A combination of Wnt and growth factor signaling induces Arl4c expression to form epithelial tubular structures.
Matsumoto Shinji,Fujii Shinsuke,Sato Akira,Ibuka Souji,Kagawa Yoshinori,Ishii Masaru,Kikuchi Akira
The EMBO journal
Growth factor-dependent epithelial morphological changes and proliferation are essential for the formation of tubular structures, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. Co-stimulation with Wnt3a and epidermal growth factor (Wnt3a/EGF) induced development of tubes consisting of intestinal epithelial cells by inducing expression of Arl4c, an Arf-like small GTP-binding protein, in three-dimensional culture, while stimulation with Wnt3a or EGF alone did not. Arl4c expression resulted in rearrangement of the cytoskeleton through activation of Rac and inactivation of Rho properly, which promoted cell growth by inducing nuclear translocation of Yes-associated protein and transcriptional co-activator with PDZ-binding motif (YAP/TAZ) in leading cells. Arl4c was expressed in ureteric bud tips and pretubular structures in the embryonic kidney. In an organoid culture assay, Wnt and fibroblast growth factor signaling simultaneously induced elongation and budding of kidney ureteric buds through Arl4c expression. YAP/TAZ was observed in the nucleus of extending ureteric bud tips. Thus, Arl4c expression induced by a combination of growth factor signaling mechanisms is involved in tube formation.
Metabolic control of YAP and TAZ by the mevalonate pathway.
Sorrentino Giovanni,Ruggeri Naomi,Specchia Valeria,Cordenonsi Michelangelo,Mano Miguel,Dupont Sirio,Manfrin Andrea,Ingallina Eleonora,Sommaggio Roberta,Piazza Silvano,Rosato Antonio,Piccolo Stefano,Del Sal Giannino
Nature cell biology
The YAP and TAZ mediators of the Hippo pathway (hereafter called YAP/TAZ) promote tissue proliferation and organ growth. However, how their biological properties intersect with cellular metabolism remains unexplained. Here, we show that YAP/TAZ activity is controlled by the SREBP/mevalonate pathway. Inhibition of the rate-limiting enzyme of this pathway (HMG-CoA reductase) by statins opposes YAP/TAZ nuclear localization and transcriptional responses. Mechanistically, the geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate produced by the mevalonate cascade is required for activation of Rho GTPases that, in turn, activate YAP/TAZ by inhibiting their phosphorylation and promoting their nuclear accumulation. The mevalonate-YAP/TAZ axis is required for proliferation and self-renewal of breast cancer cells. In Drosophila melanogaster, inhibition of mevalonate biosynthesis and geranylgeranylation blunts the eye overgrowth induced by Yorkie, the YAP/TAZ orthologue. In tumour cells, YAP/TAZ activation is promoted by increased levels of mevalonic acid produced by SREBP transcriptional activity, which is induced by its oncogenic cofactor mutant p53. These findings reveal an additional layer of YAP/TAZ regulation by metabolic cues.
Merlin/NF2 loss-driven tumorigenesis linked to CRL4(DCAF1)-mediated inhibition of the hippo pathway kinases Lats1 and 2 in the nucleus.
Li Wei,Cooper Jonathan,Zhou Lu,Yang Chenyi,Erdjument-Bromage Hediye,Zagzag David,Snuderl Matija,Ladanyi Marc,Hanemann C Oliver,Zhou Pengbo,Karajannis Matthias A,Giancotti Filippo G
It is currently unclear whether Merlin/NF2 suppresses tumorigenesis by activating upstream components of the Hippo pathway at the plasma membrane or by inhibiting the E3 ubiquitin ligase CRL4(DCAF1) in the nucleus. We found that derepressed CRL4(DCAF1) promotes YAP- and TEAD-dependent transcription by ubiquitylating and, thereby, inhibiting Lats1 and 2 in the nucleus. Genetic epistasis experiments and analysis of tumor-derived missense mutations indicate that this signaling connection sustains the oncogenicity of Merlin-deficient tumor cells. Analysis of clinical samples confirms that this pathway operates in NF2-mutant tumors. We conclude that derepressed CRL4(DCAF1) promotes activation of YAP by inhibiting Lats1 and 2 in the nucleus.
Hippo Deficiency Leads to Cardiac Dysfunction Accompanied by Cardiomyocyte Dedifferentiation During Pressure Overload.
Ikeda Shohei,Mizushima Wataru,Sciarretta Sebastiano,Abdellatif Maha,Zhai Peiyong,Mukai Risa,Fefelova Nadezhda,Oka Shin-Ichi,Nakamura Michinari,Del Re Dominic P,Farrance Iain,Park Ji Yeon,Tian Bin,Xie Lai-Hua,Kumar Mohit,Hsu Chiao-Po,Sadayappan Sakthivel,Shimokawa Hiroaki,Lim Dae-Sik,Sadoshima Junichi
RATIONALE:The Hippo pathway plays an important role in determining organ size through regulation of cell proliferation and apoptosis. Hippo inactivation and consequent activation of YAP (Yes-associated protein), a transcription cofactor, have been proposed as a strategy to promote myocardial regeneration after myocardial infarction. However, the long-term effects of Hippo deficiency on cardiac function under stress remain unknown. OBJECTIVE:We investigated the long-term effect of Hippo deficiency on cardiac function in the presence of pressure overload (PO). METHODS AND RESULTS:We used mice with cardiac-specific homozygous knockout of WW45 (WW45cKO), in which activation of Mst1 (Mammalian sterile 20-like 1) and Lats2 (large tumor suppressor kinase 2), the upstream kinases of the Hippo pathway, is effectively suppressed because of the absence of the scaffolding protein. We used male mice at 3 to 4 month of age in all animal experiments. We subjected WW45cKO mice to transverse aortic constriction for up to 12 weeks. WW45cKO mice exhibited higher levels of nuclear YAP in cardiomyocytes during PO. Unexpectedly, the progression of cardiac dysfunction induced by PO was exacerbated in WW45cKO mice, despite decreased apoptosis and activated cardiomyocyte cell cycle reentry. WW45cKO mice exhibited cardiomyocyte sarcomere disarray and upregulation of TEAD1 (transcriptional enhancer factor) target genes involved in cardiomyocyte dedifferentiation during PO. Genetic and pharmacological inactivation of the YAP-TEAD1 pathway reduced the PO-induced cardiac dysfunction in WW45cKO mice and attenuated cardiomyocyte dedifferentiation. Furthermore, the YAP-TEAD1 pathway upregulated OSM (oncostatin M) and OSM receptors, which played an essential role in mediating cardiomyocyte dedifferentiation. OSM also upregulated YAP and TEAD1 and promoted cardiomyocyte dedifferentiation, indicating the existence of a positive feedback mechanism consisting of YAP, TEAD1, and OSM. CONCLUSIONS:Although activation of YAP promotes cardiomyocyte regeneration after cardiac injury, it induces cardiomyocyte dedifferentiation and heart failure in the long-term in the presence of PO through activation of the YAP-TEAD1-OSM positive feedback mechanism.
c-Abl regulates YAPY357 phosphorylation to activate endothelial atherogenic responses to disturbed flow.
