Control of YAP/TAZ Activity by Metabolic and Nutrient-Sensing Pathways.
Santinon Giulia,Pocaterra Arianna,Dupont Sirio
Trends in cell biology
Metabolism is a fundamental cellular function that can be reprogrammed by signaling pathways and oncogenes to meet cellular requirements. An emerging paradigm is that signaling and transcriptional networks can be in turn regulated by metabolism, allowing cells to coordinate their metabolism and behavior in an integrated manner. The activity of the YAP/TAZ transcriptional coactivators, downstream transducers of the Hippo cascade and powerful pro-oncogenic factors, was recently found to be regulated by metabolic pathways, such as aerobic glycolysis and mevalonate synthesis, and by the nutrient-sensing LKB1-AMPK and TSC-mTOR pathways. We discuss here current data linking YAP/TAZ to metabolism and suggest how this coupling might coordinate nutrient availability with genetic programs that sustain tissue growth, neoplastic cell proliferation, and tumor malignancy.
YAP/TAZ at the Roots of Cancer.
Zanconato Francesca,Cordenonsi Michelangelo,Piccolo Stefano
YAP and TAZ are highly related transcriptional regulators pervasively activated in human malignancies. Recent work indicates that, remarkably, YAP/TAZ are essential for cancer initiation or growth of most solid tumors. Their activation induces cancer stem cell attributes, proliferation, chemoresistance, and metastasis. YAP/TAZ are sensors of the structural and mechanical features of the cell microenvironment. A number of cancer-associated extrinsic and intrinsic cues conspire to overrule the YAP-inhibiting microenvironment of normal tissues, including changes in mechanotransduction, inflammation, oncogenic signaling, and regulation of the Hippo pathway. Addiction to YAP/TAZ thus potentially represents a central cancer vulnerability that may be exploited therapeutically.
YAP/TAZ as therapeutic targets in cancer.
Zanconato Francesca,Battilana Giusy,Cordenonsi Michelangelo,Piccolo Stefano
Current opinion in pharmacology
The biology and regulation of YAP and TAZ, two closely related transcriptional regulators, are receiving increasing attention owing to their fundamental roles in organ growth, tissue repair and cancer. In particular, the widespread activation of YAP/TAZ in carcinomas, and the crucial role of YAP/TAZ activation for many 'hallmarks' of cancer are indicating YAP/TAZ as prime targets for designing anti-cancer drugs. Here, we start from the known modalities to regulate YAP/TAZ to highlight possible routes of therapeutic intervention.
Role of YAP/TAZ transcriptional regulators in resistance to anti-cancer therapies.
Kim Min Hwan,Kim Joon
Cellular and molecular life sciences : CMLS
A diverse range of drug resistance mechanisms in cancer cells and their microenvironment significantly reduces the effectiveness of anti-cancer therapies. Growing evidence suggests that transcriptional effectors of the Hippo pathway, YAP and TAZ, promote resistance to various anti-cancer therapies, including cytotoxic chemotherapy, molecular targeted therapy, and radiation therapy. Here, we overview the role of YAP and TAZ as drug resistance mediators, and also discuss potential upstream regulators and downstream targets of YAP/TAZ in cancer. The widespread involvement of YAP and TAZ in resistance mechanisms suggests that therapeutic targeting of YAP and TAZ may expedite the development of effective anti-resistance therapies.
The complex entanglement of Hippo-Yap/Taz signaling in tumor immunity.
White Shannon M,Murakami Shigekazu,Yi Chunling
The Hippo-Yap/Taz pathway, originally identified as a central developmental regulator of organ size, has been found perturbed in many types of human tumors, and linked to tumor growth, survival, evasion, metastasis, stemness, and drug resistance. Beside these tumor-cell-intrinsic functions, Hippo signaling also plays important immune-regulatory roles. In this review, we will summarize and discuss recent breakthroughs in our understanding of how various components of the Hippo-Yap/Taz pathway influence the tumor immune microenvironment, including their effects on the tumor secretome and immune infiltrates, their roles in regulating crosstalk between tumor cells and T cells, and finally their intrinsic functions in various types of innate and adaptive immune cells. While further research is needed to integrate and reconcile existing findings and to discern the overall effects of Hippo signaling on tumor immunity, it is clear that Hippo signaling functions as a key bridge connecting tumor cells with both the adaptive and innate immune systems. Thus, all future therapeutic development against the Hippo-Yap/Taz pathway should take into account their multi-faceted roles in regulating tumor immunity in addition to their growth-regulatory functions. Given that immune therapies have become the mainstay of cancer treatment, it is also important to pursue how to manipulate Hippo signaling to boost response or overcome resistance to existing immune therapies.
Role of Hippo Pathway-YAP/TAZ Signaling in Angiogenesis.
