282) data set. The new nutritional index (NNI) was developed using univariate and multivariate logistic regression with backward selection of predictors. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis and comparison of the area under the curve (AUC) verified the better predictor of 90 days-mortality after ICU admission. RESULTS:The NNI better predicted 90 days-mortality compared to modified NUTRIC score, APACHE II scores, SOFA scores, CRP, glucose, total protein, and albumin level in internal and external data sets, with AUC of 0.862 (SE: 0.017, 95% CI: 0.829-0.895) and 0.858 (SE: 0.015, 95% CI: 0.829-0.887), respectively. The calibration plots using external data set for validation showed a close approximation to the logistic calibration of each nomogram, and p-value of Hosmer and Lemeshow test was 0.1804. CONCLUSION:The NNI has advantages as a predictor of 90 days mortality based on nutritional status in the Korean population. 10.1016/j.jfma.2020.05.007
    EPISEPSIS: a reappraisal of the epidemiology and outcome of severe sepsis in French intensive care units. Brun-Buisson C,Meshaka P,Pinton P,Vallet B, Intensive care medicine OBJECTIVE:Ten years ago 8.4% of patients in French intensive care units (ICUs) were found to have severe sepsis or shock and 56% died in the hospital. As novel therapies for severe sepsis are emerging, updated epidemiological information is required. DESIGN AND SETTING:An inception cohort study conducted in 206 ICUs of randomly selected hospitals over a 2-week period in 2001, including all patients meeting criteria for clinically or microbiologically documented severe sepsis (with > or =1 organ dysfunction). MEASUREMENTS AND RESULTS:Among 3738 admissions, 546 (14.6%) patients experienced severe sepsis or shock, of which 30% were ICU-acquired. The median age of patients was 65 years, and 54.1% had at least one chronic organ system dysfunction. The median (range) Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS II) and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) at onset of severe sepsis were 48 (2-129) and 9 (1-24), respectively. Mortality was 35% at 30 days; at 2 months the mortality rate was 41.9%, and 11.4% of patients remained hospitalized. The median (range) hospital stay was 25 (0-112) days in survivors and 7 (0-90) days in non-survivors. Chronic liver and heart failure, acute renal failure and shock, SAPS II at onset of severe sepsis and 24-h total SOFA scores were the independent risk factors most strongly associated with death. CONCLUSIONS:Although the attack rate of severe sepsis in French ICUs appears to have increased over the past decade, its associated mortality has decreased, suggesting improved management of patients. Severe sepsis incurs considerable resources use, and implementation of effective management strategies and continued research efforts are needed. 10.1007/s00134-003-2121-4
    External validation of the Simplified Mortality Score for the Intensive Care Unit (SMS-ICU). Granholm Anders,Perner Anders,Krag Mette,Marker Søren,Hjortrup Peter Buhl,Haase Nicolai,Holst Lars Broksø,Collet Marie Oxenbøll,Jensen Aksel Karl Georg,Møller Morten Hylander Acta anaesthesiologica Scandinavica BACKGROUND:The Simplified Mortality Score for the Intensive Care Unit (SMS-ICU) is a clinical prediction model, which estimates the risk of 90-day mortality in acutely ill adult ICU patients using 7 readily available variables. We aimed to externally validate the SMS-ICU and compare its discrimination with existing prediction models used with 90-day mortality as the outcome. METHODS:We externally validated the SMS-ICU using data from 3282 patients included in the Stress Ulcer Prophylaxis in the Intensive Care Unit trial, which randomised acutely ill adult ICU patients with risk factors for gastrointestinal bleeding to prophylactic pantoprazole or placebo in 33 ICUs in Europe. We assessed discrimination, calibration and overall performance of the SMS-ICU and compared discrimination with the commonly used and more complex SAPS II and SOFA scores. RESULTS:Mortality at day 90 was 30.7%. The discrimination (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve) for the SMS-ICU was 0.67 (95% CI: 0.65-0.69), as compared with 0.68 (95% CI: 0.66-0.70, P = 0.35) for SAPS II and 0.63 (95% CI: 0.61-0.65, P < 0.001) for the SOFA score. Calibration (intercept and slope) was 0.001 and 0.786, respectively, and Nagelkerke's R (overall performance) was 0.06. The proportions of missing data for the SMS-ICU, SAPS II and SOFA scores were 0.2%, 8.5% and 6.8%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS:Discrimination for 90-day mortality of the SMS-ICU in this cohort was poor, but similar to SAPS II and better than that of the SOFA score with markedly less missing data. 10.1111/aas.13422
    Validation of a Sequential Organ Failure Assessment Score using Electronic Health Record Data. Huerta Luis E,Wanderer Jonathan P,Ehrenfeld Jesse M,Freundlich Robert E,Rice Todd W,Semler Matthew W, Journal of medical systems The sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) score is a scoring system commonly used in critical care to assess severity of illness. Automated calculation of the SOFA score using existing electronic health record data would broaden its applicability. We performed a manual validation of an automated SOFA score previously developed at our institution. A retrospective analysis of a random subset of 300 patients from a previously published randomized trial of critically ill adults was performed, with manual validation of SOFA scores from the date of initial intensive care unit admission. Spearman's rank correlation coefficient, weighted Cohen's kappa, and Bland-Altman plots were used to assess agreement between manual and electronic versions of SOFA scores and between manual and electronic versions of their individual components. There was high agreement between manual and electronic SOFA scores (Spearman's rank correlation coefficient = 0.90, 95% CI 0.87-0.93). Renal and respiratory components had lower agreement (weighted Cohen's kappa = 0.63, 95% CI 0.53-0.73 for renal; weighted Cohen's kappa = 0.77, 95% CI 0.70-0.84 for respiratory). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) for 30-day in-hospital mortality was 0.77 (95% CI 0.68-0.84) for manual SOFA scores and 0.75 (95% CI 0.66-0.83) for automated SOFA scores. Automatic calculation of SOFA scores from the electronic health record is feasible and correlates highly with manually calculated SOFA scores. Both have similar predictive value for 30-day in-hospital mortality. 10.1007/s10916-018-1060-0
