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    Measuring Antiviral Capacity of T Cell Responses to Adenovirus. Keib Anna,Mei Ya-Fang,Cicin-Sain Luka,Busch Dirk H,Dennehy Kevin M Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950) Adenoviruses are a major cause of infectious mortality in children following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, with adoptive transfer of adenovirus-specific T cells being an effective therapeutic approach. We have previously shown that T cells specific for the peptide epitope LTDLGQNLLY were protective. In this study, we aimed to establish a viral dissemination assay to measure the antiviral capacity of T cells specific for this and other peptide epitopes in an infectious setting. We used replication-competent adenovirus 11 (Ad11pGFP) and adenovirus 5 containing adenovirus 35 fiber (Ad5F35GFP) viruses and T cells specific for HLA-A*01-restricted LTDLGQNLLY, HLA-B*07-restricted KPYSGTAYNAL, and HLA-A*02-restricted LLDQLIEEV peptide epitopes. T cells in PBMC from healthy donors were expanded with peptide and IL-2 or treated with IL-2 alone to serve as nonstimulated control cells, and then these expanded or nonstimulated CD8 cells were purified and cocultured with autologous monocytes infected with adenovirus at low multiplicity of infection. After 3 d, the number of infected GFP monocytes and, hence, viral dissemination was quantified by flow cytometry. T cells expanded with LTDLGQNLLY peptide from multiple HLA-A*01 donors prevented adenovirus dissemination, and nonstimulated T cells did not prevent dissemination, thus, indicating that LTDLGQNLLY-specific T cells have high antiviral capacity. Similarly, expanded KPYSGTAYNAL- and LLDQLIEEV-specific T cells could prevent viral dissemination. However, the frequency of expanded T cells specific for these last two epitopes was variable between donors with consequent variable prevention of adenoviral dissemination. Taken together, we demonstrate that T cells specific for three peptide epitopes, from both structural and nonstructural proteins, can prevent adenoviral dissemination and provide a novel method to measure the antiviral capacity of adenovirus-specific T cell responses. 10.4049/jimmunol.1801003
    Preexisting Virus-Specific T Lymphocytes-Mediated Enhancement of Adenovirus Infections to Human Blood CD14+ Cells. Feng Fengling,Zhao Jin,Li Pingchao,Li Ruiting,Chen Ling,Sun Caijun Viruses Antigen-specific T lymphocytes play a critical role in controlling viral infections. However, we report here that preexisting virus-specific T cell responses also contribute to promoting adenovirus (Ad) infection. Previously, we found that CD14+ monocytes from Ad-seropositive individuals exhibited an increased susceptibility to Ad infection, when compared with that of Ad-seronegative individuals. But the underlying mechanisms for this enhancement of viral infection are not completely clarified. In this study, we found that the efficacy of Ad infection into CD14+ monocytes was significantly decreased after CD3+ T lymphocytes depletion from PBMC samples of Ad-seropositive individuals. In contrast, adding virus-specific CD3+ T lymphocytes into PBMC samples of Ad-seronegative individuals resulted in a significant increase of infection efficacy. CD3+ T lymphocytes in PBMC samples from Ad-seropositive individuals were more sensitive to be activated by adenovirus stimulus, characterized by upregulation of multiple cytokines and activation markers and also enhancement of cell proliferation. Further studies demonstrated that GM-CSF and IL-4 can promote Ad infection by up-regulating the expression of scavenger receptor 1 (SR-A) and integrins αVβ5 receptor of CD14+ cells. And taken together, these results suggest a novel role of virus-specific T cells in mediating enhancement of viral infection, and provide insights to understand the pathogenesis and complicated interactions between viruses and host immune cells. 10.3390/v11020154
    Abnormalities of peripheral blood system in patients with COVID-19 in Wenzhou, China. Sun Suyu,Cai Xuejiao,Wang Huaguo,He Guiqing,Lin Yin,Lu Bibi,Chen Chaoyue,Pan Yong,Hu Xingzhong Clinica chimica acta; international journal of clinical chemistry BACKGROUND:In December 2019, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was first found in Wuhan, China and soon was reported all around the world. METHODS:All confirmed cases with COVID-19 in Wenzhou from January 19 to February 20, 2020, were collected and analyzed. Of the 116 patients with COVID-19, 27 were diagnosed as severe cases. Among severe cases, 9 were treated in ICU. The data of blood routine examination were analyzed and compared among common patients (as common group), severe patients admitted to intensive care unit (as severe ICU group) and severe patients not admitted to ICU (as severe non-ICU group). The blood routine examination results were dynamically observed in the above groups after admission. RESULTS:Patients with COVID-19 have lower counts of leucocytes, lymphocytes, eosinophils, platelets, and