Li Bochuan,He Jinlong,Lv Huizhen,Liu Yajin,Lv Xue,Zhang Chenghu,Zhu Yi,Ai Ding
The Journal of clinical investigation
Local flow patterns determine the uneven distribution of atherosclerotic lesions. This research aims to elucidate the mechanism of regulation of nuclear translocation of Yes-associated protein (YAP) under oscillatory shear stress (OSS) in the atheroprone phenotype of endothelial cells (ECs). We report here that OSS led to tyrosine phosphorylation and strong, continuous nuclear translocation of YAP in ECs that is dependent on integrin α5β1 activation. YAP overexpression in ECs blunted the anti-atheroprone effect of an integrin α5β1-blocking peptide (ATN161) in Apoe-/- mice. Activation of integrin α5β1 induced tyrosine, but not serine, phosphorylation of YAP in ECs. Blockage of integrin α5β1 with ATN161 abolished the phosphorylation of YAP at Y357 induced by OSS. Mechanistic studies showed that c-Abl inhibitor attenuated the integrin α5β1-induced YAP tyrosine phosphorylation. Furthermore, the phosphorylation of c-Abl and YAPY357 was significantly increased in ECs in atherosclerotic vessels of mice and in human plaques versus normal vessels. Finally, bosutinib, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, markedly reduced the level of YAPY357 and the development of atherosclerosis in Apoe-/- mice. The c-Abl/YAPY357 pathway serves as a mechanism for the activation of integrin α5β1 and the atherogenic phenotype of ECs in response to OSS, and provides a potential therapeutic strategy for atherogenesis.
PTPN14 phosphatase and YAP promote TGFβ signalling in rheumatoid synoviocytes.
Bottini Angel,Wu Dennis J,Ai Rizi,Le Roux Michelle,Bartok Beatrix,Bombardieri Michele,Doody Karen M,Zhang Vida,Sacchetti Cristiano,Zoccheddu Martina,Lonic Ana,Li Xiaochun,Boyle David L,Hammaker Deepa,Meng Tzu-Ching,Liu Lin,Corr Maripat,Stanford Stephanie M,Lewis Myles,Wang Wei,Firestein Gary S,Khew-Goodall Yeesim,Pitzalis Costantino,Bottini Nunzio
Annals of the rheumatic diseases
OBJECTIVE:We aimed to understand the role of the tyrosine phosphatase PTPN14-which in cancer cells modulates the Hippo pathway by retaining YAP in the cytosol-in fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS) from patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS:Gene/protein expression levels were measured by quantitative PCR and/or Western blotting. Gene knockdown in RA FLS was achieved using antisense oligonucleotides. The interaction between PTPN14 and YAP was assessed by immunoprecipitation. The cellular localisation of YAP and SMAD3 was examined via immunofluorescence. SMAD reporter studies were carried out in HEK293T cells. The RA FLS/cartilage coimplantation and passive K/BxN models were used to examine the role of YAP in arthritis. RESULTS:RA FLS displayed overexpression of PTPN14 when compared with FLS from patients with osteoarthritis (OA). PTPN14 knockdown in RA FLS impaired TGFβ-dependent expression of MMP13 and potentiation of TNF signalling. In RA FLS, PTPN14 formed a complex with YAP. Expression of PTPN14 or nuclear YAP-but not of a non-YAP-interacting PTPN14 mutant-enhanced SMAD reporter activity. YAP promoted TGFβ-dependent SMAD3 nuclear localisation in RA FLS. Differences in epigenetic marks within Hippo pathway genes, including YAP, were found between RA FLS and OA FLS. Inhibition of YAP reduced RA FLS pathogenic behaviour and ameliorated arthritis severity. CONCLUSION:In RA FLS, PTPN14 and YAP promote nuclear localisation of SMAD3. YAP enhances a range of RA FLS pathogenic behaviours which, together with epigenetic evidence, points to the Hippo pathway as an important regulator of RA FLS behaviour.
Long noncoding RNA GAS5 inhibits progression of colorectal cancer by interacting with and triggering YAP phosphorylation and degradation and is negatively regulated by the mA reader YTHDF3.
Ni Wen,Yao Su,Zhou Yunxia,Liu Yuanyuan,Huang Piao,Zhou Aijun,Liu Jingwen,Che Liheng,Li Jianming
BACKGROUND:YAP activation is crucial for cancer development including colorectal cancer (CRC). Nevertheless, it remains unclear whether N6-Methyladenosine (mA) modified transcripts of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) can regulate YAP activation in cancer progression. We investigated the functional link between lncRNAs and the mA modification in YAP signaling and CRC progression. METHODS:YAP interacting lncRNAs were screened by RIP-sequencing, RNA FISH and immunofluorescence co-staining assays. Interaction between YAP and lncRNA GAS5 was studied by biochemical methods. MeRIP-sequencing combined with lncRNA-sequencing were used to identify the mA modified targets of YTHDF3 in CRC. Gain-of-function and Loss-of-function analysis were performed to measure the function of GAS5-YAP-YTHDF3 axis in CRC progression in vitro and in vivo. RESULTS:GAS5 directly interacts with WW domain of YAP to facilitate translocation of endogenous YAP from the nucleus to the cytoplasm and promotes phosphorylation and subsequently ubiquitin-mediated degradation of YAP to inhibit CRC progression in vitro and in vivo. Notably, we demonstrate the mA reader YTHDF3 not only a novel target of YAP but also a key player in YAP signaling by facilitating mA-modified lncRNA GAS5 degradation, which profile a new insight into CRC progression. Clinically, lncRNA GAS5 expressions is negatively correlated with YAP and YTHDF3 protein levels in tumors from CRC patients. CONCLUSIONS:Our study uncovers a negative functional loop of lncRNA GAS5-YAP-YTHDF3 axis, and identifies a new mechanism for mA-induced decay of GAS5 on YAP signaling in progression of CRC which may offer a promising approach for CRC treatment.
Cyclic stretching of soft substrates induces spreading and growth.
Cui Yidan,Hameed Feroz M,Yang Bo,Lee Kyunghee,Pan Catherine Qiurong,Park Sungsu,Sheetz Michael
In the body, soft tissues often undergo cycles of stretching and relaxation that may affect cell behaviour without changing matrix rigidity. To determine whether transient forces can substitute for a rigid matrix, we stretched soft pillar arrays. Surprisingly, 1-5% cyclic stretching over a frequency range of 0.01-10 Hz caused spreading and stress fibre formation (optimum 0.1 Hz) that persisted after 4 h of stretching. Similarly, stretching increased cell growth rates on soft pillars comparative to rigid substrates. Of possible factors linked to fibroblast growth, MRTF-A (myocardin-related transcription factor-A) moved to the nucleus in 2 h of cyclic stretching and reversed on cessation; but YAP (Yes-associated protein) moved much later. Knockdown of either MRTF-A or YAP blocked stretch-dependent growth. Thus, we suggest that the repeated pulling from a soft matrix can substitute for a stiff matrix in stimulating spreading, stress fibre formation and growth.
Estrogen regulates Hippo signaling via GPER in breast cancer.