    Prognostic value of red blood cell distribution width for severe acute pancreatitis. Zhang Fang-Xiao,Li Zhi-Liang,Zhang Zhi-Dan,Ma Xiao-Chun World journal of gastroenterology BACKGROUND:Severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) is a common condition in the intensive care unit (ICU) and has a high mortality. Early evaluation of the severity and prognosis is very important for SAP therapy. Recently, red blood cell distribution (RDW) was associated with mortality of sepsis patients and could be used as a predictor of prognosis. Similarly, RDW may be associated with the prognosis of SAP patients and be used as a prognostic indicator for SAP patients. AIM:To investigate the prognostic value of RDW for SAP patients. METHODS:We retrospectively enrolled SAP patients admitted to the ICU of the First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University from June 2015 to June 2017. According to the prognosis at 90 d, SAP patients were divided into a survival group and a non-survival group. RDW was extracted from a routine blood test. Demographic parameters and RDW were recorded and compared between the two groups. The receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve was constructed and Cox regression analysis was performed to investigate the prognostic value of RDW for SAP patients. RESULTS:In this retrospective cohort study, 42 SAP patients were enrolled, of whom 22 survived (survival group) and 20 died (non-survival group). The baseline parameters were comparable between the two groups. The coefficient of variation of RDW (RDW-CV), standard deviation of RDW (RDW-SD), Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) score, and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score were significantly higher in the non-survival group than in the survival group ( < 0.05). The RDW-CV and RDW-SD were significantly correlated with the APACHE II score and SOFA score, respectively. The areas under the ROC curves (AUCs) of RDW-CV and RDW-SD were all greater than those of the APACHE II score and SOFA score, among which, the AUC of RDW-SD was the greatest. The results demonstrated that RDW had better prognostic value for predicting the mortality of SAP patients. When the RDW-SD was greater than 45.5, the sensitivity for predicting prognosis was 77.8% and the specificity was 70.8%. Both RDW-CV and RDW-SD could be used as independent risk factors to predict the mortality of SAP patients in multivariate logistic regression analysis and univariate Cox proportional hazards regression analysis, similar to the APACHE II and SOFA scores. CONCLUSION:The RDW is greater in the non-surviving SAP patients than in the surviving patients. RDW is significantly correlated with the APACHE II and SOFA scores. RDW has better prognostic value for SAP patients than the APACHE II and SOFA scores and could easily be used by clinicians for the treatment of SAP patients. 10.3748/wjg.v25.i32.4739
    Red-flag sepsis and SOFA identifies different patient population at risk of sepsis-related deaths on the general ward. Kopczynska Maja,Sharif Ben,Cleaver Sian,Spencer Naomi,Kurani Amit,Lee Camilla,Davis Jessica,Durie Carys,Joseph-Gubral Jude,Sharma Angelica,Allen Lucy,Atkins Billie,Gordon Alex,Jones Llewelyn,Noble Amy,Bradley Matthew,Atkinson Henry,Inns Joy,Penney Harriet,Gilbert Carys,Walford Rebecca,Pike Louise,Edwards Ross,Howcroft Robyn,Preston Hazel,Gee Jennifer,Doyle Nicholas,Maden Charlotte,Smith Claire,Azis Nik Syakirah Nik,Vadivale Navrhinaa,Battle Ceri,Lyons Ronan,Morgan Paul,Pugh Richard,Szakmany Tamas, Medicine Controversy exists regarding the best diagnostic and screening tool for sepsis outside the intensive care unit (ICU). Sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) score has been shown to be superior to systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) criteria, however, the performance of "Red Flag sepsis criteria" has not been tested formally.The aim of the study was to investigate the ability of Red Flag sepsis criteria to identify the patients at high risk of sepsis-related death in comparison to SOFA based sepsis criteria. We also investigated the comparison of Red Flag sepsis to quick SOFA (qSOFA), SIRS, and national early warning score (NEWS) scores and factors influencing patient mortality.Patients were recruited into a 24-hour point-prevalence study on the general wards and emergency departments across all Welsh acute hospitals. Inclusion criteria were: clinical suspicion of infection and NEWS 3 or above in-line with established escalation criteria in Wales. Data on Red Flag sepsis and SOFA criteria was collected together with qSOFA and SIRS scores and 90-day mortality.459 patients were recruited over a 24-hour period. 246 were positive for Red Flag sepsis, mortality 33.7% (83/246); 241 for SOFA based sepsis criteria, mortality 39.4% (95/241); 54 for qSOFA, mortality 57.4% (31/54), and 268 for SIRS, mortality 33.6% (90/268). 55 patients were not picked up by any criteria. We found that older age was associated with death with OR (95% CI) of 1.03 (1.02-1.04); higher frailty score 1.24 (1.11-1.40); DNA-CPR order 1.74 (1.14-2.65); ceiling of care 1.55 (1.02-2.33); and SOFA score of 2 and above 1.69 (1.16-2.47).The different clinical tools captured different subsets of the at-risk population, with similar sensitivity. SOFA score 2 or above was independently associated with increased risk of death at 90 days. The sequalae of infection-related organ dysfunction cannot be reliably captured based on routine clinical and physiological parameters alone. 10.1097/MD.0000000000013238
    Prediction of 28-days mortality with sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA), quick SOFA (qSOFA) and systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) - A retrospective study of medical patients with acute infectious disease. Gaini Shahin,Relster Mette Marie,Pedersen Court,Johansen Isik Somuncu International journal of infectious diseases : IJID : official publication of the International Society for Infectious Diseases AIMS:Evaluating the use of sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) ≥ 2 compared to quick SOFA (qSOFA) and to systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) in assessing 28-days mortality in medical patients with acute infection. METHODS:In total, 323 patients with verified infection were stratified in accordance to Sepsis-3. SOFA, qSOFA and SIRS were calculated using registered variables. Adverse outcome was death within 28-days of admission. RESULTS:In total, 190 (59%) patients had a SOFA score≥2 and the overall in-hospital mortality was 21 (6%). Scores of SOFA and qSOFA were both significantly elevated in non-survivors. SOFA showed good accuracy (Area under the receiver operating characteristic (AUROC)=0.83, 95% CI, 0.76 - 0.90) for 28-days mortality compared with qSOFA (AUROC=0.67, 95% CI, 0.54 - 0.80) and SIRS (AUROC=0.62, 95% Cl 0.49 - 0.74). SOFA was≥2 in all patients who died, while qSOFA and SIRS was≥2 in 8 (38%) and 17 (81%) of the patients who died, respectively. CONCLUSION:SOFA score≥2 was better than SIRS and qSOFA to predict mortality within 28-days of admission among patients with acute infectious disease. 10.1016/j.ijid.2018.09.020
    Impact of chronic liver disease in intensive care unit acquired pneumonia: a prospective study. Di Pasquale Marta,Esperatti Mariano,Crisafulli Ernesto,Ferrer Miquel,Bassi Gianluigi Li,Rinaudo Mariano,Escorsell Angels,Fernandez Javier,Mas Antoni,Blasi Francesco,Torres Antoni Intensive care medicine PURPOSE:To assess the impact of chronic liver disease (CLD) on ICU-acquired pneumonia. METHODS:This was a prospective, observational study of the characteristics, microbiology, and outcomes of 343 consecutive patients with ICU-acquired pneumonia clustered according to the presence of CLD. RESULTS:Sixty-seven (20%) patients had CLD (67% had liver cirrhosis, LC), MELD score 26 ± 9, 20% Child-Pugh class C). They presented higher severity scores than patients without CLD both on admission to the ICU (APACHE II, LC 19 ± 6 vs. other CLD 18 ± 6 vs. no CLD 16 ± 6; p < 0.001; SOFA, 10 ± 3 vs. 8 ± 4 vs. 7 ± 3; p < 0.001) and at onset of pneumonia (APACHE II, 19 ± 6 vs. 17 ± 6 vs. 16 ± 5; p = 0.001; SOFA, 11 ± 4 vs. 9 ± 4 vs. 7 ± 3; p < 0.001). Levels of CRP were lower in patients with LC than in the other two groups (day 1, 6.5 [2.5-11.5] vs. 13 [6-23] vs. 15.5 [8-24], p < 0.001, day 3, 6 [3-12] vs. 16 [9-21] vs. 11 [5-20], p = 0.001); all the other biomarkers were higher in LC and other CLD patients. LC patients had higher 28- and 90-day mortality (63 vs. 28%, p < 0.001; 72 vs. 38%, p < 0.001, respectively) than non-CLD patients. Presence of LC was independently associated with decreased 28- and 90-day survival (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.982-17.250; p = 0.001; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.915-20.699, p = 0.001, respectively). CONCLUSIONS:In critically ill patients with ICU-acquired pneumonia, CLD is associated with a more severe clinical presentation and poor clinical outcomes. Moreover, LC is independently associated with 28- and 90-day mortality. The results of this study are important for future trials focused on mortality. 10.1007/s00134-013-3025-6