hemoglobin, but have higher neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and monocyte-lymphocyte ratio (MLR), which were compared with controls (P < 0.001). In severe ICU group, patients have the lowest count of lymphocytes, but the highest neutrophil count and NLR among the above three groups (all P values < 0.05); NLR and MLR indicators were combined for diagnostic efficacy analysis of severe COVID-19, and its area under the curve reached 0.925. The odds ratio of the delay in days to the start of the increase of eosinophil count for predicting the outcome of patients with severe COVID-19 was 2.291 after age adjusted. CONCLUSIONS:Patients with COVID-19 have abnormal peripheral blood routine examination results. Dynamic surveillance of peripheral blood system especially eosinophils is helpful in the prediction of severe COVID-19 cases. 10.1016/j.cca.2020.04.024
    Emergence of fibroblasts with a proinflammatory epigenetically altered phenotype in severe hypoxic pulmonary hypertension. Li Min,Riddle Suzette R,Frid Maria G,El Kasmi Karim C,McKinsey Timothy A,Sokol Ronald J,Strassheim Derek,Meyrick Barbara,Yeager Michael E,Flockton Amanda R,McKeon B Alexandre,Lemon Douglas D,Horn Todd R,Anwar Adil,Barajas Carlos,Stenmark Kurt R Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950) Persistent accumulation of monocytes/macrophages in the pulmonary artery adventitial/perivascular areas of animals and humans with pulmonary hypertension has been documented. The cellular mechanisms contributing to chronic inflammatory responses remain unclear. We hypothesized that perivascular inflammation is perpetuated by activated adventitial fibroblasts, which, through sustained production of proinflammatory cytokines/chemokines and adhesion molecules, induce accumulation, retention, and activation of monocytes/macrophages. We further hypothesized that this proinflammatory phenotype is the result of the abnormal activity of histone-modifying enzymes, specifically, class I histone deacetylases (HDACs). Pulmonary adventitial fibroblasts from chronically hypoxic hypertensive calves (termed PH-Fibs) expressed a constitutive and persistent proinflammatory phenotype defined by high expression of IL-1β, IL-6, CCL2(MCP-1), CXCL12(SDF-1), CCL5(RANTES), CCR7, CXCR4, GM-CSF, CD40, CD40L, and VCAM-1. The proinflammatory phenotype of PH-Fibs was associated with epigenetic alterations as demonstrated by increased activity of HDACs and the findings that class I HDAC inhibitors markedly decreased cytokine/chemokine mRNA expression levels in these cells. PH-Fibs induced increased adhesion of THP-1 monocytes and produced soluble factors that induced increased migration of THP-1 and murine bone marrow-derived macrophages as well as activated monocytes/macrophages to express proinflammatory cytokines and profibrogenic mediators (TIMP1 and type I collagen) at the transcriptional level. Class I HDAC inhibitors markedly reduced the ability of PH-Fibs to induce monocyte migration and proinflammatory activation. The emergence of a distinct adventitial fibroblast population with an epigenetically altered proinflammatory phenotype capable of recruiting, retaining, and activating monocytes/macrophages characterizes pulmonary hypertension-associated vascular remodeling and thus could contribute significantly to chronic inflammatory processes in the pulmonary artery wall. 10.4049/jimmunol.1100479
    Manufacture of GMP-compliant functional adenovirus-specific T-cell therapy for treatment of post-transplant infectious complications. Horlock Claire,Skulte Amanda,Mitra Arindam,Stansfield Alka,Bhandari Shristi,Ip Winnie,Qasim Waseem,Lowdell Mark W,Patel Shreenal,Friedetzky Anke,Purbhoo Marco A,Newton Katy Cytotherapy BACKGROUND AIMS:In pediatric patients, adenovirus (ADV) reactivation after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo HSCT) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. For patients who do not respond to antiviral drug therapy, a new treatment approach using ADV-specific T cells can present a promising alternative. Here we describe the clinical scale Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP)-compliant manufacture and characterization of 40 ADV-specific T-cell products, Cytovir ADV, which are currently being tested in a multi-center phase I/IIa clinical trial. This process requires minimal intervention, is high yield, and results in a pure T-cell product that is functional. METHODS:Mononuclear cells (2 × 10(7)) were cultured in a closed system in the presence of GMP-grade ADV peptide pool and cytokines for 10 days. On day 10, the T-cell product was harvested, washed in a closed system, counted and assessed for purity and potency. Additional characterization was carried out where cell numbers allowed. RESULTS:Thirty-eight of 40 products (95%) met all release criteria. Median purity of the cell product was 88.3% CD3+ cells with a median yield of 2.9 × 10(7) CD3+ cells. Potency analyses showed a median ADV-specific interferon (IFN)γ response of 5.9% of CD3+ and 2345 IFNγ spot-forming cells/million. CD4 and CD8 T cells were capable of proliferating in response to ADV (63.3 and 56.3%, respectively). These virus-specific T cells (VST) were heterogenous, containing both effector memory and central memory T cells. In an exemplar patient with ADV viremia treated in the open ASPIRE trial, ADV-specific T-cell response was detected by IFNγ enzyme-linked immunospot from 13 days post-infusion. ADV DNA levels declined following cellular therapy and were below level of detection from day 64 post-infusion onward. CONCLUSIONS:The clinical-scale GMP-compliant One Touch manufacturing system is feasible and yields functional ADV-specific T cells at clinically relevant doses. 10.1016/j.jcyt.2016.06.009