Zhou Xin,Wang Shuyang,Wang Zhen,Feng Xu,Liu Peng,Lv Xian-Bo,Li Fulong,Yu Fa-Xing,Sun Yiping,Yuan Haixin,Zhu Hongguang,Xiong Yue,Lei Qun-Ying,Guan Kun-Liang
The Journal of clinical investigation
The G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER) mediates both the genomic and nongenomic effects of estrogen and has been implicated in breast cancer development. Here, we compared GPER expression in cancerous tissue and adjacent normal tissue in patients with invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) of the breast and determined that GPER is highly upregulated in cancerous cells. Additionally, our studies revealed that GPER stimulation activates yes-associated protein 1 (YAP) and transcriptional coactivator with a PDZ-binding domain (TAZ), 2 homologous transcription coactivators and key effectors of the Hippo tumor suppressor pathway, via the Gαq-11, PLCβ/PKC, and Rho/ROCK signaling pathways. TAZ was required for GPER-induced gene transcription, breast cancer cell proliferation and migration, and tumor growth. Moreover, TAZ expression positively correlated with GPER expression in human IDC specimens. Together, our results suggest that the Hippo/YAP/TAZ pathway is a key downstream signaling branch of GPER and plays a critical role in breast tumorigenesis.
The Hippo pathway effector YAP controls mouse hepatic stellate cell activation.
Mannaerts Inge,Leite Sofia Batista,Verhulst Stefaan,Claerhout Sofie,Eysackers Nathalie,Thoen Lien F R,Hoorens Anne,Reynaert Hendrik,Halder Georg,van Grunsven Leo A
Journal of hepatology
BACKGROUND & AIMS:Hepatic stellate cell activation is a wound-healing response to liver injury. However, continued activation of stellate cells during chronic liver damage causes excessive matrix deposition and the formation of pathological scar tissue leading to fibrosis and ultimately cirrhosis. The importance of sustained stellate cell activation for this pathological process is well recognized, and several signalling pathways that can promote stellate cell activation have been identified, such as the TGFβ-, PDGF-, and LPS-dependent pathways. However, the mechanisms that trigger and drive the early steps in activation are not well understood. METHODS AND RESULTS:We identified the Hippo pathway and its effector YAP as a key pathway that controls stellate cell activation. YAP is a transcriptional co-activator and we found that it drives the earliest changes in gene expression during stellate cell activation. Activation of stellate cells in vivo by CCl4 administration to mice or activation in vitro caused rapid activation of YAP as revealed by its nuclear translocation and by the induction of YAP target genes. YAP was also activated in stellate cells of human fibrotic livers as evidenced by its nuclear localization. Importantly, knockdown of YAP expression or pharmacological inhibition of YAP prevented hepatic stellate cell activation in vitro and pharmacological inhibition of YAP impeded fibrogenesis in mice. CONCLUSIONS:YAP activation is a critical driver of hepatic stellate cell activation and inhibition of YAP presents a novel approach for the treatment of liver fibrosis.
A splicing isoform of TEAD4 attenuates the Hippo-YAP signalling to inhibit tumour proliferation.
Qi Yangfan,Yu Jing,Han Wei,Fan Xiaojuan,Qian Haili,Wei Huanhuan,Tsai Yi-Hsuan S,Zhao Jinyao,Zhang Wenjing,Liu Quentin,Meng Songshu,Wang Yang,Wang Zefeng
Aberrant splicing is frequently found in cancer, yet the biological consequences of such alterations are mostly undefined. Here we report that the Hippo-YAP signalling, a key pathway that regulates cell proliferation and organ size, is under control of a splicing switch. We show that TEAD4, the transcription factor that mediates Hippo-YAP signalling, undergoes alternative splicing facilitated by the tumour suppressor RBM4, producing a truncated isoform, TEAD4-S, which lacks an N-terminal DNA-binding domain, but maintains YAP interaction domain. TEAD4-S is located in both the nucleus and cytoplasm, acting as a dominant negative isoform to YAP activity. Consistently, TEAD4-S is reduced in cancer cells, and its re-expression suppresses cancer cell proliferation and migration, inhibiting tumour growth in xenograft mouse models. Furthermore, TEAD4-S is reduced in human cancers, and patients with elevated TEAD4-S levels have improved survival. Altogether, these data reveal a splicing switch that serves to fine tune the Hippo-YAP pathway.
A feed-forward loop between lncARSR and YAP activity promotes expansion of renal tumour-initiating cells.
Qu Le,Wu Zhenjie,Li Yaoming,Xu Zhipeng,Liu Bing,Liu Feng,Bao Yi,Wu Dengshuang,Liu Jiayi,Wang Anbang,Chu Xiaoyuan,Sun Yinghao,Chen Cheng,Zhang Zhengyu,Wang Linhui
Renal tumour-initiating cells (T-ICs) contribute to tumorigenesis, progression and drug resistance of renal cell carcinoma (RCC). However, the underlying mechanism for the propagation of renal T-ICs remains unclear. Here we show that long non-coding RNA lncARSR is upregulated in primary renal T-ICs and associated with a poor prognosis of clear cell RCCs (ccRCC). Knockdown of lncARSR attenuates the self-renewal, tumorigenicity and metastasis of renal T-ICs. Conversely, forced lncARSR expression enhances T-IC properties of RCC cells. Mechanistically, the binding of lncARSR to YAP impedes LATS1-induced YAP phosphorylation and facilitates YAP nuclear translocation. Reciprocally, YAP/TEAD promotes lncARSR transcription, thus forming a feed-forward circuit. The correlation between lncARSR and YAP is validated in a ccRCC cohort, where the combination of these two parameters exhibits improved prognostic accuracy. Our findings indicate that lncARSR plays a critical role in renal T-ICs propagation and may serve as a prognostic biomarker and potential therapeutic target.
Glucocorticoid receptor signalling activates YAP in breast cancer.
Sorrentino Giovanni,Ruggeri Naomi,Zannini Alessandro,Ingallina Eleonora,Bertolio Rebecca,Marotta Carolina,Neri Carmelo,Cappuzzello Elisa,Forcato Mattia,Rosato Antonio,Mano Miguel,Bicciato Silvio,Del Sal Giannino
The Hippo pathway is an oncosuppressor signalling cascade that plays a major role in the control of cell growth, tissue homoeostasis and organ size. Dysregulation of the Hippo pathway leads to aberrant activation of the transcription co-activator YAP (Yes-associated protein) that contributes to tumorigenesis in several tissues. Here we identify glucocorticoids (GCs) as hormonal activators of YAP. Stimulation of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) leads to increase of YAP protein levels, nuclear accumulation and transcriptional activity in vitro and in vivo. Mechanistically, we find that GCs increase expression and deposition of fibronectin leading to the focal adhesion-Src pathway stimulation, cytoskeleton-dependent YAP activation and expansion of chemoresistant cancer stem cells. GR activation correlates with YAP activity in human breast cancer and predicts bad prognosis in the basal-like subtype. Our results unveil a novel mechanism of YAP activation in cancer and open the possibility to target GR to prevent cancer stem cells self-renewal and chemoresistance.
Optogenetic control of cellular forces and mechanotransduction.