    Comparative prognostic accuracy of sepsis scores for hospital mortality in adults with suspected infection in non-ICU and ICU at an academic public hospital. Kovach Christopher P,Fletcher Grant S,Rudd Kristina E,Grant Rosemary M,Carlbom David J PloS one BACKGROUND:Sepsis is a global healthcare challenge and reliable tools are needed to identify patients and stratify their risk. Here we compare the prognostic accuracy of the sepsis-related organ failure assessment (SOFA), quick SOFA (qSOFA), systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS), and national early warning system (NEWS) scores for hospital mortality and other outcomes amongst patients with suspected infection at an academic public hospital. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS:10,981 adult patients with suspected infection hospitalized at a U.S. academic public hospital between 2011-2017 were retrospectively identified. Primary exposures were the maximum SIRS, qSOFA, SOFA, and NEWS scores upon inclusion. Comparative prognostic accuracy for the primary outcome of hospital mortality was assessed using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC). Secondary outcomes included mortality in ICU versus non-ICU settings, ICU transfer, ICU length of stay (LOS) >3 days, and hospital LOS >7 days. Adjusted analyses were performed using a model of baseline risk for hospital mortality. 774 patients (7.1%) died in hospital. Discrimination for hospital mortality was highest for SOFA (AUROC 0.90 [95% CI, 0.89-0.91]), followed by NEWS (AUROC 0.85 [95% CI, 0.84-0.86]), qSOFA (AUROC 0.84 [95% CI, 0.83-0.85]), and SIRS (AUROC 0.79 [95% CI, 0.78-0.81]; p<0.001 for all comparisons). NEWS (AUROC 0.94 [95% CI, 0.93-0.95]) outperformed other scores in predicting ICU transfer (qSOFA AUROC 0.89 [95% CI, 0.87-0.91]; SOFA AUROC, 0.84 [95% CI, 0.82-0.87]; SIRS AUROC 0.81 [95% CI, 0.79-0.83]; p<0.001 for all comparisons). NEWS (AUROC 0.86 [95% CI, 0.85-0.86]) was also superior to other scores in predicting ICU LOS >3 days (SOFA AUROC 0.84 [95% CI, 0.83-0.85; qSOFA AUROC, 0.83 [95% CI, 0.83-0.84]; SIRS AUROC, 0.75 [95% CI, 0.74-0.76]; p<0.002 for all comparisons). CONCLUSIONS:Multivariate prediction scores, such as SOFA and NEWS, had greater prognostic accuracy than qSOFA or SIRS for hospital mortality, ICU transfer, and ICU length of stay. Complex sepsis scores may offer enhanced prognostic performance as compared to simple sepsis scores in inpatient hospital settings where more complex scores can be readily calculated. 10.1371/journal.pone.0222563
    The Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score predicts mortality and neurological outcome in patients with post-cardiac arrest syndrome. Matsuda Junji,Kato Shunichi,Yano Hirotaka,Nitta Giichi,Kono Toshikazu,Ikenouchi Takashi,Murata Kazuya,Kanoh Miki,Inamura Yukihiro,Takamiya Tomomasa,Negi Ken,Sato Akira,Yamato Tsunehiro,Inaba Osamu,Morita Hideki,Matsumura Yutaka,Nitta Junichi,Yonetsu Taishi Journal of cardiology BACKGROUND:Patients experiencing out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) and subsequent post-cardiac arrest syndrome are often compromised by multi-organ failure. The Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score has been used to predict clinical outcome of patients requiring intensive care for multi-organ failure. Thus, the assessment of SOFA score is recommended as a criterion for sepsis. Although post-cardiac arrest patients frequently develop sepsis-like status in ICU, there are limited reports evaluating the SOFA score in post-cardiac arrest patients. We investigated the predictive value of the SOFA score in survival and neurological outcomes in patients with post-cardiac arrest syndrome. METHODS:A total of 231 cardiovascular arrest patients achieving return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) were finally extracted from the institutional consecutive database comprised of 1218 OHCA patients transferred to the institution between January 2015 and July 2018. The SOFA score was calculated on admission and after 48h. Predictors of survival and neurological outcome defined as having cerebral-performance-category (CPC) 1 or 2 at 30 days were determined. RESULTS:SOFA score was lower in survived patients (5.0 vs 10.0, p<0.001) and those with favorable neurological outcome (5.0 vs 8.0, p<0.001) as compared with the counterparts. The SOFA score on admission was an independent predictor of survival (OR 0.68, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.59-0.78; p<0.001) and favorable neurological performance (OR 0.79; 95% CI 0.69-0.90; p<0.001) at 30 days. Furthermore, a change in SOFA score (48-0h) was predictive of favorable 30-day neurological outcome (OR 0.71, 95% CI 0.60-0.85; p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS:Evaluation of the SOFA score in the ICU is useful to predict survival and neurological outcome in post-cardiac arrest patients. 10.1016/j.jjcc.2020.03.007
    Application of "the Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score" in predicting outcome in ICU patients with SIRS. Acharya S P,Pradhan B,Marhatta M N Kathmandu University medical journal (KUMJ) BACKGROUND:Various scoring systems have been developed to prioritize patient admission and management in ICU. The objective of this prospective, observational cohort study was to evaluate application of one such system, the Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) Score in predicting outcome in ICU patients with SIRS. PATIENTS AND METHODS:Fifty patients admitted to a six bed multidisciplinary ICU with SIRS were consecutively enrolled in the study and SOFA scores were calculated at zero hour, after 48 hrs, and after 96 hrs and patients followed till discharge from hospital. RESULTS:When compared to outcome, the non survivors had high initial, mean and highest SOFA scores as compared to survivors. (p value = 0.002, <0.001, <0.001 respectively). Delta SOFA was not significantly associated with outcome. (p value= 0.117). The initial SOFA score > 11 predicted a mortality of 90%. (OR 23.72, 95%CI2.68-209.78, p=0.004). Similarly, mean SOFA score of > 7 predicted a mortality of 73.9% (OR 22.7, 95%CI 5.0 - 103.5, p<0.001) and high SOFA score > 11 predicted a mortality of 87.5% (OR 32.66, 95%CI 5.82-183.179, p< 0.001). Area under receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve for mean SOFA was 0.825, for high SOFA was 0.817 and for initial SOFA was 0.708. Thus mean, high and initial SOFA scores were helpful in predicting between the survivors and the non survivors. CONCLUSION:The SOFA scoring system is useful in predicting outcomes in ICU and thus help in proper utilization of ICU resources.