    Immune reactivity after adenoviral-mediated aquaporin-1 cDNA transfer to human parotid glands. Alevizos I,Zheng C,Cotrim A P,Goldsmith C M,McCullagh L,Berkowitz T,Strobl S L,Malyguine A,Kopp W C,Chiorini J A,Nikolov N P,Neely M,Illei G G,Baum B J Oral diseases OBJECTIVES:The purpose of this study was to examine the humoral and cellular immune reactivity to adenoviral vector (AdhAQP1) administration in the human parotid gland over the first 42 days of a clinical gene therapy trial. METHODS:Of eleven treated subjects, five were considered as positive responders (Baum et al, 2012). Herein, we measured serum neutralizing antibody titers, circulating cytotoxic lymphocytes, and lymphocyte proliferation in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Additionally, after adenoviral vector stimulation of lymphocyte proliferation, we quantified secreted cytokine levels. RESULTS:Responders showed little to modest immune reactivity during the first 42 days following gene transfer. Additionally, baseline serum neutralizing antibody titers to serotype 5-adenovirus generally were not predictive of a subject's response to parotid gland administration of AdhAQP1. Cytokine profiling from activated peripheral blood mononuclear cells could not distinguish responders and non-responders. CONCLUSIONS:The data are the first to describe immune responses after adenoviral vector administration in a human parotid gland. Importantly, we found that modest (2-3 fold) changes in systemic cell-mediated immune reactivity did not preclude positive subject responses to gene transfer. However, changes beyond that level likely impeded the efficacy of gene transfer. 10.1111/odi.12614
    The Peyer's Patch Mononuclear Phagocyte System at Steady State and during Infection. Da Silva Clément,Wagner Camille,Bonnardel Johnny,Gorvel Jean-Pierre,Lelouard Hugues Frontiers in immunology The gut represents a potential entry site for a wide range of pathogens including protozoa, bacteria, viruses, or fungi. Consequently, it is protected by one of the largest and most diversified population of immune cells of the body. Its surveillance requires the constant sampling of its encounters by dedicated sentinels composed of follicles and their associated epithelium located in specialized area. In the small intestine, Peyer's patches (PPs) are the most important of these mucosal immune response inductive sites. Through several mechanisms including transcytosis by specialized epithelial cells called M-cells, access to the gut lumen is facilitated in PPs. Although antigen sampling is critical to the initiation of the mucosal immune response, pathogens have evolved strategies to take advantage of this permissive gateway to enter the host and disseminate. It is, therefore, critical to decipher the mechanisms that underlie both host defense and pathogen subversive strategies in order to develop new mucosal-based therapeutic approaches. Whereas penetration of pathogens through M cells has been well described, their fate once they have reached the subepithelial dome (SED) remains less well understood. Nevertheless, it is clear that the mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS) plays a critical role in handling these pathogens. MPS members, including both dendritic cells and macrophages, are indeed strongly enriched in the SED, interact with M cells, and are necessary for antigen presentation to immune effector cells. This review focuses on recent advances, which have allowed distinguishing the different PP mononuclear phagocyte subsets. It gives an overview of their diversity, specificity, location, and functions. Interaction of PP phagocytes with the microbiota and the follicle-associated epithelium as well as PP infection studies are described in the light of these new criteria of PP phagocyte identification. Finally, known alterations affecting the different phagocyte subsets during PP stimulation or infection are discussed. 10.3389/fimmu.2017.01254