Valon Léo,Marín-Llauradó Ariadna,Wyatt Thomas,Charras Guillaume,Trepat Xavier
Contractile forces are the end effectors of cell migration, division, morphogenesis, wound healing and cancer invasion. Here we report optogenetic tools to upregulate and downregulate such forces with high spatiotemporal accuracy. The technology relies on controlling the subcellular activation of RhoA using the CRY2/CIBN light-gated dimerizer system. We fused the catalytic domain (DHPH domain) of the RhoA activator ARHGEF11 to CRY2-mCherry (optoGEF-RhoA) and engineered its binding partner CIBN to bind either to the plasma membrane or to the mitochondrial membrane. Translocation of optoGEF-RhoA to the plasma membrane causes a rapid and local increase in cellular traction, intercellular tension and tissue compaction. By contrast, translocation of optoGEF-RhoA to mitochondria results in opposite changes in these physical properties. Cellular changes in contractility are paralleled by modifications in the nuclear localization of the transcriptional regulator YAP, thus showing the ability of our approach to control mechanotransductory signalling pathways in time and space.
TIAM1 Antagonizes TAZ/YAP Both in the Destruction Complex in the Cytoplasm and in the Nucleus to Inhibit Invasion of Intestinal Epithelial Cells.
Diamantopoulou Zoi,White Gavin,Fadlullah Muhammad Z H,Dreger Marcel,Pickering Karen,Maltas Joe,Ashton Garry,MacLeod Ruth,Baillie George S,Kouskoff Valerie,Lacaud Georges,Murray Graeme I,Sansom Owen J,Hurlstone Adam F L,Malliri Angeliki
Aberrant WNT signaling drives colorectal cancer (CRC). Here, we identify TIAM1 as a critical antagonist of CRC progression through inhibiting TAZ and YAP, effectors of WNT signaling. We demonstrate that TIAM1 shuttles between the cytoplasm and nucleus antagonizing TAZ/YAP by distinct mechanisms in the two compartments. In the cytoplasm, TIAM1 localizes to the destruction complex and promotes TAZ degradation by enhancing its interaction with βTrCP. Nuclear TIAM1 suppresses TAZ/YAP interaction with TEADs, inhibiting expression of TAZ/YAP target genes implicated in epithelial-mesenchymal transition, cell migration, and invasion, and consequently suppresses CRC cell migration and invasion. Importantly, high nuclear TIAM1 in clinical specimens associates with increased CRC patient survival. Together, our findings suggest that in CRC TIAM1 suppresses tumor progression by regulating YAP/TAZ activity.
YAP and TAZ: a nexus for Hippo signaling and beyond.
Hansen Carsten Gram,Moroishi Toshiro,Guan Kun-Liang
Trends in cell biology
The Hippo pathway is a potent regulator of cellular proliferation, differentiation, and tissue homeostasis. Here we review the regulatory mechanisms of the Hippo pathway and discuss the function of Yes-associated protein (YAP)/transcriptional coactivator with a PDZ-binding domain (TAZ), the prime mediators of the Hippo pathway, in stem cell biology and tissue regeneration. We highlight their activities in both the nucleus and the cytoplasm and discuss their role as a signaling nexus and integrator of several other prominent signaling pathways such as the Wnt, G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR), epidermal growth factor (EGF), bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)/transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ), and Notch pathways.
An FAK-YAP-mTOR Signaling Axis Regulates Stem Cell-Based Tissue Renewal in Mice.
Hu Jimmy Kuang-Hsien,Du Wei,Shelton Samuel J,Oldham Michael C,DiPersio C Michael,Klein Ophir D
Cell stem cell
Tissue homeostasis requires the production of newly differentiated cells from resident adult stem cells. Central to this process is the expansion of undifferentiated intermediates known as transit-amplifying (TA) cells, but how stem cells are triggered to enter this proliferative TA state remains an important open question. Using the continuously growing mouse incisor as a model of stem cell-based tissue renewal, we found that the transcriptional cofactors YAP and TAZ are required both to maintain TA cell proliferation and to inhibit differentiation. Specifically, we identified a pathway involving activation of integrin α3 in TA cells that signals through an LATS-independent FAK/CDC42/PP1A cascade to control YAP-S397 phosphorylation and nuclear localization. This leads to Rheb expression and potentiates mTOR signaling to drive the proliferation of TA cells. These findings thus reveal a YAP/TAZ signaling mechanism that coordinates stem cell expansion and differentiation during organ renewal.
Regulation of Hippo pathway transcription factor TEAD by p38 MAPK-induced cytoplasmic translocation.
Lin Kimberly C,Moroishi Toshiro,Meng Zhipeng,Jeong Han-Sol,Plouffe Steven W,Sekido Yoshitaka,Han Jiahuai,Park Hyun Woo,Guan Kun-Liang
Nature cell biology
The Hippo pathway controls organ size and tissue homeostasis, with deregulation leading to cancer. The core Hippo components in mammals are composed of the upstream serine/threonine kinases Mst1/2, MAPK4Ks and Lats1/2. Inactivation of these upstream kinases leads to dephosphorylation, stabilization, nuclear translocation and thus activation of the major functional transducers of the Hippo pathway, YAP and its paralogue TAZ. YAP/TAZ are transcription co-activators that regulate gene expression primarily through interaction with the TEA domain DNA-binding family of transcription factors (TEAD). The current paradigm for regulation of this pathway centres on phosphorylation-dependent nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of YAP/TAZ through a complex network of upstream components. However, unlike other transcription factors, such as SMAD, NF-κB, NFAT and STAT, the regulation of TEAD nucleocytoplasmic shuttling has been largely overlooked. In the present study, we show that environmental stress promotes TEAD cytoplasmic translocation via p38 MAPK in a Hippo-independent manner. Importantly, stress-induced TEAD inhibition predominates YAP-activating signals and selectively suppresses YAP-driven cancer cell growth. Our data reveal a mechanism governing TEAD nucleocytoplasmic shuttling and show that TEAD localization is a critical determinant of Hippo signalling output.
YAP determines the cell fate of injured mouse hepatocytes in vivo.
Miyamura Norio,Hata Shoji,Itoh Tohru,Tanaka Minoru,Nishio Miki,Itoh Michiko,Ogawa Yoshihiro,Terai Shuji,Sakaida Isao,Suzuki Akira,Miyajima Atsushi,Nishina Hiroshi
The presence of senescent, transformed or damaged cells can impair tissue function or lead to tumorigenesis; therefore, organisms have evolved quality control mechanisms to eliminate them. Here, we show that YAP activation induced by inactivation of the Hippo pathway specifically in damaged hepatocytes promotes their selective elimination by using in vivo mosaic analysis in mouse liver. These damaged hepatocytes migrate into the hepatic sinusoids, undergo apoptosis and are engulfed by Kupffer cells. In contrast, YAP activation in undamaged hepatocytes leads to proliferation. Cellular stresses such as ethanol that damage both liver sinusoidal endothelial cells and hepatocytes switch cell fate from proliferation to migration/apoptosis in the presence of activated YAP. This involves the activation of CDC42 and Rac that regulate cell migration. Thus, we suggest that YAP acts as a stress sensor that induces elimination of injured cells to maintain tissue and organ homeostasis.
Platelets reduce anoikis and promote metastasis by activating YAP1 signaling.