    Neutrophil-to-Lymphocyte Ratio Predicts Death in Acute-on-Chronic Liver Failure Patients Admitted to the Intensive Care Unit: A Retrospective Cohort Study. Moreau Nicolas,Wittebole Xavier,Fleury Yvan,Forget Patrice,Laterre Pierre-François,Castanares-Zapatero Diego Shock (Augusta, Ga.) The neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) is an inflammation score recognized as associated with outcome. Although inflammation has been shown to correlate with the development of acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF), we sought to investigate the role of NLR in predicting 90-day mortality in cirrhotic patients experiencing ACLF. We performed a retrospective cohort study involving a total of 108 consecutive cirrhotic patients admitted in the intensive care unit (ICU). NLR, clinical and biological data were recorded. Of the total, 75 patients had ACLF. The 90-day mortality rate was 53%. ACLF patients displayed higher NLR values in comparison with cirrhotic patients without ACLF throughout the ICU stay. NLR proved more elevated in nonsurvivors ACLF patients, with mortality correlating with increasing quartiles of NLR. On multivariable Cox regression analysis, NLR was found to be a predictor of mortality along with the Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score and mechanical ventilation requirement. The model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) score was not predictive of 90-days mortality. Performance analysis revealed an area under curve of 0.71 [95% confidence interval: 0.59-0.82] regarding NLR capacity to predict 90-days mortality. When including NLR, SOFA score, and mechanical ventilation requirement into the final model, the area under curve was significantly higher (0.81 [95% confidence interval: 0.72-0.91]).These findings suggest that NLR is associated with mortality in ACLF patients admitted to the ICU. Combining NLR, SOFA score, and the need for mechanical ventilation could be a useful prognostic tool to identify ACLF patients at a higher risk of mortality. 10.1097/SHK.0000000000000993
    suPAR in the assessment of post intensive care unit prognosis: a pilot study. Silvestre Joana,Coelho Luis,Pereira João Gonçalves,Mendes Vitor,Tapadinhas Camila,Póvoa Pedro Revista Brasileira de terapia intensiva OBJECTIVE:To determine the performance of soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor upon intensive care unit discharge to predict post intensive care unit mortality. METHODS:A prospective observational cohort study was conducted during a 24-month period in an 8-bed polyvalent intensive care unit. APACHE II, SOFA, C-reactive protein, white cell count and soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor on the day of intensive care unit discharge were collected from patients who survived intensive care unit admission. RESULTS:Two hundred and two patients were included in this study, 29 patients (18.6%) of whom died after intensive care unit discharge. Nonsurvivors were older and more seriously ill upon intensive care unit admission with higher severity scores, and nonsurvivors required extended use of vasopressors than did survivors. The area under the receiver operating characteristics curves of SOFA, APACHE II, C-reactive protein, white cell count, and soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor at intensive care unit discharge as prognostic markers of hospital death were 0.78 (95%CI 0.70 - 0.86); 0.70 (95%CI 0.61 - 0.79); 0.54 (95%CI 0.42 - 0.65); 0.48 (95%CI 0.36 - 0.58); and 0.68 (95%CI 0.58 - 0.78), respectively. SOFA was independently associated with a higher risk of in-hospital mortality (OR 1.673; 95%CI 1.252 - 2.234), 28-day mortality (OR 1.861; 95%CI 1.856 - 2.555) and 90-day mortality (OR 1.584; 95%CI 1.241 - 2.022). CONCLUSION:At intensive care unit discharge, soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor is a poor predictor of post intensive care unit prognosis. 10.5935/0103-507X.20180062
    Prospective validation of the "fifty-fifty" criteria as an early and accurate predictor of death after liver resection in intensive care unit patients. Paugam-Burtz Catherine,Janny Sylvie,Delefosse Didier,Dahmani Souhayl,Dondero Federica,Mantz Jean,Belghiti Jacques Annals of surgery BACKGROUND:Postoperative liver failure after hepatectomy has been identified by the association of prothrombin time <50% and serum bilirubin >50 micromol/L (the "50-50" criteria). Whether these criteria are of prognostic value in a prospective study remains unknown. OBJECTIVE:To determine prospectively the prognostic value of the 50-50 criteria on day 3 and day 5 in intensive care unit (ICU) patients after hepatectomy. METHODS:From January 2005 to February 2007, among 436 elective liver resections, 99 (23%) consecutive patients aged 58 +/- 17 years were admitted postoperatively in ICU with a mean SAPSII 25 +/- 10. Malignant disease was present in 87 and major resections (< or =3 segments) were performed in 79 (80%) cases. The underlying liver parenchyma was abnormal in 59 (59%) cases including cirrhosis, fibrosis, or steatosis >30% in 19, 23, and 17 patients, respectively. RESULTS:The 50-50 criteria were present on day 3 in 10 patients and on day 5 in 13. Ten patients (10, 6%) died in ICU. Survivors with these criteria were characterized by early aggressive support including reoperation and/or liver assist system. Nonsurvivors were more often cirrhotic, had significantly higher SAPS II and more frequently postoperative prolonged mechanical ventilation. The 50-50 criteria on days 3 and 5 were predictors of death on multivariate analysis [OR (95% CI): 12.7 (2.3-71.4), OR (95% CI): 29.4 (4.9-167), respectively]. CONCLUSIONS:After hepatic resection, results of this prospective study validate the 50-50 criteria as a predictive factor of mortality in ICU on both days 3 and 5. These criteria allow an early diagnosis of postoperative liver failure, which may contribute to reduce mortality in ICU patients after hepatectomy. 10.1097/SLA.0b013e31819279cd
    Pulse Wave Transit Time Measurements of Cardiac Output in Septic Shock Patients: A Comparison of the Estimated Continuous Cardiac Output System with Transthoracic Echocardiography. Feissel Marc,Aho Ludwig Serge,Georgiev Stefan,Tapponnier Romain,Badie Julio,Bruyère Rémi,Quenot Jean-Pierre PloS one BACKGROUND:We determined reliability of cardiac output (CO) measured by pulse wave transit time cardiac output system (esCCO system; COesCCO) vs transthoracic echocardiography (COTTE) in mechanically ventilated patients in the early phase of septic shock. A secondary objective was to assess ability of esCCO to detect change in CO after fluid infusion. METHODS:Mechanically ventilated patients admitted to the ICU, aged >18 years, in sinus rhythm, in the early phase of septic shock were prospectively included. We performed fluid infusion of 500 ml of crystalloid solution over 20 minutes and recorded CO by EsCCO and TTE immediately before (T0) and 5 minutes after (T1) fluid administration. Patients were divided into 2 groups (responders and non-responders) according to a threshold of 15% increase in COTTE in response to volume expansion. RESULTS:In total, 25 patients were included, average 64±15 years, 15 (60%) were men. Average SAPSII and SOFA scores were 55±21.3 and 13±2, respectively. ICU mortality was 36%. Mean cardiac output at T0 was 5.8±1.35 L/min by esCCO and 5.27±1.17 L/min by COTTE. At T1, respective values were 6.63 ± 1.57 L/min for esCCO and 6.10±1.29 L/min for COTTE. Overall, 12 patients were classified as responders, 13 as non-responders by the reference method. A threshold of 11% increase in COesCCO was found to discriminate responders from non-responders with a sensitivity of 83% (95% CI, 0.52-0.98) and a specificity of 77% (95% CI, 0.46-0.95). CONCLUSION:We show strong correlation esCCO and echocardiography for measuring CO, and change in CO after fluid infusion in ICU patients. 10.1371/journal.pone.0130489