Boopathy Gandhi T K,Hong Wanjin
Frontiers in cell and developmental biology
Angiogenesis is a highly coordinated process of formation of new blood vessels from pre-existing blood vessels. The process of development of the proper vascular network is a complex process that is crucial for the vertebrate development. Several studies have defined essential roles of Hippo pathway-YAP/TAZ in organ size control, tissue regeneration, and self-renewal. Thus Hippo pathway is one of the central components in tissue homeostasis. There are mounting evidences on the eminence of Hippo pathway-YAP/TAZ in angiogenesis in multiple model organisms. Hippo pathway-YAP/TAZ is now demonstrated to regulate endothelial cell proliferation, migration and survival; subsequently regulating vascular sprouting, vascular barrier formation, and vascular remodeling. Major intracellular signaling programs that regulate angiogenesis concomitantly activate YAP/TAZ to regulate key events in angiogenesis. In this review, we provide a brief overview of the recent findings in the Hippo pathway and YAP/TAZ signaling in angiogenesis.
The Role of YAP and TAZ in Angiogenesis and Vascular Mimicry.
Azad Taha,Ghahremani Mina,Yang Xiaolong
Angiogenesis, the formation of new blood vessels from pre-existing vasculature, is a physiological process that begins in utero and continues throughout life in both good health and disease. Understanding the underlying mechanism in angiogenesis could uncover a new therapeutic approach in pathological angiogenesis. Since its discovery, the Hippo signaling pathway has emerged as a key player in controlling organ size and tissue homeostasis. Recently, new studies have discovered that Hippo and two of its main effectors, Yes-associated protein (YAP) and its paralog transcription activator with PDZ binding motif (TAZ), play critical roles during angiogenesis. In this review, we summarize the mechanisms by which YAP/TAZ regulate endothelial cell shape, behavior, and function in angiogenesis. We further discuss how YAP/TAZ function as part of developmental and pathological angiogenesis. Finally, we review the role of YAP/TAZ in tumor vascular mimicry and propose directions for future work.
The Roles of YAP/TAZ and the Hippo Pathway in Healthy and Diseased Skin.
Rognoni Emanuel,Walko Gernot
Skin is the largest organ of the human body. Its architecture and physiological functions depend on diverse populations of epidermal cells and dermal fibroblasts. Reciprocal communication between the epidermis and dermis plays a key role in skin development, homeostasis and repair. While several stem cell populations have been identified in the epidermis with distinct locations and functions, there is additional heterogeneity within the mesenchymal cells of the dermis. Here, we discuss the current knowledge of how the Hippo pathway and its downstream effectors Yes-associated protein (YAP) and transcriptional coactivator with PDZ-binding motif (TAZ) contribute to the maintenance, activation and coordination of the epidermal and dermal cell populations during development, homeostasis, wound healing and cancer.
Role of the Hippo Pathway in Fibrosis and Cancer.
Kim Cho-Long,Choi Sue-Hee,Mo Jung-Soon
The Hippo pathway is the key player in various signaling processes, including organ development and maintenance of tissue homeostasis. This pathway comprises a core kinases module and transcriptional activation module, representing a highly conserved mechanism from to vertebrates. The central MST1/2-LATS1/2 kinase cascade in this pathway negatively regulates YAP/TAZ transcription co-activators in a phosphorylation-dependent manner. Nuclear YAP/TAZ bind to transcription factors to stimulate gene expression, contributing to the regenerative potential and regulation of cell growth and death. Recent studies have also highlighted the potential role of Hippo pathway dysfunctions in the pathology of several diseases. Here, we review the functional characteristics of the Hippo pathway in organ fibrosis and tumorigenesis, and discuss its potential as new therapeutic targets.
Hippo-YAP/TAZ signalling in organ regeneration and regenerative medicine.
Moya Iván M,Halder Georg
Nature reviews. Molecular cell biology
The Hippo pathway and its downstream effectors, the transcriptional co-activators Yes-associated protein (YAP) and transcriptional co-activator with PDZ-binding motif (TAZ), regulate organ growth and cell plasticity during animal development and regeneration. Remarkably, experimental activation of YAP/TAZ in the mouse can promote regeneration in organs with poor or compromised regenerative capacity, such as the adult heart and the liver and intestine of old or diseased mice. However, therapeutic YAP/TAZ activation may cause serious side effects. Most notably, YAP/TAZ are hyperactivated in human cancers, and prolonged activation of YAP/TAZ triggers cancer development in mice. Thus, can the power of YAP/TAZ to promote regeneration be harnessed in a safe way? Here, we review the role of Hippo signalling in animal regeneration, examine the promises and risks of YAP/TAZ activation for regenerative medicine and discuss strategies to activate YAP/TAZ for regenerative therapy while minimizing adverse side effects.