Haemmerle Monika,Taylor Morgan L,Gutschner Tony,Pradeep Sunila,Cho Min Soon,Sheng Jianting,Lyons Yasmin M,Nagaraja Archana S,Dood Robert L,Wen Yunfei,Mangala Lingegowda S,Hansen Jean M,Rupaimoole Rajesha,Gharpure Kshipra M,Rodriguez-Aguayo Cristian,Yim Sun Young,Lee Ju-Seog,Ivan Cristina,Hu Wei,Lopez-Berestein Gabriel,Wong Stephen T,Karlan Beth Y,Levine Douglas A,Liu Jinsong,Afshar-Kharghan Vahid,Sood Anil K
Thrombocytosis is present in more than 30% of patients with solid malignancies and correlates with worsened patient survival. Tumor cell interaction with various cellular components of the tumor microenvironment including platelets is crucial for tumor growth and metastasis. Although it is known that platelets can infiltrate into tumor tissue, secrete pro-angiogenic and pro-tumorigenic factors and thereby increase tumor growth, the precise molecular interactions between platelets and metastatic cancer cells are not well understood. Here we demonstrate that platelets induce resistance to anoikis in vitro and are critical for metastasis in vivo. We further show that platelets activate RhoA-MYPT1-PP1-mediated YAP1 dephosphorylation and promote its nuclear translocation which induces a pro-survival gene expression signature and inhibits apoptosis. Reduction of YAP1 in cancer cells in vivo protects against thrombocytosis-induced increase in metastasis. Collectively, our results indicate that cancer cells depend on platelets to avoid anoikis and succeed in the metastatic process.Platelets have been associated with increased tumor growth and metastasis but the mechanistic details of this interaction are still unclear. Here the authors show that platelets improve anoikis resistance of cancer cells and increase metastasis by activating Yap through a RhoA/MYPT-PP1 pathway.
Hippo Pathway in Organ Size Control, Tissue Homeostasis, and Cancer.
Yu Fa-Xing,Zhao Bin,Guan Kun-Liang
Two decades of studies in multiple model organisms have established the Hippo pathway as a key regulator of organ size and tissue homeostasis. By inhibiting YAP and TAZ transcription co-activators, the Hippo pathway regulates cell proliferation, apoptosis, and stemness in response to a wide range of extracellular and intracellular signals, including cell-cell contact, cell polarity, mechanical cues, ligands of G-protein-coupled receptors, and cellular energy status. Dysregulation of the Hippo pathway exerts a significant impact on cancer development. Further investigation of the functions and regulatory mechanisms of this pathway will help uncovering the mystery of organ size control and identify new targets for cancer treatment.
YAP/TAZ regulates sprouting angiogenesis and vascular barrier maturation.
Kim Jongshin,Kim Yoo Hyung,Kim Jaeryung,Park Do Young,Bae Hosung,Lee Da-Hye,Kim Kyun Hoo,Hong Seon Pyo,Jang Seung Pil,Kubota Yoshiaki,Kwon Young-Guen,Lim Dae-Sik,Koh Gou Young
The Journal of clinical investigation
Angiogenesis is a multistep process that requires coordinated migration, proliferation, and junction formation of vascular endothelial cells (ECs) to form new vessel branches in response to growth stimuli. Major intracellular signaling pathways that regulate angiogenesis have been well elucidated, but key transcriptional regulators that mediate these signaling pathways and control EC behaviors are only beginning to be understood. Here, we show that YAP/TAZ, a transcriptional coactivator that acts as an end effector of Hippo signaling, is critical for sprouting angiogenesis and vascular barrier formation and maturation. In mice, endothelial-specific deletion of Yap/Taz led to blunted-end, aneurysm-like tip ECs with fewer and dysmorphic filopodia at the vascular front, a hyper-pruned vascular network, reduced and disarranged distributions of tight and adherens junction proteins, disrupted barrier integrity, subsequent hemorrhage in growing retina and brain vessels, and reduced pathological choroidal neovascularization. Mechanistically, YAP/TAZ activates actin cytoskeleton remodeling, an important component of filopodia formation and junction assembly. Moreover, YAP/TAZ coordinates EC proliferation and metabolic activity by upregulating MYC signaling. Overall, these results show that YAP/TAZ plays multifaceted roles for EC behaviors, proliferation, junction assembly, and metabolism in sprouting angiogenesis and barrier formation and maturation and could be a potential therapeutic target for treating neovascular diseases.
Force Triggers YAP Nuclear Entry by Regulating Transport across Nuclear Pores.
Elosegui-Artola Alberto,Andreu Ion,Beedle Amy E M,Lezamiz Ainhoa,Uroz Marina,Kosmalska Anita J,Oria Roger,Kechagia Jenny Z,Rico-Lastres Palma,Le Roux Anabel-Lise,Shanahan Catherine M,Trepat Xavier,Navajas Daniel,Garcia-Manyes Sergi,Roca-Cusachs Pere
YAP is a mechanosensitive transcriptional activator with a critical role in cancer, regeneration, and organ size control. Here, we show that force applied to the nucleus directly drives YAP nuclear translocation by decreasing the mechanical restriction of nuclear pores to molecular transport. Exposure to a stiff environment leads cells to establish a mechanical connection between the nucleus and the cytoskeleton, allowing forces exerted through focal adhesions to reach the nucleus. Force transmission then leads to nuclear flattening, which stretches nuclear pores, reduces their mechanical resistance to molecular transport, and increases YAP nuclear import. The restriction to transport is further regulated by the mechanical stability of the transported protein, which determines both active nuclear transport of YAP and passive transport of small proteins. Our results unveil a mechanosensing mechanism mediated directly by nuclear pores, demonstrated for YAP but with potential general applicability in transcriptional regulation.
Endosomal phosphatidylserine is critical for the YAP signalling pathway in proliferating cells.
Matsudaira Tatsuyuki,Mukai Kojiro,Noguchi Taishin,Hasegawa Junya,Hatta Tomohisa,Iemura Shun-Ichiro,Natsume Tohru,Miyamura Norio,Nishina Hiroshi,Nakayama Jun,Semba Kentaro,Tomita Takuya,Murata Shigeo,Arai Hiroyuki,Taguchi Tomohiko
Yes-associated protein (YAP) is a recently discovered growth-promoting transcription coactivator that has been shown to regulate the malignancy of various cancers. How YAP is regulated is not fully understood. Here, we show that one of the factors regulating YAP is phosphatidylserine (PS) in recycling endosomes (REs). We use proximity biotinylation to find proteins proximal to PS. Among these proteins are YAP and multiple proteins related to YAP signalling. Knockdown of ATP8A1 (an RE PS-flippase) or evectin-2 (an RE-resident protein) and masking of PS in the cytoplasmic leaflet of membranes, all suppress nuclear localization of YAP and YAP-dependent transcription. ATP8A1 knockdown increases the phosphorylated (activated) form of Lats1 that phosphorylates and inactivates YAP, whereas evectin-2 knockdown reduces the ubiquitination and increased the level of Lats1. The proliferation of YAP-dependent metastatic cancer cells is suppressed by knockdown of ATP8A1 or evectin-2. These results suggest a link between a membrane phospholipid and cell proliferation.
Targeting IRF3 as a YAP agonist therapy against gastric cancer.