    Arterial blood pressure correlates with 90-day mortality in sepsis patients: a retrospective multicenter derivation and validation study using high-frequency continuous data. Kobayashi Naoya,Nakagawa Atsuhiro,Kudo Daisuke,Ishigaki Tsukasa,Ishizuka Haruya,Saito Kohji,Ejima Yutaka,Wagatsuma Toshihiro,Toyama Hiroaki,Kawaguchi Tomohiro,Niizuma Kuniyasu,Ando Kokichi,Kurotaki Kenji,Kumagai Michio,Kushimoto Shigeki,Tominaga Teiji,Yamauchi Masanori Blood pressure monitoring OBJECTIVE:To identify the outcome of patients with sepsis using high-frequency blood pressure data. MATERIALS AND METHODS:This retrospective observational study was conducted at a university hospital ICU (derivation study) and at two urban hospitals (validation study) with data from adult sepsis patients who visited the centers during the same period. The area under the curve (AUC) of blood pressure falling below threshold was calculated. The predictive 90-day mortality (primary endpoint) area under threshold (AUT) and critical blood pressure were calculated as the maximum area under the curve of the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUCROC) and the threshold minus average AUT (derivation study), respectively. For the validation study, the derived 90-day mortality AUCROC (using critical blood pressure) was compared with Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA), Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS) II, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II, and APACHE III. RESULTS:Derivation cohort (N = 137): the drop area from the mean blood pressure of 70 mmHg at 24-48 hours most accurately predicted 90-day mortality [critical blood pressure, 67.8 mmHg; AUCROC, 0.763; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.653-0.890]. Validation cohort (N = 141): the 90-day mortality AUCROC (0.776) compared with the AUCROC for SOFA (0.711), SAPSII (0.771), APACHE II (0.745), and APACHE III (0.710) was not significantly different from the critical blood pressure 67.8 mmHg (P = 0.420). CONCLUSION:High-frequency arterial blood pressure data of the period and extent of blood pressure depression can be useful in predicting the clinical outcomes of patients with sepsis. 10.1097/MBP.0000000000000398
    Risk Factors for Mortality in 272 Patients With Lung Transplant: A Multicenter Analysis of 7 Intensive Care Units. Rello Jordi,Bello Irene,de Vicente Rosario,Hermira Anchuelo Ana,Ballesteros Maria Ángeles,Iranzo Reyes,Rellán Luzdivina,Riera Jordi,Robles Juan Carlos, Archivos de bronconeumologia BACKGROUND:One-year survival in lung transplant is around 85%, but this figure has not increased in recent years, in spite of technical improvements. METHODS:Retrospective, multicenter cohort study. Data from 272 eligible adults with lung transplant were recorded at 7 intensive care units (ICU) in Spain in 2013. The objective was to identify variables that might help to guide future clinical interventions in order to reducethe risk of death in the postoperative period. RESULTS:One patient (0.3%) died in the operating room and 27 (10%) within 90 days. Twenty (7.4%) died within 28 days, after a median of 14 ICU days. Grade 3 pulmonary graft dysfunction was documented in 108 patients, of whom 21 died, compared with 6 out of 163 without pulmonary graft dysfunction (P<.001). At ICU admission, non-survivors had significantly lower (P=.03) median PaO2/FiO2 (200mmHg vs 280mmHg), and the difference increased after 24hours (178 vs 297mmHg, P<.001). Thirteen required extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, and 7(53.8%) died. A logistic regression model identified pulmonary graft dysfunction (OR: 6.77), donor age>60yr (OR: 2.91) and SOFA>8 (OR: 2.53) as independent predictors of 90-day mortality. At ICU admission, higher median procalcitonin (1.6 vs 0.6) and lower median PaO2/FiO2 (200 vs 280mmHg) were significantly associated with mortality. CONCLUSION:Graft dysfunction remains a significant problem in lung transplant. Early ICU interventions in patients with severe hypoxemia or high procalcitonin are crucial in order to lower mortality. 10.1016/j.arbres.2016.12.019
    Characteristics of obstetric admissions to intensive care unit: APACHE II, SOFA and the Glasgow Coma Scale. Fadiloglu Erdem,Bulut Yuksel Nihal Deniz,Unal Canan,Ocal Serpil,Akinci Seda Banu,Topeli Arzu,Beksac M Sinan Journal of perinatal medicine Objective To evaluate the characteristics of obstetric admissions to an intensive care unit (ICU) and assess the utility of Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II), Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) and the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS). Methods This study is consisted of 160 patients admitted to an ICU during the antenatal period or within 7 days at the postpartum period. Clinical characteristics and ICU scores were evaluated. Results The rate of admission to the ICU was 7.8/1000 deliveries. Four cases ended with maternal mortality (2.5%). The most common hospitalization indications were hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, cardiovascular disorders and obstetric hemorrhage, at 40 (25%), 34 (21.2%), and 31 (19.3%) cases, respectively. The receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve analysis for prediction of maternal mortality revealed area under curve (AUC) values as 0.971 both for APACHE II and predicted mortality rate (PMR), and 24.5 and 47.1 were determined as the cut-offs with sensitivities of 100%. AUCs were also 0.901 and 0.929 for the initial and worst SOFA score, respectively. The cut-off value for the initial and worst SOFA score was 3.5, with a sensitivity of 100%, and was 10 with a specificity of 98.9%, respectively. Conclusion APACHE II and PMR overpredict maternal mortality, but those higher scores predict maternal mortality. Higher SOFA scores are related with maternal mortalities with high specificity. 10.1515/jpm-2019-0125
    Prognostic Accuracy of the SOFA Score, SIRS Criteria, and qSOFA Score for In-Hospital Mortality Among Adults With Suspected Infection Admitted to the Intensive Care Unit. Raith Eamon P,Udy Andrew A,Bailey Michael,McGloughlin Steven,MacIsaac Christopher,Bellomo Rinaldo,Pilcher David V, JAMA Importance:The Sepsis-3 Criteria emphasized the value of a change of 2 or more points in the Sequential [Sepsis-related] Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score, introduced quick SOFA (qSOFA), and removed the systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) criteria from the sepsis definition. Objective:Externally validate and assess the discriminatory capacities of an increase in SOFA score by 2 or more points, 2 or more SIRS criteria, or a qSOFA score of 2 or more points for outcomes among patients who are critically ill with suspected infection. Design, Setting, and Participants:Retrospective cohort analysis of 184 875 patients with an infection-related primary admission diagnosis in 182 Australian and New Zealand intensive care units (ICUs) from 2000 through 2015. Exposures:SOFA, qSOFA, and SIRS criteria applied to data collected within 24 hours of ICU admission. Main Outcomes and Measures:The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality. In-hospital mortality or ICU length of stay (LOS) of 3 days or more was a composite secondary outcome. Discrimination was assessed using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC). Adjusted analyses were performed using a model of baseline risk determined using variables independent of the scoring systems. Results:Among 184 875 patients (mean age, 62.9 years [SD, 17.4]; women, 82 540 [44.6%]; most common diagnosis bacterial pneumonia, 32 634 [17.7%]), a total of 34 578 patients (18.7%) died in the hospital, and 102 976 patients (55.7%) died or experienced an ICU LOS of 3 days or more. SOFA score increased by 2 or