    Safety and immunogenicity of GamEvac-Combi, a heterologous VSV- and Ad5-vectored Ebola vaccine: An open phase I/II trial in healthy adults in Russia. Dolzhikova I V,Zubkova O V,Tukhvatulin A I,Dzharullaeva A S,Tukhvatulina N M,Shcheblyakov D V,Shmarov M M,Tokarskaya E A,Simakova Y V,Egorova D A,Scherbinin D N,Tutykhina I L,Lysenko A A,Kostarnoy A V,Gancheva P G,Ozharovskaya T A,Belugin B V,Kolobukhina L V,Pantyukhov V B,Syromyatnikova S I,Shatokhina I V,Sizikova T V,Rumyantseva I G,Andrus A F,Boyarskaya N V,Voytyuk A N,Babira V F,Volchikhina S V,Kutaev D A,Bel'skih A N,Zhdanov K V,Zakharenko S M,Borisevich S V,Logunov D Y,Naroditsky B S,Gintsburg A L Human vaccines & immunotherapeutics Ebola hemorrhagic fever, also known as Ebola virus disease or EVD, is one of the most dangerous viral diseases in humans and animals. In this open-label, dose-escalation clinical trial, we assessed the safety, side effects, and immunogenicity of a novel, heterologous prime-boost vaccine against Ebola, which was administered in 2 doses to 84 healthy adults of both sexes between 18 and 55 years. The vaccine consists of live-attenuated recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) and adenovirus serotype-5 (Ad5) expressing Ebola envelope glycoprotein. The most common adverse event was pain at the injection site, although no serious adverse events were reported. The vaccine did not significantly impact blood, urine, and immune indices. Seroconversion rate was 100 %. Antigen-specific IgG geometric mean titer at day 42 was 3,277 (95 % confidence interval 2,401-4,473) in volunteers immunized at full dose. Neutralizing antibodies were detected in 93.1 % of volunteers immunized at full dose, with geometric mean titer 20. Antigen-specific response in peripheral blood mononuclear cells was also detected in 100 % of participants, as well as in CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in 82.8 % and 58.6 % of participants vaccinated at full dose, respectively. The data indicate that the vaccine is safe and induces strong humoral and cellular immune response in up to 100 % of healthy adult volunteers, and provide a rationale for testing efficacy in Phase III trials. Indeed, the strong immune response to the vaccine may elicit long-term protection. This trial was registered with grls.rosminzdrav.ru (No. 495*), and with zakupki.gov.ru (No. 0373100043215000055). 10.1080/21645515.2016.1238535
    The role of mononuclear phagocytes in Ebola virus infection. Rogers Kai J,Maury Wendy Journal of leukocyte biology The filovirus, Zaire Ebolavirus (EBOV), infects tissue macrophages (Mϕs) and dendritic cells (DCs) early during infection. Viral infection of both cells types is highly productive, leading to increased viral load. However, virus infection of these two cell types results in different consequences for cellular function. Infection of Mϕs stimulates the production of proinflammatory and immunomodulatory cytokines and chemokines, leading to the production of a cytokine storm, while simultaneously increasing tissue factor production and thus facilitating disseminated intravascular coagulation. In contrast, EBOV infection of DCs blocks DC maturation and antigen presentation rendering these cells unable to communicate with adaptive immune response elements. Details of the known interactions of these cells with EBOV are reviewed here. We also identify a number of unanswered questions that remain about interactions of filoviruses with these cells. 10.1002/JLB.4RI0518-183R
    Peripheral lymphocytes analyses in children with chronic hepatitis C virus infection. Nafady Asmaa,Nafady-Hego Hanaa,Abdelwahab Nadia M,Eltellawy Radwa H N,Abu Faddan Nagla H European journal of clinical investigation BACKGROUND:Hepatitis C virus (HCV)-specific immune response is believed to play a crucial role in viral clearance. There is, nevertheless, no reliable parameter to monitor this immune response or predict chronic HCV infection development. METHOD:An observational case-control study was performed to identify such parameters, peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 57 children with chronic HCV were systemically phenotyped, and the serum level of Interferon gamma and interleukin (IL) -17 was measured. The data were compared with 37 age-matched healthy volunteers (controls). RESULTS:Children with chronic HCV infection had a lower frequency of natural killer cells (NK) cells, CD56Dim NK cells and expansion of CD56Bright NK cells compared with controls (P = 0.001, P < 0.0001 and P < 0.0001 respectively). Increased CD56Dim NK cells were negatively correlated with the higher viral load, R  = 0.29, P = 0.05, while, increased NK T cells were positively correlated with high viral load, R  = 0.17, P = 0.011. T helper cells, naive T cells, CD127 negative T cells, and HLA-DR-positive T cells significantly increased in patients than in controls. The frequency of CD4+CD25high+ T regulatory (Treg) cells increased in HCV-infected patients, compared with those in control, and FOXP3 was upregulated within them. Treg cells' increase was positively correlated with high viral load, R  = 0.45, P = 0.004. The level of IL-17 was higher in HCV patients than that in control, P < 0.0001. CONCLUSION:Although the contribution of those markers to the chronic HCV establishment in children remains elusive, the results may provide important clues for reliable indicators of HCV infection. 10.1111/eci.13004