Targeting Mechanosensitive Transcription Factors in Atherosclerosis.
Niu Niu,Xu Suowen,Xu Yanni,Little Peter J,Jin Zheng-Gen
Trends in pharmacological sciences
Atherosclerosis is the primary underlying cause of cardiovascular disease which preferentially develops at arterial regions exposed to disturbed flow (DF), but much less at regions of unidirectional laminar flow (UF). Recent studies have demonstrated that DF and UF differentially regulate important aspects of endothelial function, such as vascular inflammation, oxidative stress, vascular tone, cell proliferation, senescence, mitochondrial function, and glucose metabolism. DF and UF regulate vascular pathophysiology via differential regulation of mechanosensitive transcription factors (MSTFs) (KLF2, KLF4, NRF2, YAP/TAZ/TEAD, HIF-1α, NF-κB, AP-1, and others). Emerging studies show that MSTFs represent promising therapeutic targets for the prevention and treatment of atherosclerosis. We present here a comprehensive overview of the role of MSTFs in atherosclerosis, and highlight future directions for developing novel therapeutic agents by targeting MSTFs.
The Hippo Pathway in Prostate Cancer.
Salem Omar,Hansen Carsten G
Despite recent efforts, prostate cancer (PCa) remains one of the most common cancers in men. Currently, there is no effective treatment for castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). There is, therefore, an urgent need to identify new therapeutic targets. The Hippo pathway and its downstream effectors-the transcriptional co-activators, Yes-associated protein (YAP) and its paralog, transcriptional co-activator with PDZ-binding motif (TAZ)-are foremost regulators of stem cells and cancer biology. Defective Hippo pathway signaling and YAP/TAZ hyperactivation are common across various cancers. Here, we draw on insights learned from other types of cancers and review the latest advances linking the Hippo pathway and YAP/TAZ to PCa onset and progression. We examine the regulatory interaction between Hippo-YAP/TAZ and the androgen receptor (AR), as main regulators of PCa development, and how uncontrolled expression of YAP/TAZ drives castration resistance by inducing cellular stemness. Finally, we survey the potential therapeutic targeting of the Hippo pathway and YAP/TAZ to overcome PCa.
New insights into YAP/TAZ nucleo-cytoplasmic shuttling: new cancer therapeutic opportunities?
Shreberk-Shaked Michal,Oren Moshe
Yes-associated protein (YAP) and transcriptional co-activator with PDZ-binding motif (TAZ), the main effectors of the Hippo pathway, are emerging as important players in cancer biology and therapy response. The intracellular localization of YAP/TAZ is a key determinant in the regulation of their activity and their roles in signal transduction. This is particularly relevant for cancer: Aberrant nuclear localization of YAP and TAZ has been observed in numerous human cancers and may therefore represent an attractive target for cancer therapy. In this review, we describe the mechanisms that regulate the nucleo-cytoplasmic shuttling of YAP/TAZ and their implications for cancer, and discuss how the new insights about this process may pave the way for novel therapeutic strategies.
GPCR-Hippo Signaling in Cancer.
Luo Jiaqian,Yu Fa-Xing
The Hippo signaling pathway is involved in tissue size regulation and tumorigenesis. Genetic deletion or aberrant expression of some Hippo pathway genes lead to enhanced cell proliferation, tumorigenesis, and cancer metastasis. Recently, multiple studies have identified a wide range of upstream regulators of the Hippo pathway, including mechanical cues and ligands of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Through the activation related G proteins and possibly rearrangements of actin cytoskeleton, GPCR signaling can potently modulate the phosphorylation states and activity of YAP and TAZ, two homologous oncogenic transcriptional co-activators, and major effectors of the Hippo pathway. Herein, we summarize the network, regulation, and functions of GPCR-Hippo signaling, and we will also discuss potential anti-cancer therapies targeting GPCR-YAP signaling.
Hippo Signaling in Cancer: Lessons From Models.
Snigdha Kirti,Gangwani Karishma Sanjay,Lapalikar Gauri Vijay,Singh Amit,Kango-Singh Madhuri
Frontiers in cell and developmental biology
Hippo pathway was initially identified through genetic screens for genes regulating organ size in fruitflies. Recent studies have highlighted the role of Hippo signaling as a key regulator of homeostasis, and in tumorigenesis. Hippo pathway is comprised of genes that act as tumor suppressor genes like () and (), and oncogenes like (). YAP and TAZ are two related mammalian homologs of Yki that act as effectors of the Hippo pathway. Hippo signaling deficiency can cause YAP- or TAZ-dependent oncogene addiction for cancer cells. YAP and TAZ are often activated in human malignant cancers. These transcriptional regulators may initiate tumorigenic changes in solid tumors by inducing cancer stem cells and proliferation, culminating in metastasis and chemo-resistance. Given the complex mechanisms (e.g., of the cancer microenvironment, and the extrinsic and intrinsic cues) that overpower YAP/TAZ inhibition, the molecular roles of the Hippo pathway in tumor growth and progression remain poorly defined. Here we review recent findings from studies in whole animal model organism like on the role of Hippo signaling regarding its connection to inflammation, tumor microenvironment, and other oncogenic signaling in cancer growth and progression.