more points in 90.1%; 86.7% manifested 2 or more SIRS criteria, and 54.4% had a qSOFA score of 2 or more points. SOFA demonstrated significantly greater discrimination for in-hospital mortality (crude AUROC, 0.753 [99% CI, 0.750-0.757]) than SIRS criteria (crude AUROC, 0.589 [99% CI, 0.585-0.593]) or qSOFA (crude AUROC, 0.607 [99% CI, 0.603-0.611]). Incremental improvements were 0.164 (99% CI, 0.159-0.169) for SOFA vs SIRS criteria and 0.146 (99% CI, 0.142-0.151) for SOFA vs qSOFA (P <.001). SOFA (AUROC, 0.736 [99% CI, 0.733-0.739]) outperformed the other scores for the secondary end point (SIRS criteria: AUROC, 0.609 [99% CI, 0.606-0.612]; qSOFA: AUROC, 0.606 [99% CI, 0.602-0.609]). Incremental improvements were 0.127 (99% CI, 0.123-0.131) for SOFA vs SIRS criteria and 0.131 (99% CI, 0.127-0.134) for SOFA vs qSOFA (P <.001). Findings were consistent for both outcomes in multiple sensitivity analyses. Conclusions and Relevance:Among adults with suspected infection admitted to an ICU, an increase in SOFA score of 2 or more had greater prognostic accuracy for in-hospital mortality than SIRS criteria or the qSOFA score. These findings suggest that SIRS criteria and qSOFA may have limited utility for predicting mortality in an ICU setting. 10.1001/jama.2016.20328
    Mortality prediction in intensive care units with the Super ICU Learner Algorithm (SICULA): a population-based study. Pirracchio Romain,Petersen Maya L,Carone Marco,Rigon Matthieu Resche,Chevret Sylvie,van der Laan Mark J The Lancet. Respiratory medicine BACKGROUND:Improved mortality prediction for patients in intensive care units is a big challenge. Many severity scores have been proposed, but findings of validation studies have shown that they are not adequately calibrated. The Super ICU Learner Algorithm (SICULA), an ensemble machine learning technique that uses multiple learning algorithms to obtain better prediction performance, does at least as well as the best member of its library. We aimed to assess whether the Super Learner could provide a new mortality prediction algorithm for patients in intensive care units, and to assess its performance compared with other scoring systems. METHODS:From January, 2001, to December, 2008, we used the Multiparameter Intelligent Monitoring in Intensive Care II (MIMIC-II) database (version 26) including all patients admitted to an intensive care unit at the Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Centre, Boston, MA, USA. We assessed the calibration, discrimination, and risk classification of predicted hospital mortality based on Super Learner compared with SAPS-II, APACHE-II, and SOFA. We calculated performance measures with cross-validation to avoid making biased assessments. Our proposed score was then externally validated on a dataset of 200 randomly selected patients admitted at the intensive care unit of Hôpital Européen Georges-Pompidou, Paris, France, between Sept 1, 2013, and June, 30, 2014. The primary outcome was hospital mortality. The explanatory variables were the same as those included in the SAPS II score. FINDINGS:24,508 patients were included, with median SAPS-II of 38 (IQR 27-51) and median SOFA of 5 (IQR 2-8). 3002 of 24,508 (12%) patients died in the Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Centre. We produced two sets of predictions based on the Super Learner; the first based on the 17 variables as they appear in the SAPS-II score (SL1), and the second, on the original, untransformed variables (SL2). The two versions yielded average predicted probabilities of death of 0·12 (IQR 0·02-0·16) and 0·13 (0·01-0·19), whereas the corresponding value for SOFA was 0·12 (0·05-0·15) and for SAPS-II 0·30 (0·08-0·48). The cross-validated area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) for SAPS-II was 0·78 (95% CI 0·77-0·78) and 0·71 (0·70-0·72) for SOFA. Super Learner had an AUROC of 0·85 (0·84-0·85) when the explanatory variables were categorised as in SAPS-II, and of 0·88 (0·87-0·89) when the same explanatory variables were included without any transformation. Additionally, Super Learner showed better calibration properties than previous score systems. On the external validation dataset, the AUROC was 0·94 (0·90-0·98) and calibration properties were good. INTERPRETATION:Compared with conventional severity scores, Super Learner offers improved performance for predicting hospital mortality in patients in intensive care units. A user-friendly implementation is available online and should be useful for clinicians seeking to validate our score. FUNDING:Fulbright Foundation, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Doris Duke Clinical Scientist Development Award, and the NIH. 10.1016/S2213-2600(14)70239-5
    Predictive Performance of the Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS) II and the Initial Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) Score in Acutely Ill Intensive Care Patients: Post-Hoc Analyses of the SUP-ICU Inception Cohort Study. Granholm Anders,Møller Morten Hylander,Krag Mette,Perner Anders,Hjortrup Peter Buhl PloS one PURPOSE:Severity scores including the Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS) II and the Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score are used in intensive care units (ICUs) to assess disease severity, predict mortality and in research. We aimed to assess the predictive performance of SAPS II and the initial SOFA score for in-hospital and 90-day mortality in a contemporary international cohort. METHODS:This was a post-hoc study of the Stress Ulcer Prophylaxis in the Intensive Care Unit (SUP-ICU) inception cohort study, which included acutely ill adults from ICUs across 11 countries (n = 1034). We compared the discrimination of SAPS II and initial SOFA scores, compared the discrimination of SAPS II in our cohort with the original cohort, assessed the calibration of SAPS II customised to our cohort, and compared the discrimination for 90-day mortality vs. in-hospital mortality for both scores. Discrimination was evaluated using areas under the receiver operating characteristics curves (AUROC). Calibration was evaluated using Hosmer-Lemeshow's goodness-of-fit Ĉ-statistic. RESULTS:AUROC for in-hospital mortality was 0.80 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.77-0.83) for SAPS II and 0.73 (95% CI 0.69-0.76) for initial SOFA score (P<0.001 for the comparison). Calibration of the customised SAPS II for predicting in-hospital mortality was adequate (P = 0.60). Discrimination of SAPS II was reduced compared with the original SAPS II validation sample (AUROC 0.80 vs. 0.86; P = 0.001). AUROC for 90-day mortality was 0.79 (95% CI 0.76-0.82; P = 0.74 for comparison with in-hospital mortality) for SAPS II and 0.71 (95% CI 0.68-0.75; P = 0.66 for comparison with in-hospital mortality) for the initial SOFA score. CONCLUSIONS:The predictive performance of SAPS II was similar for in-hospital and 90-day mortality and superior to that of the initial SOFA score, but SAPS II's performance has decreased over time. Use of a contemporary severity score with improved predictive performance may be of value. 10.1371/journal.pone.0168948