    CD40 ligand expressed in adenovirus can improve the immunogenicity of the GP3 and GP5 of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in swine. Cao Jun,Wang Xinglong,Du Yijun,Li Yufeng,Wang Xianwei,Jiang Ping Vaccine Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) has recently caused heavy economic losses in swine industry worldwide. Current vaccination strategies only provide a limited protective efficacy, thus immune modulators are being considered to enhance the effectiveness of PRRSV vaccines. In this study, the recombinant adenoviruses expressing porcine CD40 ligand (CD40L) and GP3/GP5 of PRRSV were constructed and the immune responses were examined in pigs. The results showed that rAd-CD40L-GP35 (co-expressing CD40L and GP3-GP5) or rAd-GP35 (expressing GP3-GP5) plus rAd-CD40L (expressing CD40L) could provide significant higher specific anti-PRRSV ELISA antibody and neutralizing antibody. And the levels of proliferative responses of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), IFN-γ and IL-4 were markedly increased in rAd-CD40L-GP35 and rAd-CD40L plus rAd-GP35 groups than those in rAd-GP35 group. Following homologous challenge with Chinese isolate of the North-American genotype of PRRSV, pigs inoculated with recombinant rAd-CD40L-GP35 and rAd-CD40L plus rAd-GP35 showed lighter clinical signs and lower viremia, as compared to those in rAd-GP35 group. It indicated that porcine CD40L could effectively increase humoral and cell-mediated immune responses of GP3 and GP5 of PRRSV. Porcine CD40L might be used as an attractive adjuvant or immunotargeting strategies to enhance the PRRSV subunit vaccine responses in swine. 10.1016/j.vaccine.2010.09.002
    Antiviral mechanisms of human defensins. Wilson Sarah S,Wiens Mayim E,Smith Jason G Journal of molecular biology Defensins are an effector component of the innate immune system with broad antimicrobial activity. Humans express two types of defensins, α- and β-defensins, which have antiviral activity against both enveloped and non-enveloped viruses. The diversity of defensin-sensitive viral species reflects a multitude of antiviral mechanisms. These include direct defensin targeting of viral envelopes, glycoproteins, and capsids in addition to inhibition of viral fusion and post-entry neutralization. Binding and modulation of host cell surface receptors and disruption of intracellular signaling by defensins can also inhibit viral replication. In addition, defensins can function as chemokines to augment and alter adaptive immune responses, revealing an indirect antiviral mechanism. Nonetheless, many questions regarding the antiviral activities of defensins remain. Although significant mechanistic data are known for α-defensins, molecular details for β-defensin inhibition are mostly lacking. Importantly, the role of defensin antiviral activity in vivo has not been addressed due to the lack of a complete defensin knockout model. Overall, the antiviral activity of defensins is well established as are the variety of mechanisms by which defensins achieve this inhibition; however, additional research is needed to fully understand the role of defensins in viral pathogenesis. 10.1016/j.jmb.2013.09.038
    Characterization of In Vitro Expanded Virus-Specific T cells for Adoptive Immunotherapy against Virus Infection. Ono Toshiaki,Fujita Yuriko,Matano Tetsuro,Takahashi Satoshi,Morio Tomohiro,Kawana-Tachikawa Ai Japanese journal of infectious diseases Adoptive transfer of virus-specific T cells has emerged as a promising therapeutic approach for treatment of virus infections in immunocompromised hosts. Characterization of virus-specific T cells provides essential information about the curative mechanism of the treatment. In this study, we developed a T cell epitope mapping system for 718 overlapping peptides spanning 6 proteins of 3 viruses (pp65 and IE1 from cytomegalovirus; LMP1, EBNA1, and BZLF1 from Epstein-Barr virus; Penton from adenovirus). Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from 33 healthy Japanese donors were stimulated with these peptides and virus-specific CD4 and CD8 T cells were expanded in vitro in the presence of interleukin (IL) 4 and IL7. A median of 13 (minimum-maximum, 2-46) peptides was recognized in the cohort. Both fresh and cryopreserved PBMCs were used for in vitro expansion. The expansion and breadth of T cell responses were not significantly different between the 2 PBMC sets. We assessed viral regions frequently recognized by T cells in a Japanese cohort that could become pivotal T cell targets for immunotherapy in Japan. We tested epitope prediction for CD8 T cell responses against a common target region using a freely available online tool. Some epitopes were considered to be predictive. 10.7883/yoken.JJID.2017.500