Molecular Mechanisms Associated with ROR1-Mediated Drug Resistance: Crosstalk with Hippo-YAP/TAZ and BMI-1 Pathways.
Karvonen Hanna,Barker Harlan,Kaleva Laura,Niininen Wilhelmiina,Ungureanu Daniela
Signaling via the Wnt-related receptor tyrosine kinase-like orphan receptor 1 (ROR1) triggers tumorigenic features associated with cancer stem cells (CSCs) and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), while aberrant expression of ROR1 is strongly linked to advanced disease progression and chemoresistance. Several recent studies have shown that Wnt5a binding to ROR1 promotes oncogenic signaling by activating multiple pathways such as RhoA/Rac1 GTPases and PI3K/AKT, which in turn could induce transcriptional coactivator YAP/TAZ or polycomb complex protein BMI-1 signaling, respectively, to sustain stemness, metastasis and ultimately drug-resistance. These data point towards a new feedback loop during cancer development, linking Wnt5a-ROR1 signaling activation to YAP/TAZ or BMI-1 upregulation that could play an important role in disease progression and treatment resistance. This review focuses on the crosstalk between Wnt5a-ROR1 and YAP/TAZ or the BMI-1 signaling network, together with the current advancements in targeted strategies for ROR1-positive cancers.
Hippo signalling during development.
Davis John Robert,Tapon Nicolas
Development (Cambridge, England)
The Hippo signalling pathway and its transcriptional co-activator targets Yorkie/YAP/TAZ first came to attention because of their role in tissue growth control. Over the past 15 years, it has become clear that, like other developmental pathways (e.g. the Wnt, Hedgehog and TGFβ pathways), Hippo signalling is a 'jack of all trades' that is reiteratively used to mediate a range of cellular decision-making processes from proliferation, death and morphogenesis to cell fate determination. Here, and in the accompanying poster, we briefly outline the core pathway and its regulation, and describe the breadth of its roles in animal development.
YAP/TAZ Related BioMechano Signal Transduction and Cancer Metastasis.
Martinez Bridget,Yang Yongchao,Harker Donald Mario Robert,Farrar Charles,Mukundan Harshini,Nath Pulak,Mascareñas David
Frontiers in cell and developmental biology
Mechanoreciprocity refers to a cell's ability to maintain tensional homeostasis in response to various types of forces. Physical forces are continually being exerted upon cells of various tissue types, even those considered static, such as the brain. Through mechanoreceptors, cells sense and subsequently respond to these stimuli. These forces and their respective cellular responses are prevalent in regulating everything from embryogenic tissue-specific differentiation, programmed cell death, and disease progression, the last of which being the subject of extensive attention. Abnormal mechanical remodeling of cells can provide clues as to the pathological status of tissues. This becomes particularly important in cancer cells, where cellular stiffness has been recently accepted as a novel biomarker for cancer metastasis. Several studies have also elucidated the importance of cell stiffness in cancer metastasis, with data highlighting that a reversal of tumor stiffness has the capacity to revert the metastatic properties of cancer. In this review, we summarize our current understanding of extracellular matrix (ECM) homeostasis, which plays a prominent role in tissue mechanics. We also describe pathological disruption of the ECM, and the subsequent implications toward cancer and cancer metastasis. In addition, we highlight the most novel approaches toward understanding the mechanisms which generate pathogenic cell stiffness and provide potential new strategies which have the capacity to advance our understanding of one of human-kinds' most clinically significant medical pathologies. These new strategies include video-based techniques for structural dynamics, which have shown great potential for identifying full-field, high-resolution modal properties, in this case, as a novel application.
Hippo Pathway and YAP Signaling Alterations in Squamous Cancer of the Head and Neck.
Santos-de-Frutos Karla,Segrelles Carmen,Lorz Corina
Journal of clinical medicine
Head and neck cancer affects the upper aerodigestive tract and is the sixth leading cancer worldwide by incidence and the seventh by cause of death. Despite significant advances in surgery and chemotherapy, molecularly targeted therapeutic options for this type of cancer are scarce and long term survival rates remain low. Recently, comprehensive genomic studies have highlighted the most commonly altered genes and signaling pathways in this cancer. The Hippo-YAP pathway has been identified as a key oncogenic pathway in multiple tumors. Expression of genes controlled by the Hippo downstream transcriptional coactivators YAP (Yes-associated protein 1) and TAZ (WWTR1, WW domain containing transcription regulator 1) is widely deregulated in human cancer including head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Interestingly, YAP/TAZ signaling might not be as essential for the normal homeostasis of adult tissues as for oncogenic growth, altogether making the pathway an amenable therapeutic target in cancer. Recent advances in the role of Hippo-YAP pathway in HNSCC have provided evidence that genetic alterations frequent in this type of cancer such as (phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase catalytic subunit alpha) overexpression or FAT1 (FAT atypical cadherin 1) functional loss can result in YAP activation. We discuss current therapeutic options targeting this pathway which are currently in use for other tumor types.