    Prognostic Significance of The New Criteria for Acute Kidney Injury in Cirrhosis. Bansho Emilia T O,Silva Pedro Eduardo S,Colombo Bruno S,Wildner Letícia M,Bazzo Maria Luiza,Dantas-Corrêa Esther B,Schiavon Leonardo L,Narciso-Schiavon Janaína L Annals of hepatology BACKGROUND:New criteria for acute kidney injury (AKI) in cirrhosis have been proposed, but its prognostic significance is unclear. This study aims to evaluate the prognostic significance of the AKI criteria in cirrhotic patients hospitalized for acute decompensation. MATERIAL AND METHODS:This is a prospective cohort study. AKI was defined as an increase in creatinine (Cr) levels ≥ 0.3 mg/dL in 48 h or ≥ 50% of the basal value in the last 7d. AKI was divided into stages 1 (elevation: &lt; 2x basal), 2 (2 or 3x), and 3 (&gt; 3x). RESULTS:In this study, 227 patients aged 53.9 ± 11.5 years were included, of whom 37% had AKI (28% AKI1, 5% AKI2, and 4% AKI3). Thirty percent of the patients died or were transplanted within 90 days from causes related to the presence of ascites at hospital admission and higher values of Chronic Liver Failure-Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (CLIF-SOFA) scores, but not to the presence of AKI. In a regression analysis conducted to assess the effect of the final Cr level in patients with AKI, 90-day mortality was associated with ascites, higher CLIF-SOFA score, and AKI with final Cr level ≥ 1.5 mg/dL. The patients with AKI with Cr levels ≥ 1.5 mg/dL showed lower transplant-free survival rates than those without AKI, and those with AKI1 with final Cr level &lt; 1.5 mg/dL. CONCLUSIONS:Early AKI was frequent and associated with 90-day mortality or transplantation only when the final Cr level was ≥ 1.5 mg/dL. Distinct approaches are needed for patients with AKI1 according to final Cr. 10.5604/01.3001.0011.7390
    Acute respiratory failure in kidney transplant recipients: a multicenter study. Canet Emmanuel,Osman David,Lambert Jérome,Guitton Christophe,Heng Anne-Elisabeth,Argaud Laurent,Klouche Kada,Mourad Georges,Legendre Christophe,Timsit Jean-François,Rondeau Eric,Hourmant Maryvonne,Durrbach Antoine,Glotz Denis,Souweine Bertrand,Schlemmer Benoît,Azoulay Elie Critical care (London, England) INTRODUCTION:Data on pulmonary complications in renal transplant recipients are scarce. The aim of this study was to evaluate acute respiratory failure (ARF) in renal transplant recipients. METHODS:We conducted a retrospective observational study in nine transplant centers of consecutive kidney transplant recipients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) for ARF from 2000 to 2008. RESULTS:Of 6,819 kidney transplant recipients, 452 (6.6%) required ICU admission, including 200 admitted for ARF. Fifteen (7.5%) of these patients had combined kidney-pancreas transplantations. The most common causes of ARF were bacterial pneumonia (35.5%), cardiogenic pulmonary edema (24.5%) and extrapulmonary acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) (15.5%). Pneumocystis pneumonia occurred in 11.5% of patients. Mechanical ventilation was used in 93 patients (46.5%), vasopressors were used in 82 patients (41%) and dialysis was administered in 104 patients (52%). Both the in-hospital and 90-day mortality rates were 22.5%. Among the 155 day 90 survivors, 115 patients (74.2%) were dialysis-free, including 75 patients (65.2%) who recovered prior renal function. Factors independently associated with in-hospital mortality were shock at admission (odds ratio (OR) 8.70, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 3.25 to 23.29), opportunistic fungal infection (OR 7.08, 95% CI 2.32 to 21.60) and bacterial infection (OR 2.53, 95% CI 1.07 to 5.96). Five factors were independently associated with day 90 dialysis-free survival: renal Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score on day 1 (OR 0.68/SOFA point, 95% CI 0.52 to 0.88), bacterial infection (OR 0.43, 95% CI 0.21 to 0.90), three or four quadrants involved on chest X-ray (OR 0.44, 95% CI 0.21 to 0.91), time from hospital to ICU admission (OR 0.98/day, 95% CI 0.95 to 0.99) and oxygen flow at admission (OR 0.93/liter, 95% CI 0.86 to 0.99). CONCLUSIONS:In kidney transplant recipients, ARF is associated with high mortality and graft loss rates. Increased Pneumocystis and bacterial prophylaxis might improve these outcomes. Early ICU admission might prevent graft loss. 10.1186/cc10091
    Vitamin K status and mortality after kidney transplantation: a cohort study. Keyzer Charlotte A,Vermeer Cees,Joosten Michel M,Knapen Marjo H J,Drummen Nadja E A,Navis Gerjan,Bakker Stephan J L,de Borst Martin H American journal of kidney diseases : the official journal of the National Kidney Foundation BACKGROUND:Vitamin K modulates calcification by activating calcification inhibitors such as matrix Gla protein (MGP). In kidney transplant recipients, vitamin K insufficiency is common, but implications for long-term outcomes are unclear. STUDY DESIGN:Single-center observational study with a longitudinal design. SETTING & PARTICIPANTS:518 stable kidney transplant recipients; 56% men; mean age, 51±12 (SD) years; and a median of 6 (IQR, 3-12) years after kidney transplantation. FACTOR:Plasma desphosphorylated-uncarboxylated MGP (dp-ucMGP) levels, reflecting vitamin K status. OUTCOMES:All-cause mortality and transplant failure. RESULTS:At inclusion, median dp-ucMGP level was 1,038 (IQR, 733-1,536) pmol/L, with 473 (91%) patients having vitamin K insufficiency (defined as dp-ucMGP>500pmol/L). During a median follow-up of 9.8 (IQR, 8.5-10.2) years, 152 (29%) patients died and 54 (10%) developed transplant failure. Patients in the highest quartile of dp-ucMGP were at considerably higher mortality risk compared with patients in the lowest quartile (HR, 3.10; 95% CI, 1.87-5.12; P for trend<0.001; P for quartile 1 [Q1] vs Q4<0.001). After adjustment for potential confounders, including kidney function and exclusion of patients treated with a vitamin K antagonist, this association remained significant. Patients in the highest quartile also were at higher risk of developing transplant failure (HR, 2.61; 95% CI, 1.22-5.57; P for trend=0.004; P for Q1 vs Q4=0.01), but this association was lost after adjustment for baseline kidney function (HR, 1.20; 95% CI, 0.52-2.75; P for trend=0.6; P for Q1 vs Q4=0.7). LIMITATIONS:Although MGP exists as various species, only dp-ucMGP was measured. No data were available for vascular calcification as an intermediate end point. CONCLUSIONS:Vitamin K insufficiency, that is, a high circulating level of dp-ucMGP, is highly prevalent in stable kidney transplant recipients and is associated independently with increased risk of mortality. Future studies should address whether vitamin K supplementation may lead to improved outcomes after kidney transplantation. 10.1053/j.ajkd.2014.09.014
    In-Hospital Mortality and Major Adverse Cardiovascular Events after Kidney Transplantation in the United States. Goyal Abhinav,Chatterjee Kshitij,Mathew Roy O,Sidhu Mandeep S,Bangalore Sripal,McCullough Peter A,Rangaswami Janani Cardiorenal medicine BACKGROUND:Kidney transplantation (KT) is the treatment of choice for end-stage kidney disease. Cardiovascular disease is a major determinant of morbidity and mortality in patients with KT. Temporal trends in perioperative cardiovascular outcomes after KT are understudied, especially in light of an aging KT waitlist population. METHODS:We performed a retrospective observational cohort study using the National Inpatient Sample for the years 2004-2013. All adult patients undergoing KT were identified using the appropriate International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification codes. Demographic and hospital characteristics, discharge disposition, payer status, and major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs) were summarized using summary statistics. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify predictors of MACEs in the perioperative period of KT. RESULTS:A total of 147,431 KTs were performed between 2004 and 2013. The mean age at KT went up from 48.1 to 51.8 years from 2004 to 2013. Medicare was the primary payer for 59.6% of the KTs. Overall average perioperative mortality was 0.5%, median length of stay was 5 days, and 6.5% of patients experienced an MACE, 78% of which were heart failures (HFs). Important predictors of perioperative MACEs were age ≥65 years (OR = 2.14), Medicare as primary payer (OR = 1.51), diabetes (OR = 1.46), recreational drug use (OR = 1.72), pulmonary circulation disorders (OR = 3.28), and malnutrition (OR = 1.91). CONCLUSION:Despite increases in age at the time of KT, the absolute risk of perioperative MACEs has remained stable from 2004 to 2013. HF is a major component of postoperative MACEs in KT. Malnutrition and pulmonary hypertension are major nontraditional predictors of perioperative MACE outcomes. 10.1159/000492731