    Generation of multivirus-specific T cells by a single stimulation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells with a peptide mixture using serum-free medium. Nishiyama-Fujita Yuriko,Kawana-Tachikawa A I,Ono Toshiaki,Tanaka Yukie,Kato Takafumi,Heslop Helen E,Morio Tomohiro,Takahashi Satoshi Cytotherapy BACKGROUND:Restoration of virus-specific immunity by virus specific T cells (VSTs) offers an attractive alternative to conventional drugs, and can be highly effective in immunocompromised patients, including hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients. However, conventional VSTs manufacture requires preparation of specialized antigen-presenting cells (APCs), prolonged ex vivo culture in serum-containing medium and antigen re-stimulation with viruses or viral vectors to provide viral antigens for presentation on APCs. METHODS:To simplify this complex process, we developed a method to generate multiple VSTs by direct stimulation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) with overlapping peptide libraries in serum-free medium. RESULTS:We generated VSTs that targeted seven viruses (cytomegalovirus [CMV], Epstein-Barr virus [EBV], adenovirus [AdV], human herpesvirus 6 [HHV-6], BK virus [BKV], JC virus [JCV] and Varicella Zoster virus [VZV]) in a single line. The phenotype, growth and specificity of multiple VSTs produced in serum-free medium were equivalent to those generated in conventional serum-containing medium. DISCUSSION:The use of serum-free medium allows this approach to be readily introduced to clinical practice with lower cost, greater reproducibility due to the absence of batch-to-batch variability in serum and without concerns for infectious agents in the serum used. This simplified approach will now be tested in recipients of Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA)-matched sibling HSCT. 10.1016/j.jcyt.2018.05.009
    Targeted cancer immunotherapy with oncolytic adenovirus coding for a fully human monoclonal antibody specific for CTLA-4. Dias J D,Hemminki O,Diaconu I,Hirvinen M,Bonetti A,Guse K,Escutenaire S,Kanerva A,Pesonen S,Löskog A,Cerullo V,Hemminki A Gene therapy Promising clinical results have been achieved with monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) such as ipilimumab and tremelimumab that block cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen-4 (CTLA-4, CD152). However, systemic administration of these agents also has the potential for severe immune-related adverse events. Thus, local production might allow higher concentrations at the target while reducing systemic side effects. We generated a transductionally and transcriptionally targeted oncolytic adenovirus Ad5/3-Δ24aCTLA4 expressing complete human mAb specific for CTLA-4 and tested it in vitro, in vivo and in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of normal donors and patients with advanced solid tumors. mAb expression was confirmed by western blotting and immunohistochemistry. Biological functionality was determined in a T-cell line and in PBMCs from cancer patients. T cells of patients, but not those of healthy donors, were activated by an anti-CTLA4mAb produced by Ad5/3-Δ24aCTLA4. In addition to immunological effects, a direct anti-CTLA-4-mediated pro-apoptotic effect was observed in vitro and in vivo. Local production resulted in 43-fold higher (P<0.05) tumor versus plasma anti-CTLA4mAb concentration. Plasma levels in mice remained below what has been reported safe in humans. Replication-competent Ad5/3-Δ24aCTLA4 resulted in 81-fold higher (P<0.05) tumor mAb levels as compared with a replication-deficient control. This is the first report of an oncolytic adenovirus producing a full-length human mAb. High mAb concentrations were seen at tumors with lower systemic levels. Stimulation of T cells of cancer patients by Ad5/3-Δ24aCTLA4 suggests feasibility of testing the approach in clinical trials. 10.1038/gt.2011.176
    Enolase-1 promotes plasminogen-mediated recruitment of monocytes to the acutely inflamed lung. Wygrecka Malgorzata,Marsh Leigh M,Morty Rory E,Henneke Ingrid,Guenther Andreas,Lohmeyer Juergen,Markart Philipp,Preissner Klaus T Blood Cell surface-associated proteolysis plays a crucial role in the migration of mononuclear phagocytes to sites of inflammation. The glycolytic enzyme enolase-1 (ENO-1) binds plasminogen at the cell surface, enhancing local plasmin production. This study addressed the role played by ENO-1 in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-driven chemokine-directed monocyte migration and matrix invasion in vitro, as well as recruitment of monocytes to the alveolar compartment in vivo. LPS rapidly up-regulated ENO-1 cell-surface expression on human blood monocytes and U937 cells due to protein translocation from cytosolic pools, which increased plasmin generation, enhanced monocyte migration through epithelial monolayers, and promoted matrix degradation. These effects were abrogated by antibodies directed against the plasminogen binding site of ENO-1. Overexpression of ENO-1 in U937 cells increased their migratory and matrix-penetrating capacity, which was suppressed by overexpression of a truncated ENO-1 variant lacking the plasminogen binding site (ENO-1DeltaPLG). In vivo, intratracheal LPS application in mice promoted alveolar recruitment of monocytic cells that overexpressed ENO-1, but not of cells overexpressing ENO-1DeltaPLG. Consistent with these data, pneumonia-patients exhibited increased ENO-1 cell-surface expression on blood monocytes and intense ENO-1 staining of mononuclear cells in the alveolar space. These data suggest an important mechanism of inflammatory cell invasion mediated by increased cell-surface expression of ENO-1. 10.1182/blood-2008-08-170837