Mechanotransduction in the Cardiovascular System: From Developmental Origins to Homeostasis and Pathology.
Garoffolo Gloria,Pesce Maurizio
With the term 'mechanotransduction', it is intended the ability of cells to sense and respond to mechanical forces by activating intracellular signal transduction pathways and the relative phenotypic adaptation. While a known role of mechanical stimuli has been acknowledged for developmental biology processes and morphogenesis in various organs, the response of cells to mechanical cues is now also emerging as a major pathophysiology determinant. Cells of the cardiovascular system are typically exposed to a variety of mechanical stimuli ranging from compression to strain and flow (shear) stress. In addition, these cells can also translate subtle changes in biophysical characteristics of the surrounding matrix, such as the stiffness, into intracellular activation cascades with consequent evolution toward pro-inflammatory/pro-fibrotic phenotypes. Since cellular mechanotransduction has a potential readout on long-lasting modifications of the chromatin, exposure of the cells to mechanically altered environments may have similar persisting consequences to those of metabolic dysfunctions or chronic inflammation. In the present review, we highlight the roles of mechanical forces on the control of cardiovascular formation during embryogenesis, and in the development and pathogenesis of the cardiovascular system.
The Plot Thickens: The Emerging Role of Matrix Viscosity in Cell Mechanotransduction.
Cantini Marco,Donnelly Hannah,Dalby Matthew J,Salmeron-Sanchez Manuel
Advanced healthcare materials
Cell mechanotransduction is an area of intense research focus. Until now, very limited tools have existed to study how cells respond to changes in the extracellular matrix beyond, for example, mechanical deformation studies and twisting cytometry. However, emerging are a range of elastic, viscoelastic and even purely viscous materials that deform and dissipate on cellular length and timescales. This article reviews developments in these materials, typically translating from 2D model surfaces to 3D microenvironments and explores how cells interact with them. Specifically, it focuses on emerging concepts such as the molecular clutch model, how different extracellular matrix proteins engage the clutch under viscoelastic-stress relaxation conditions, and how mechanotransduction can drive transcriptional control through regulators such as YAP/TAZ.
The Hippo Pathway, YAP/TAZ, and the Plasma Membrane.
Rausch Valentina,Hansen Carsten G
Trends in cell biology
The plasma membrane allows the cell to sense and adapt to changes in the extracellular environment by relaying external inputs via intracellular signaling networks. One central cellular signaling pathway is the Hippo pathway, which regulates homeostasis and plays chief roles in carcinogenesis and regenerative processes. Recent studies have found that mechanical stimuli and diffusible chemical components can regulate the Hippo pathway primarily through receptors embedded in the plasma membrane. Morphologically defined structures within the plasma membrane, such as cellular junctions, focal adhesions, primary cilia, caveolae, clathrin-coated pits, and plaques play additional key roles. Here, we discuss recent evidence highlighting the importance of these specialized plasma membrane domains in cellular feedback via the Hippo pathway.
Regulation of the Hippo Pathway Transcription Factor TEAD.
Lin Kimberly C,Park Hyun Woo,Guan Kun-Liang
Trends in biochemical sciences
The TEAD transcription factor family is best known for transcriptional output of the Hippo signaling pathway and has been implicated in processes such as development, cell growth and proliferation, tissue homeostasis, and regeneration. Our understanding of the functional importance of TEADs has increased dramatically since its initial discovery three decades ago. The majority of our knowledge of TEADs is in the context of Hippo signaling as nuclear DNA-binding proteins passively activated by Yes-associated protein (YAP) and transcriptional activator with PDZ-binding domain (TAZ), transcription coactivators downstream of the Hippo pathway. However, recent studies suggest that TEAD itself is actively regulated. Here, we highlight evidence demonstrating Hippo-independent regulation of TEADs and the potential impacts these studies may have on new cancer therapeutics.
Linking Extracellular Matrix Agrin to the Hippo Pathway in Liver Cancer and Beyond.