    Effect of recipient sensitization (peak panel reactive antibodies) on 15-year survival after kidney transplantation. Kaczmarczyk M,Kotfis K,Biernawska J,Szydłowski L,Zukowska A,Szliżewska K,Zegan-Barańska M,Bohatyrewicz R,Zukowski M Transplantation proceedings BACKGROUND:Despite dynamic development within the field of transplantology, the immunization of a potential organ recipient remains an important issue for transplant teams. Panel reactive antibodies (PRA) identification in the serum of the recipient remains routine practice in the majority of transplantation centers. The influence of peak PRA levels on graft function is a well known fact. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of peak PRA on long-term survival after renal transplantation. METHODS:The study was conducted on a group of 232 kidney recipients from multiorgan donors, transplanted in 6 transplant centers in Poland from 1995 to 1997. Data analyzed in this study included recipients' age, sex, PRA, HLA, number and time of hemodialyses after the transplantation, cold ischemia time, and etiology of end-stage renal disease. The effect of data examined in this study on mortality was evaluated at set time points at 5, 10, and 15 years after transplantation. The statistical methods included monofactorial and multifactorial Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and Cox proportional hazards model for mortality prediction. A P value of <.05 was considered to be statistically significant. RESULTS:Among all of the analyzed factors, only peak PRA concentrations significantly correlated with increased mortality among renal transplant recipients. The results were analyzed in all of the set time points: P = .007 at 5 years, P = .014 at 10 years, and P = .05 at 15 years after transplantation. CONCLUSIONS:The increased level of PRA in kidney recipients is a risk factor increasing mortality after the transplantation. 10.1016/j.transproceed.2014.08.021
    Pretransplant Hepatitis B Viral Infection Increases Risk of Death After Kidney Transplantation: A Multicenter Cohort Study in Korea. Lee Jeonghwan,Cho Jang-Hee,Lee Jong Soo,Ahn Dong-Won,Kim Chan-Duck,Ahn Curie,Jung In Mok,Han Duck Jong,Lim Chun Soo,Kim Yon Su,Kim Young Hoon,Lee Jung Pyo Medicine Clinical outcomes in kidney transplant recipients (KTRs) with hepatitis B virus (HBV) have not been thoroughly evaluated. Here, we investigated recent posttransplant clinical outcomes of KTRs with HBV and compared them with KTRs with hepatitis C virus (HCV) and seronegative KTRs.Of 3855 KTRs from April 1999 to December 2011, we enrolled 3482 KTRs who had viral hepatitis serology data; the patients were followed up for 89.1 ± 54.1 months. The numbers of recipients with HBV and HCV were 160 (4.6%) and 55 (1.6%), respectively. We analyzed the clinical outcomes, including overall mortality and graft failure, among patients who had undergone kidney transplantation.Patients with HBV showed poorer survival (P = 0.019; adjusted hazard ratio [HR] = 2.370; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.155-4.865) than KTRs without HBV. However, the graft survival of patients with chronic hepatitis B did not differ from that of patients without HBV. Hepatic complications were the primary causes of mortality of KTRs with HBV. Mortality significantly correlated with a higher grade of inflammation (P = 0.002) and with the use of lamivudine or adefovir antiviral treatment (P = 0.016). HBV-positive KTRs treated with the new-generation antiviral agent entecavir showed improved patient survival compared with KTRs receiving lamivudine (log-rank P = 0.050). HCV did not affect patient survival; however, it increased the incidence of graft failure (P = 0.010; adjusted HR = 2.899; 95% CI: 1.289-6.519). KTRs with HCV had an increased incidence of acute rejection (log-rank P = 0.005, crude HR = 2.144; 95% CI: 1.341-3.426; P = 0.001).KTRs with chronic hepatitis B may exhibit poor survival due to post-transplantation hepatic complications. Pretransplant histological liver evaluations and adequate antiviral management with potent nucleoside/nucleotide analogues are needed to improve the survival of KTRs with chronic hepatitis B even when liver function is within the normal range. 10.1097/MD.0000000000003671
    The Danish Nephrology Registry. Heaf James Clinical epidemiology AIM OF DATABASE:The Danish Nephrology Registry's (DNR) primary function is to support the Danish public health authorities' quality control program for patients with end-stage renal disease in order to improve patient care. DNR also supplies epidemiological data to several international organizations and supports epidemiological and clinical research. STUDY POPULATION:The study population included patients treated with dialysis or transplantation in Denmark from January 1, 1990 to January 1, 2016, with retrospective data since 1964. MAIN VARIABLES:DNR registers patient data (eg, age, sex, renal diagnosis, and comorbidity), predialysis specialist treatment, details of eight dialysis modalities (three hemodialysis and five peritoneal dialysis), all transplantation courses, dialysis access at first dialysis, treatment complications, and biochemical variables. The database is complete (<1% missing data). Patients are followed until death or emigration. DESCRIPTIVE DATA:DNR now contains 18,120 patients, and an average of 678 is added annually. Data for each transplantation course include donor details, tissue type, time to onset of graft function, and cause of graft loss. Registered complications include peritonitis in peritoneal dialysis patients, causes of peritoneal dialysis technique failure, and transplant rejections. Fifteen biochemical variables are registered, mainly describing anemia control, mineral and bone disease, nutritional and uremia status. Date and cause of death are also included. Six quality indicators are published annually, and have been associated with improvements in patient results, eg, a reduction in dialysis patient mortality, improved graft survival, and earlier referral to specialist care. Approximately, ten articles, mainly epidemiological, are published each year. CONCLUSION:DNR contains a complete description of end-stage renal disease patients in Denmark, their treatment, and prognosis. The stated aims are fulfilled. 10.2147/CLEP.S102649
    Strategies for long-term preservation of kidney graft function. Wekerle Thomas,Segev Dorry,Lechler Robert,Oberbauer Rainer Lancet (London, England) Kidney transplantation has become a routine procedure in the treatment of patients with kidney failure, and requires collaboration of experts from different disciplines, such as nephrology, surgery, immunology, pathology, infectious disease medicine, cardiology, and oncology. Grafts can be obtained from deceased or living donors, with different logistical requirements and implications for long-term graft patency. 1-year graft survival rates are greater than 95% in many centres but improvement of long-term function remains a challenge. New developments in molecular immunology and computational biology have increased precision of donor and recipient matching of HLA and non-HLA compatibility. Individual omics-wide molecular diagnostics, extracorporeal therapies, and drug developments allow for precise individual decision making and treatment. Tolerance induction by mixed chimerism without toxic conditioning and with a low risk of graft versus host disease is a visionary but realistic goal. Some of these innovations are already used in modern transplant centres and will allow advancement in long-term allograft preservation. 10.1016/S0140-6736(17)31283-7