Jiao Shi,Guan Jingmin,Chen Min,Wang Wenjia,Li Chuanchuan,Wang Yugong,Cheng Yunfeng,Zhou Zhaocai
The Journal of experimental medicine
The Hippo pathway plays a vital role in tissue homeostasis and tumorigenesis. The transcription factor IRF3 is essential for innate antiviral immunity. In this study, we discovered IRF3 as an agonist of Yes-associated protein (YAP). The expression of IRF3 is positively correlated with that of YAP and its target genes in gastric cancer; the expression of both IRF3 and YAP is up-regulated and prognosticates patient survival. IRF3 interacts with both YAP and TEAD4 in the nucleus to enhance their interaction, promoting nuclear translocation and activation of YAP. IRF3 and YAP-TEAD4 are associated genome-wide to cobind and coregulate many target genes of the Hippo pathway. Overexpression of active IRF3 increased, but depletion of IRF3 reduced, the occupancy of YAP on the target genes. Knockdown or pharmacological targeting of IRF3 by Amlexanox, a drug used clinically for antiinflammatory treatment, inhibits gastric tumor growth in a YAP-dependent manner. Collectively, our study identifies IRF3 as a positive regulator for YAP, highlighting a new therapeutic target against YAP-driven cancers.
Yes-Associated Protein Promotes Angiogenesis via Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 3 in Endothelial Cells.
He Jinlong,Bao Qiankun,Zhang Yan,Liu Mingming,Lv Huizhen,Liu Yajin,Yao Liu,Li Bochuan,Zhang Chenghu,He Shuang,Zhai Guijin,Zhu Yan,Liu Xin,Zhang Kai,Wang Xiu-Jie,Zou Ming-Hui,Zhu Yi,Ai Ding
RATIONALE:Angiogenesis is a complex process regulating endothelial cell (EC) functions. Emerging lines of evidence support that YAP (Yes-associated protein) plays an important role in regulating the angiogenic activity of ECs. OBJECTIVE:The objective of this study was to specify the effect of EC YAP on angiogenesis and its underlying mechanisms. METHOD AND RESULTS:In ECs, vascular endothelial growth factor reduced YAP phosphorylation time and dose dependently and increased its nuclear accumulation. Using Tie2Cre-mediated YAP transgenic mice, we found that YAP promoted angiogenesis in the postnatal retina and tumor tissues. Mass spectrometry revealed signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) as a potential binding partner of YAP in ECs. Western blot and immunoprecipitation assays indicated that binding with YAP prolonged interleukin 6-induced STAT3 nuclear accumulation by blocking chromosomal maintenance 1-mediated STAT3 nuclear export without affecting its phosphorylation. Moreover, angiopoietin-2 expression induced by STAT3 was enhanced by YAP overexpression in ECs. Finally, a selective STAT3 inhibitor or angiopoietin-2 blockage partly attenuated retinal angiogenesis in Tie2Cre-mediated YAP transgenic mice. CONCLUSIONS:YAP binding sustained STAT3 in the nucleus to enhance the latter's transcriptional activity and promote angiogenesis via regulation of angiopoietin-2.
Claudin-18-mediated YAP activity regulates lung stem and progenitor cell homeostasis and tumorigenesis.
Zhou Beiyun,Flodby Per,Luo Jiao,Castillo Dan R,Liu Yixin,Yu Fa-Xing,McConnell Alicia,Varghese Bino,Li Guanglei,Chimge Nyam-Osor,Sunohara Mitsuhiro,Koss Michael N,Elatre Wafaa,Conti Peter,Liebler Janice M,Yang Chenchen,Marconett Crystal N,Laird-Offringa Ite A,Minoo Parviz,Guan Kunliang,Stripp Barry R,Crandall Edward D,Borok Zea
The Journal of clinical investigation
Claudins, the integral tight junction (TJ) proteins that regulate paracellular permeability and cell polarity, are frequently dysregulated in cancer; however, their role in neoplastic progression is unclear. Here, we demonstrated that knockout of Cldn18, a claudin family member highly expressed in lung alveolar epithelium, leads to lung enlargement, parenchymal expansion, increased abundance and proliferation of known distal lung progenitors, the alveolar epithelial type II (AT2) cells, activation of Yes-associated protein (YAP), increased organ size, and tumorigenesis in mice. Inhibition of YAP decreased proliferation and colony-forming efficiency (CFE) of Cldn18-/- AT2 cells and prevented increased lung size, while CLDN18 overexpression decreased YAP nuclear localization, cell proliferation, CFE, and YAP transcriptional activity. CLDN18 and YAP interacted and colocalized at cell-cell contacts, while loss of CLDN18 decreased YAP interaction with Hippo kinases p-LATS1/2. Additionally, Cldn18-/- mice had increased propensity to develop lung adenocarcinomas (LuAd) with age, and human LuAd showed stage-dependent reduction of CLDN18.1. These results establish CLDN18 as a regulator of YAP activity that serves to restrict organ size, progenitor cell proliferation, and tumorigenesis, and suggest a mechanism whereby TJ disruption may promote progenitor proliferation to enhance repair following injury.
WW and C2 domain-containing proteins regulate hepatic cell differentiation and tumorigenesis through the hippo signaling pathway.
Hermann Anke,Wennmann Dirk Oliver,Gromnitza Sascha,Edeling Maria,Van Marck Veerle,Sudol Marius,Schaefer Liliana,Duning Kerstin,Weide Thomas,Pavenstädt Hermann,Kremerskothen Joachim
Hepatology (Baltimore, Md.)
The Hippo pathway regulates cell differentiation, proliferation, and apoptosis. Upon activation, it inhibits the import of the transcriptional coactivator yes-associated protein (YAP) into the nucleus, thus suppressing transcription of pro-proliferative genes. Hence, dynamic and precise control of the Hippo pathway is crucial for organ size control and the prevention of tumor formation. Hippo signaling is controlled by a growing number of upstream regulators, including WW and C2 domain-containing (WWC) proteins, which trigger a serine/threonine kinase pathway. One component of this is the large tumor suppressor (LATS) kinase, which phosphorylates YAP, trapping it in the cytoplasm. WWC proteins have been shown to interact with LATS in vitro and stimulate its kinase activity, thus directly promoting cytoplasmic accumulation of phosphorylated YAP. However, the function of the WWC proteins in the regulation of cell proliferation, organ size control, and tumor prevention in vivo has not yet been determined. Here, we show that loss of hepatic WWC expression in mice leads to tissue overgrowth, inflammation, fibrosis, and formation of liver carcinoma. WWC-deficient mouse livers display reduced LATS activity, increased YAP-mediated gene transcription, and enhanced proliferation of hepatic progenitor cells. In addition, loss of WWC expression in the liver accelerates the turnover of angiomotin proteins, which act as negative regulators of YAP activity. CONCLUSION:Our data define an essential in vivo function for WWC proteins as regulators of canonical and noncanonical Hippo signaling in hepatic cell growth and liver tumorigenesis. Thus, expression of WWC proteins may serve as novel prognostic factors in human liver carcinoma. (Hepatology 2018;67:1546-1559).
Regulation of Yki/Yap subcellular localization and Hpo signaling by a nuclear kinase PRP4K.