Chakraborty Sayan,Hong Wanjin
In addition to the structural and scaffolding role, the extracellular matrix (ECM) is emerging as a hub for biomechanical signal transduction that is frequently relayed to intracellular sensors to regulate diverse cellular processes. At a macroscopic scale, matrix rigidity confers long-ranging effects contributing towards tissue fibrosis and cancer. The transcriptional co-activators YAP/TAZ, better known as the converging effectors of the Hippo pathway, are widely recognized for their new role as nuclear mechanosensors during organ homeostasis and cancer. Still, how YAP/TAZ senses these "stiffness cues" from the ECM remains enigmatic. Here, we highlight the recent perspectives on the role of agrin in mechanosignaling from the ECM via antagonizing the Hippo pathway to activate YAP/TAZ in the contexts of cancer, neuromuscular junctions, and cardiac regeneration.
Forcing Entry into the Nucleus.
Lomakin Alexis,Nader Guilherme,Piel Matthieu
Nuclear pore complexes tightly regulate nucleo-cytoplasmic transport, controlling the nuclear concentration of several transcription factors. In a recent issue of Cell, Elosegui-Artola et al. (2017) show that nuclear deformation modulates the nuclear entry rates of YAP/TAZ via nuclear pore stretching, clarifying how forces affect gene transcription.
Targeting the Hippo Pathway and Cancer through the TEAD Family of Transcription Factors.
Holden Jeffrey K,Cunningham Christian N
The Hippo pathway is a critical transcriptional signaling pathway that regulates cell growth, proliferation and organ development. The transcriptional enhanced associate domain (TEAD) protein family consists of four paralogous transcription factors that function to modulate gene expression in response to the Hippo signaling pathway. Transcriptional activation of these proteins occurs upon binding to the co-activator YAP/TAZ whose entry into the nucleus is regulated by Lats1/2 kinase. In recent years, it has become apparent that the dysregulation and/or overexpression of Hippo pathway effectors is implicated in a wide range of cancers, including prostate, gastric and liver cancer. A large body of work has been dedicated to understanding the therapeutic potential of modulating the phosphorylation and localization of YAP/TAZ. However, YAP/TAZ are considered to be natively unfolded and may be intractable as drug targets. Therefore, TEAD proteins present themselves as an excellent therapeutic target for intervention of the Hippo pathway. This review summarizes the functional role of TEAD proteins in cancer and assesses the therapeutic potential of antagonizing TEAD function in vivo.
YAP and TAZ in Lung Cancer: Oncogenic Role and Clinical Targeting.
Lo Sardo Federica,Strano Sabrina,Blandino Giovanni
Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in the world and there is no current treatment able to efficiently treat the disease as the tumor is often diagnosed at an advanced stage. Moreover, cancer cells are often resistant or acquire resistance to the treatment. Further knowledge of the mechanisms driving lung tumorigenesis, aggressiveness, metastasization, and resistance to treatments could provide new tools for detecting the disease at an earlier stage and for a better response to therapy. In this scenario, Yes Associated Protein (YAP) and Trascriptional Coactivator with PDZ-binding motif (TAZ), the final effectors of the Hippo signaling transduction pathway, are emerging as promising therapeutic targets. Here, we will discuss the most recent advances made in YAP and TAZ biology in lung cancer and, more importantly, on the newly discovered mechanisms of YAP and TAZ inhibition in lung cancer as well as their clinical implications.
The Hippo pathway in normal development and cancer.
Maugeri-Saccà Marcello,De Maria Ruggero
Pharmacology & therapeutics
The Hippo pathway is a central regulator of organ size and tissue homeostasis. Hippo kinases and adaptor proteins mediate the phosphorylation and inactivation of YAP and TAZ, two closely related transcription co-activators. The Hippo pathway responds to a variety of extracellular and intracellular signals, spanning from cell-cell contact and mechanical cues to ligands of G-protein-coupled receptors and metabolic avenues. In some instances, YAP/TAZ activation is tuned by forces that bypass the Hippo kinase module, adding further complexity to the biology of the pathway. Over the past two decades, the Hippo pathway has increasingly been connected with developmental processes and tissue repair, being intimately tied to the function of tissue-specific progenitor cells. Pervasive activation of YAP/TAZ has been recognized in a multitude of human tumors and connected with the acquisition of malignant traits, including resistance to anticancer therapies, distant dissemination and maintenance of cancer stem cells. On this ground, Hippo-related biomarkers are increasingly investigated in translational studies striving to identify prognostic and predictive factors. In addition, the dependency of many tumors on YAP/TAZ may be exploited for therapeutic purposes. Albeit no direct inhibitors are currently available, drug repositioning approaches provided hints that YAP/TAZ inhibition can be achieved with old drugs, such as cholesterol-lowering agents or compounds blocking bone resorption.
Hippo Signaling: Key Emerging Pathway in Cellular and Whole-Body Metabolism.