    Zinc supplementation restores PU.1 and Nrf2 nuclear binding in alveolar macrophages and improves redox balance and bacterial clearance in the lungs of alcohol-fed rats. Mehta Ashish J,Joshi Pratibha C,Fan Xian,Brown Lou Ann S,Ritzenthaler Jeffrey D,Roman Jesse,Guidot David M Alcoholism, clinical and experimental research BACKGROUND:Chronic alcohol abuse causes oxidative stress, impairs alveolar macrophage immune function, and increases the risk of pneumonia and acute lung injury. Recently we determined that chronic alcohol ingestion in rats decreases zinc levels and macrophage function in the alveolar space; provocative findings in that zinc is essential for normal immune and antioxidant defenses. Alveolar macrophage immune function depends on stimulation by granulocyte/monocyte colony-stimulating factor, which signals via the transcription factor PU.1. In parallel, the antioxidant response element signals via the transcription factor Nrf2. However, the role of zinc bioavailability on these signaling pathways within the alveolar space is unknown. METHODS:To determine the efficacy of dietary zinc supplementation on lung bacterial clearance and oxidative stress, we tested 3 different groups of rats: control-fed, alcohol-fed, and alcohol-fed with zinc supplementation. Rats were then inoculated with intratracheal Klebsiella pneumoniae, and lung bacterial clearance was determined 24 hours later. Isolated alveolar macrophages were isolated from uninfected animals and evaluated for oxidative stress and signaling through PU.1 and Nrf2. RESULTS:Alcohol-fed rats had a 5-fold decrease in lung bacterial clearance compared to control-fed rats. Dietary zinc supplementation of alcohol-fed rats normalized bacterial clearance and mitigated oxidative stress in the alveolar space, as reflected by the relative balance of the thiol redox pair cysteine and cystine, and increased nuclear binding of both PU.1 and Nrf2 in alveolar macrophages from alcohol-fed rats. CONCLUSIONS:Dietary zinc supplementation prevents alcohol-induced alveolar macrophage immune dysfunction and oxidative stress in a relevant experimental model, suggesting that such a strategy could decrease the risk of pneumonia and lung injury in individuals with alcohol use disorders. 10.1111/j.1530-0277.2011.01488.x
    MARCO regulates early inflammatory responses against influenza: a useful macrophage function with adverse outcome. Ghosh Sanjukta,Gregory David,Smith Alexia,Kobzik Lester American journal of respiratory cell and molecular biology Lung macrophages use the scavenger receptor MARCO to bind and ingest bacteria, particulate matter, and post cellular debris. We investigated the role of MARCO in influenza A virus (IAV) pneumonia. In contrast to higher susceptibility to bacterial infection, MARCO(-/-) mice had lower morbidity and mortality from influenza pneumonia than wild-type (WT) mice. The early course of influenza in MARCO(-/-) lungs was marked by an enhanced but transient neutrophilic inflammatory response and significantly lower viral replication compared with the WT mice. At later time points, no significant differences in lung histopathology or absolute numbers of T lymphocyte influx were evident. Uptake of IAV by WT and MARCO(-/-) bronchoalveolar lavage macrophages in vitro was similar. By LPS coadministration, we demonstrated that rapid neutrophil and monocyte influx during the onset of influenza suppressed viral replication, indicating a protective role of early inflammation. We hypothesized that the presence of increased basal proinflammatory post cellular debris in the absence of scavenging function lowered the inflammatory response threshold to IAV in MARCO(-/-) mice. Indeed, MARCO(-/-) mice showed increased accumulation of proinflammatory oxidized lipoproteins in the bronchoalveolar lavage early in the infection process, which are the potential mediators of the observed enhanced inflammation. These results indicate that MARCO suppresses a protective early inflammatory response to influenza, which modulates viral clearance and delays recovery. 10.1165/rcmb.2010-0349OC