Cho Yong Suk,Zhu Jian,Li Shuangxi,Wang Bing,Han Yuhong,Jiang Jin
Hippo (Hpo) signaling pathway controls tissue growth by regulating the subcellular localization of Yorkie (Yki)/Yap via a cytoplasmic kinase cassette containing an upstream kinase Hpo/MST1/2 and a downstream kinase Warts (Wts)/Lats1/2. Here we show that PRP4K, a kinase involved in mRNA splicing, phosphorylates Yki/Yap in the nucleus to prevent its nuclear accumulation and restrict Hpo pathway target gene expression. PRP4K inactivation accelerates whereas excessive PRP4K inhibits Yki-driven tissue overgrowth. PRP4K phosphorylates a subset of Wts/Lats1/2 sites on Yki/Yap to inhibit the binding of Yki/Yap to the Scalloped (Sd)/TEAD transcription factor and exclude Yki/Yap nuclear localization depending on nuclear export. Furthermore, PRP4K inhibits proliferation and invasiveness of cultured breast cancer cells and its high expression correlates with good prognosis in breast cancer patients. Our study unravels an unanticipated layer of Hpo pathway regulation and suggests that PRP4K-mediated Yki/Yap phosphorylation in the nucleus provides a fail-safe mechanism to restrict aberrant pathway activation.
Caspase-3 Regulates YAP-Dependent Cell Proliferation and Organ Size.
Yosefzon Yahav,Soteriou Despina,Feldman Alona,Kostic Lana,Koren Elle,Brown Samara,Ankawa Roi,Sedov Egor,Glaser Fabian,Fuchs Yaron
Apoptosis culminates in the activation of caspase-3, which plays an important role in implementing the cell death program. Here, we reveal a non-apoptotic role of caspase-3 as a key regulator of cell proliferation and organ size. Caspase-3 is specifically activated in the proliferating cells of the sebaceous gland, but does not instruct cell elimination. Deletion or chemical inhibition of caspase-3 diminishes cell proliferation, decreases cell number and reduces sebaceous gland size in vivo. Exploring the underlying mechanism, we demonstrate that α-catenin is cleaved by caspase-3, thus facilitating the activation and nuclear translocation of yes-associated protein (YAP), a vital regulator of organ size. Accordingly, activation of caspase-3 leads to YAP-dependent organ size augmentation. Finally, we show that X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP) serves as an endogenous feedback antagonist for the caspase-3/YAP signaling module. Taken together, we report here a molecular mechanism wherein the apoptotic machinery is refocused to regulate cell proliferation and orchestrate organ size.
Dishevelled has a YAP nuclear export function in a tumor suppressor context-dependent manner.
Lee Yoonmi,Kim Nam Hee,Cho Eunae Sandra,Yang Ji Hye,Cha Yong Hoon,Kang Hee Eun,Yun Jun Seop,Cho Sue Bean,Lee Seon-Hyeong,Paclikova Petra,Radaszkiewicz Tomasz W,Bryja Vitezslav,Kang Chi Gu,Yuk Young Soo,Cha So Young,Kim Soo-Youl,Kim Hyun Sil,Yook Jong In
Phosphorylation-dependent YAP translocation is a well-known intracellular mechanism of the Hippo pathway; however, the molecular effectors governing YAP cytoplasmic translocation remains undefined. Recent findings indicate that oncogenic YAP paradoxically suppresses Wnt activity. Here, we show that Wnt scaffolding protein Dishevelled (DVL) is responsible for cytosolic translocation of phosphorylated YAP. Mutational inactivation of the nuclear export signal embedded in DVL leads to nuclear YAP retention, with an increase in TEAD transcriptional activity. DVL is also required for YAP subcellular localization induced by E-cadherin, α-catenin, or AMPK activation. Importantly, the nuclear-cytoplasmic trafficking is dependent on the p53-Lats2 or LKB1-AMPK tumor suppressor axes, which determine YAP phosphorylation status. In vivo and clinical data support that the loss of p53 or LKB1 relieves DVL-linked reciprocal inhibition between the Wnt and nuclear YAP activity. Our observations provide mechanistic insights into controlled proliferation coupled with epithelial polarity during development and human cancer.
Mechanobiology of YAP and TAZ in physiology and disease.
Panciera Tito,Azzolin Luca,Cordenonsi Michelangelo,Piccolo Stefano
Nature reviews. Molecular cell biology
A growing body of evidence suggests that mechanical signals emanating from the cell's microenvironment are fundamental regulators of cell behaviour. Moreover, at the macroscopic scale, the influence of forces, such as the forces generated by blood flow, muscle contraction, gravity and overall tissue rigidity (for example, inside of a tumour lump), is central to our understanding of physiology and disease pathogenesis. Still, how mechanical cues are sensed and transduced at the molecular level to regulate gene expression has long remained enigmatic. The identification of the transcription factors YAP and TAZ as mechanotransducers started to fill this gap. YAP and TAZ read a broad range of mechanical cues, from shear stress to cell shape and extracellular matrix rigidity, and translate them into cell-specific transcriptional programmes. YAP and TAZ mechanotransduction is critical for driving stem cell behaviour and regeneration, and it sheds new light on the mechanisms by which aberrant cell mechanics is instrumental for the onset of multiple diseases, such as atherosclerosis, fibrosis, pulmonary hypertension, inflammation, muscular dystrophy and cancer.
Hippo Signaling in the Immune System.
Zhang Yuchao,Zhang Haitao,Zhao Bin
Trends in biochemical sciences
Hippo signaling has a pivotal role in organ size control, tissue regeneration, and cancer. Recent studies have demonstrated critical functions of Hippo signaling in cancer immunity, innate immune responses against pathogens, and autoimmune diseases, refreshing our understanding of the implications of this pathway in the context of disease and therapy design.
Chronic inflammation imposes aberrant cell fate in regenerating epithelia through mechanotransduction.
Nowell Craig S,Odermatt Pascal D,Azzolin Luca,Hohnel Sylke,Wagner Erwin F,Fantner Georg E,Lutolf Matthias P,Barrandon Yann,Piccolo Stefano,Radtke Freddy
Nature cell biology
Chronic inflammation is associated with a variety of pathological conditions in epithelial tissues, including cancer, metaplasia and aberrant wound healing. In relation to this, a significant body of evidence suggests that aberration of epithelial stem and progenitor cell function is a contributing factor in inflammation-related disease, although the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms remain to be fully elucidated. In this study, we have delineated the effect of chronic inflammation on epithelial stem/progenitor cells using the corneal epithelium as a model tissue. Using a combination of mouse genetics, pharmacological approaches and in vitro assays, we demonstrate that chronic inflammation elicits aberrant mechanotransduction in the regenerating corneal epithelium. As a consequence, a YAP-TAZ/β-catenin cascade is triggered, resulting in the induction of epidermal differentiation on the ocular surface. Collectively, the results of this study demonstrate that chronic inflammation and mechanotransduction are linked and act to elicit pathological responses in regenerating epithelia.
YAP-dependent mechanotransduction is required for proliferation and migration on native-like substrate topography.
Mascharak Shamik,Benitez Patrick L,Proctor Amy C,Madl Christopher M,Hu Kenneth H,Dewi Ruby E,Butte Manish J,Heilshorn Sarah C
Native vascular extracellular matrices (vECM) consist of elastic fibers that impart varied topographical properties, yet most in vitro models designed to study the effects of topography on cell behavior are not representative of native architecture. Here, we engineer an electrospun elastin-like protein (ELP) system with independently tunable, vECM-mimetic topography and demonstrate that increasing topographical variation causes loss of endothelial cell-cell junction organization. This loss of VE-cadherin signaling and increased cytoskeletal contractility on more topographically varied ELP substrates in turn promote YAP activation and nuclear translocation, resulting in significantly increased endothelial cell migration and proliferation. Our findings identify YAP as a required signaling factor through which fibrous substrate topography influences cell behavior and highlights topography as a key design parameter for engineered biomaterials.