Ardestani Amin,Lupse Blaz,Maedler Kathrin
Trends in endocrinology and metabolism: TEM
The evolutionarily conserved Hippo pathway is a key regulator of organ size and tissue homeostasis. Its dysregulation is linked to multiple pathological disorders. In addition to regulating development and growth, recent studies show that Hippo pathway components such as MST1/2 and LATS1/2 kinases, as well as YAP/TAZ transcriptional coactivators, are regulated by metabolic pathways and that the Hippo pathway controls metabolic processes at the cellular and organismal levels in physiological and metabolic disease states such as obesity, type 2 diabetes (T2D), nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), cardiovascular disorders, and cancer. In this review we summarize the connection between key Hippo components and metabolism, and how this interplay regulates cellular metabolism and metabolic pathways. The emerging function of Hippo in the regulation of metabolic homeostasis under physiological and pathological conditions is highlighted.
Epithelioid Hemangioendothelioma as a Model of YAP/TAZ-Driven Cancer: Insights from a Rare Fusion Sarcoma.
Lamar John M,Motilal Nehru Vijeyaluxmy,Weinberg Guy
Epithelioid hemangioendothelioma (EHE) is a rare soft-tissue sarcoma involving cells with histologic markers that suggest an endothelial origin. Around 90% of EHEs are caused by the fusion of Transcriptional Co-activator with a PDZ-motif (TAZ) with Calmodulin Binding Transcription Activator 1 (CAMTA1), a central nervous system-specific transcription activator. The 10% of EHEs that lack the TAZ⁻CAMTA1 fusion instead have a fusion of Yes-associated Protein (YAP) and Transcription Factor E3 (TFE3) genes (YAP-TFE3). YAP and TAZ are well-defined downstream effectors in the Hippo pathway that promote cell growth when translocated to the nucleus. The TAZ⁻CAMTA1 fusion transcript is insensitive to the Hippo inhibitory signals that normally prevent this process and thus constitutively activates the TAZ transcriptome. In EHE, this causes tumors to form in a variety of organs and tissue types, most commonly the liver, lung, and bone. Its clinical course is unpredictable and highly variable. TAZ activation is known to contribute to key aspects of the cancer phenotype, including metastasis and fibrosis, and increased expression of TAZ is thought to be causally related to the progression of many cancers, including breast, lung, and liver. Therefore, understanding TAZ biology and the molecular mechanisms by which it promotes unregulated cell proliferation will yield insights and possibly improved treatments for both EHE as well as much more common cancers.
Crosstalk between YAP/TAZ and Notch Signaling.
Totaro Antonio,Castellan Martina,Di Biagio Daniele,Piccolo Stefano
Trends in cell biology
How the behavior of cells in living tissues is orchestrated according to tissue needs, size, and developmental stage is still poorly understood. Advances in these directions are essential to understand morphogenesis, 'self-organization' phenomena, to build new tissues for regenerative medicine or to reverse the changes in deranged organs, such as in cancer or in genetic disorders. This review outlines a new scenario by which the crosstalk between the Yes-associated protein/transcriptional coactivator with PDZ-binding motif (YAP/TAZ) transcription factors and Notch signaling influences cell self-renewal, stem cell differentiation, cell fate decisions, epithelial-stromal interactions, inflammation, morphogenesis, and large-scale gene oscillations.
YAP/TAZ upstream signals and downstream responses.
Totaro Antonio,Panciera Tito,Piccolo Stefano
Nature cell biology
Cell behaviour is strongly influenced by physical, mechanical contacts between cells and their extracellular matrix. We review how the transcriptional regulators YAP and TAZ integrate mechanical cues with the response to soluble signals and metabolic pathways to control multiple aspects of cell behaviour, including proliferation, cell plasticity and stemness essential for tissue regeneration. Corruption of cell-environment interplay leads to aberrant YAP and TAZ activation that is instrumental for multiple diseases, including cancer.
Interplay between YAP/TAZ and Metabolism.
Koo Ja Hyun,Guan Kun-Liang
Yes-associated protein (YAP) and transcriptional coactivator with PDZ-binding motif (TAZ) are two homologous transcriptional coactivators that promote cell proliferation, stem cell maintenance, and tissue homeostasis. Under favorable conditions, YAP and TAZ are active to promote cell growth through a transcriptional program mediated by the TEAD family transcription factors. Given the indispensability of cellular energy and metabolites for survival and growth, YAP and TAZ are inhibited when energy level is low. Indeed, glucose, fatty acids, hormones, and other metabolic factors have been recently revealed to regulate YAP and TAZ. Conversely, YAP and TAZ are also involved in metabolism regulation, such as to promote glycolysis, lipogenesis, and glutaminolysis, suggesting YAP and TAZ as emerging nodes in coordinating nutrient availability with cell growth and tissue homeostasis. In this Review, we summarize recent findings and provide a current overview of YAP and TAZ in metabolism by focusing on the role of YAP and TAZ as integrators for metabolic cues and cell growth.
The role of YAP/TAZ activity in cancer metabolic reprogramming.
Zhang Xiaodong,Zhao Haiying,Li Yan,Xia Di,Yang Liang,Ma Yingbo,Li Hangyu
In contrast to normal cells, which use the aerobic oxidation of glucose as their main energy production method, cancer cells prefer to use anaerobic glycolysis to maintain their growth and survival, even under normoxic conditions. Such tumor cell metabolic reprogramming is regulated by factors such as hypoxia and the tumor microenvironment. In addition, dysregulation of certain signaling pathways also contributes to cancer metabolic reprogramming. Among them, the Hippo signaling pathway is a highly conserved tumor suppressor pathway. The core oncosuppressive kinase cascade of Hippo pathway inhibits the nuclear transcriptional co-activators YAP and TAZ, which are the downstream effectors of Hippo pathway and oncogenic factors in many solid cancers. YAP/TAZ function as key nodes of multiple signaling pathways and play multiple regulatory roles in cancer cells. However, their roles in cancer metabolic reprograming are less clear. In the present review, we examine progress in research into the regulatory mechanisms of YAP/TAZ on glucose metabolism, fatty acid metabolism, mevalonate metabolism, and glutamine metabolism in cancer cells. Determining the roles of YAP/TAZ in tumor energy metabolism, particularly in relation to the tumor microenvironment, will provide new strategies and targets for the selective therapy of metabolism-related cancers.
Convergence of VEGF and YAP/TAZ signaling: Implications for angiogenesis and cancer biology.
Elaimy Ameer L,Mercurio Arthur M
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) stimulates endothelial cells to promote both developmental and pathological angiogenesis. VEGF also directly affects tumor cells and is associated with the initiation, progression, and recurrence of tumors, as well as the emergence and maintenance of cancer stem cells (CSCs). Studies have uncovered the importance of the transcriptional regulators YAP and TAZ in mediating VEGF signaling. For example, VEGF stimulates the GTPase activity of Rho family members and thereby alters cytoskeletal dynamics, which contributes to the activation of YAP and TAZ. In turn, YAP- and TAZ-mediated changes in gene expression sustain Rho family member activity and cytoskeletal effects to promote both vascular growth and remodeling in endothelial cells and the acquisition of stem-like traits in tumor cells. In this Review, we discuss how these findings further explain the pathophysiological roles of VEGF and YAP/TAZ, identify their connections to other receptor-mediated pathways, and reveal ways of therapeutically targeting their convergent signals in patients.
Biomaterials and engineered microenvironments to control YAP/TAZ-dependent cell behaviour.
Brusatin Giovanna,Panciera Tito,Gandin Alessandro,Citron Anna,Piccolo Stefano
Mechanical signals are increasingly recognized as overarching regulators of cell behaviour, controlling stemness, organoid biology, tissue development and regeneration. Moreover, aberrant mechanotransduction is a driver of disease, including cancer, fibrosis and cardiovascular defects. A central question remains how cells compute a host of biomechanical signals into meaningful biological behaviours. Biomaterials and microfabrication technologies are essential to address this issue. Here we review a large body of evidence that connects diverse biomaterial-based systems to the functions of YAP/TAZ, two highly related mechanosensitive transcriptional regulators. YAP/TAZ orchestrate the response to a suite of engineered microenviroments, emerging as a universal control system for cells in two and three dimensions, in static or dynamic fashions, over a range of elastic and viscoelastic stimuli, from solid to fluid states. This approach may guide the rational design of technological and material-based platforms with dramatically improved functionalities and inform the generation of new biomaterials for regenerative medicine applications.
The NDR/LATS protein kinases in immunology and cancer biology.
Sharif Ahmad A D,Hergovich Alexander
Seminars in cancer biology
The NDR (nuclear Dbf2-related)/LATS (large tumour suppressor) family of kinases represents a subclass of the AGC (protein kinase A (PKA)/PKG/PKC-like) group of serine/threonine protein kinases. Members of the NDR/LATS family are vital components of conserved pathways controlling essential cellular processes, such as proliferation (cell cycle progression) and cell death. In particular, the central involvement of NDR/LATS as YAP/TAZ kinases in the Hippo tissue growth control pathway has gained much interest. In this review, we summarise the roles of mammalian NDR1/2 (aka STK38/STK38L) and LATS1/2 in immunity and cancer biology. We also discuss the activation mechanisms of NDR/LATS involving Ste20-like kinases and the MOB1 signal transducer, followed by an overview of NDR/LATS knockout mouse models. We further review the mutation and expression status of NDR/LATS in human cancers and their possible predictive and/or prognostic value in cancer treatment.