Yap/Taz transcriptional activity is essential for vascular regression via Ctgf expression and actin polymerization.
Nagasawa-Masuda Ayumi,Terai Kenta
Vascular regression is essential to remove redundant vessels during the formation of an efficient vascular network that can transport oxygen and nutrient to every corner of the body. However, no mechanism is known to explain how major blood vessels regress during development. Here we use the dorsal part of the caudal vein plexus (dCVP) in Zebrafish to investigate the mechanism of regression and discover a new role of Yap/Taz in vascular regression. During regression, Yap/Taz is activated by blood circulation in the endothelial cells. This leads to induction of Ctgf and actin polymerization. Interference with Yap/Taz activation decreased Ctgf production, which decreased actin polymerization and vascular regression. These results implicate a novel role of Yap/Taz in vascular regression.
Pushing Yap into the Nucleus with Shear Force.
Lai Jason Kuan Han,Stainier Didier Y R
Endothelial cells line blood vessels and experience shear stress from blood flow. In this issue of Developmental Cell, Nakajima and colleagues (2017) show that in zebrafish Yap responds to blood flow by translocating into the nucleus, where it drives a genetic program to maintain vascular stability.
Targeting Mechanosensitive Transcription Factors in Atherosclerosis.
Niu Niu,Xu Suowen,Xu Yanni,Little Peter J,Jin Zheng-Gen
Trends in pharmacological sciences
Atherosclerosis is the primary underlying cause of cardiovascular disease which preferentially develops at arterial regions exposed to disturbed flow (DF), but much less at regions of unidirectional laminar flow (UF). Recent studies have demonstrated that DF and UF differentially regulate important aspects of endothelial function, such as vascular inflammation, oxidative stress, vascular tone, cell proliferation, senescence, mitochondrial function, and glucose metabolism. DF and UF regulate vascular pathophysiology via differential regulation of mechanosensitive transcription factors (MSTFs) (KLF2, KLF4, NRF2, YAP/TAZ/TEAD, HIF-1α, NF-κB, AP-1, and others). Emerging studies show that MSTFs represent promising therapeutic targets for the prevention and treatment of atherosclerosis. We present here a comprehensive overview of the role of MSTFs in atherosclerosis, and highlight future directions for developing novel therapeutic agents by targeting MSTFs.
S1P Stimulates Proliferation by Upregulating CTGF Expression through S1PR2-Mediated YAP Activation.
Cheng Jung-Chien,Wang Evan Y,Yi Yuyin,Thakur Avinash,Tsai Shu-Huei,Hoodless Pamela A
Molecular cancer research : MCR
Dysregulation of the Hippo pathway in the liver results in overgrowth and eventually tumorigenesis. To date, several upstream mechanisms have been identified that affect the Hippo pathway, which ultimately regulate YAP, the major downstream effector of the pathway. However, upstream regulators of the Hippo pathway in the liver remain poorly defined. Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is a bioactive sphingolipid metabolite that has been shown to stimulate hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell proliferation, but whether the Hippo pathway is involved in S1P-stimulated HCC cell proliferation remains to be determined. Here it is demonstrated that S1P activates YAP and that the S1P receptor 2 (S1PR2/S1P2) mediates S1P-induced YAP activation in both human and mouse HCC cells. S1P promotes YAP-mediated upregulation of cysteine-rich protein 61 and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), and stimulates HCC cell proliferation. By using siRNA-mediated knockdown approaches, only CTGF was required for S1P-stimulated cell proliferation. Of note, S1P activates YAP in a MST1/2-independent manner suggesting that the canonical Hippo kinase is not required for S1P-mediated proliferation in liver. The upregulation of CTGF and S1P2 were also observed in liver-specific YAP overexpression transgenic mouse hepatocytes. Moreover, YAP regulated liver differentiation-dependent gene expression by influencing the chromatin binding of HNF4α based on ChIP-seq analysis. Finally, results using gain- and loss-of-function approaches demonstrate that HNF4α negatively regulated S1P-induced CTGF expression. These findings reveal a role for S1P in stimulating HCC cell proliferation by upregulating CTGF expression through S1P2-mediated YAP activation. .
The Epithelial Circumferential Actin Belt Regulates YAP/TAZ through Nucleocytoplasmic Shuttling of Merlin.
Furukawa Kana T,Yamashita Kazunari,Sakurai Natsuki,Ohno Shigeo
Circumferential actin belts underlying the adherens junctions of columnar epithelial cell monolayers control intercellular surface tension and cell shape to maintain tissue integrity. Yes-associated protein (YAP) and its paralog TAZ are proliferation-activating transcriptional coactivators that shuttle between the nucleus and cytoplasm. Previous studies suggest the importance of stress fibers in the actin cytoskeleton for regulation of YAP nuclear localization; however, the role of the circumferential actin belt on YAP localization remains unclarified. By manipulating actin tension, we demonstrate that circumferential actin belt tension suppresses YAP/TAZ nuclear localization. This suppression requires Merlin, an F-actin binding protein associated with adherens junctions. Merlin physically interacts with YAP/TAZ, and nuclear export sequences of Merlin are required for suppression. Together, with the observation that the association between E-cadherin and Merlin was diminished by tension in circumferential actin belts, our results suggest that released Merlin undergoes nucleocytoplasmic shutting and mediates export of YAP/TAZ from the nucleus.
Biomaterials and engineered microenvironments to control YAP/TAZ-dependent cell behaviour.
Brusatin Giovanna,Panciera Tito,Gandin Alessandro,Citron Anna,Piccolo Stefano
Mechanical signals are increasingly recognized as overarching regulators of cell behaviour, controlling stemness, organoid biology, tissue development and regeneration. Moreover, aberrant mechanotransduction is a driver of disease, including cancer, fibrosis and cardiovascular defects. A central question remains how cells compute a host of biomechanical signals into meaningful biological behaviours. Biomaterials and microfabrication technologies are essential to address this issue. Here we review a large body of evidence that connects diverse biomaterial-based systems to the functions of YAP/TAZ, two highly related mechanosensitive transcriptional regulators. YAP/TAZ orchestrate the response to a suite of engineered microenviroments, emerging as a universal control system for cells in two and three dimensions, in static or dynamic fashions, over a range of elastic and viscoelastic stimuli, from solid to fluid states. This approach may guide the rational design of technological and material-based platforms with dramatically improved functionalities and inform the generation of new biomaterials for regenerative medicine applications.
YAP/TAZ upstream signals and downstream responses.
Totaro Antonio,Panciera Tito,Piccolo Stefano
Nature cell biology
Cell behaviour is strongly influenced by physical, mechanical contacts between cells and their extracellular matrix. We review how the transcriptional regulators YAP and TAZ integrate mechanical cues with the response to soluble signals and metabolic pathways to control multiple aspects of cell behaviour, including proliferation, cell plasticity and stemness essential for tissue regeneration. Corruption of cell-environment interplay leads to aberrant YAP and TAZ activation that is instrumental for multiple diseases, including cancer.