    Effects of age and macrophage lineage on intracellular survival and cytokine induction after infection with Rhodococcus equi. Berghaus Londa J,Giguère Steeve,Sturgill Tracy L Veterinary immunology and immunopathology Rhodococcus equi, a facultative intracellular pathogen of macrophages, causes life-threatening pneumonia in foals and in people with underlying immune deficiencies. As a basis for this study, we hypothesized that macrophage lineage and age would affect intracellular survival of R. equi and cytokine induction after infection. Monocyte-derived and bronchoalveolar macrophages from 10 adult horses and from 10 foals (sampled at 1-3 days, 2 weeks, 1 month, 3 months, and 5 months of age) were infected ex vivo with virulent R. equi. Intracellular R. equi were quantified and mRNA expression of IL-1β, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12 p40, IL-18, IFN-γ, and TNF-α was measured. Intracellular replication of R. equi was significantly (P<0.001) greater in bronchoalveolar than in monocyte-derived macrophages, regardless of age. Regardless of the macrophage lineage, replication of R. equi was significantly (P=0.002) higher in 3-month-old foals than in 3-day old foals, 2-week-old foals, 1-month-old foals, and adult horses. Expression of IL-4 mRNA was significantly higher in monocyte-derived macrophages whereas expression of IL-6, IL-18, and TNF-α was significantly higher in bronchoalveolar macrophages. Induction of IL-1β, IL-10, IL-12 p40, and IL-8 mRNA in bronchoalveolar macrophages of 1-3-day old foals was significantly higher than in older foals or adult horses. Preferential intracellular survival of R. equi in bronchoalveolar macrophages of juvenile horses may play a role in the pulmonary tropism of the pathogen and in the window of age susceptibility to infection. 10.1016/j.vetimm.2014.03.010
    Macrophage migration inhibitory factor promotes clearance of pneumococcal colonization. Das Rituparna,LaRose Meredith I,Hergott Christopher B,Leng Lin,Bucala Richard,Weiser Jeffrey N Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950) Human genetic polymorphisms associated with decreased expression of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) have been linked to the risk of community-acquired pneumonia. Because Streptococcus pneumoniae is the leading cause of community-acquired pneumonia and nasal carriage is a precursor to invasive disease, we explored the role of MIF in the clearance of pneumococcal colonization in a mouse model. MIF-deficient mice (Mif(-/-)) showed prolonged colonization with both avirulent (23F) and virulent (6A) pneumococcal serotypes compared with wild-type animals. Pneumococcal carriage led to both local upregulation of MIF expression and systemic increase of the cytokine. Delayed clearance in the Mif(-/-) mice was correlated with reduced numbers of macrophages in upper respiratory tract lavages as well as impaired upregulation of MCP-1/CCL2. We found that primary human monocyte-derived macrophages as well as THP-1 macrophages produced MIF upon pneumococcal infection in a pneumolysin-dependent manner. Pneumolysin-induced MIF production required its pore-forming activity and phosphorylation of p38-MAPK in macrophages, with sustained p38-MAPK phosphorylation abrogated in the setting of MIF deficiency. Challenge with pneumolysin-deficient bacteria demonstrated reduced MIF upregulation, decreased numbers of macrophages in the nasopharynx, and less effective clearance. Mif(-/-) mice also showed reduced Ab response to pneumococcal colonization and impaired ability to clear secondary carriage. Finally, local administration of MIF was able to restore bacterial clearance and macrophage accumulation in Mif(-/-) mice. Our work suggests that MIF is important for innate and adaptive immunity to pneumococcal colonization and could be a contributing factor in genetic differences in pneumococcal disease susceptibility. 10.4049/jimmunol.1400133
    Dysregulated Type I Interferon and Inflammatory Monocyte-Macrophage Responses Cause Lethal Pneumonia in SARS-CoV-Infected Mice. Channappanavar Rudragouda,Fehr Anthony R,Vijay Rahul,Mack Matthias,Zhao Jincun,Meyerholz David K,Perlman Stanley Cell host & microbe Highly pathogenic human respiratory coronaviruses cause acute lethal disease characterized by exuberant inflammatory responses and lung damage. However, the factors leading to lung pathology are not well understood. Using mice infected with SARS (severe acute respiratory syndrome)-CoV, we show that robust virus replication accompanied by delayed type I interferon (IFN-I) signaling orchestrates inflammatory responses and lung immunopathology with diminished survival. IFN-I remains detectable until after virus titers peak, but early IFN-I administration ameliorates immunopathology. This delayed IFN-I signaling promotes the accumulation of pathogenic inflammatory monocyte-macrophages (IMMs), resulting in elevated lung cytokine/chemokine levels, vascular leakage, and impaired virus-specific T cell responses. Genetic ablation of the IFN-αβ receptor (IFNAR) or IMM depletion protects mice from lethal infection, without affecting viral load. These results demonstrate that IFN-I and IMM promote lethal SARS-CoV infection and identify IFN-I and IMMs as potential therapeutic targets in patients infected with pathogenic coronavirus and perhaps other respiratory viruses. 10.1016/j.chom.2016.01.007
    Innate Lymphocyte/Ly6C(hi) Monocyte Crosstalk Promotes Klebsiella Pneumoniae Clearance. Xiong Huizhong,Keith James W,Samilo Dane W,Carter Rebecca A,Leiner Ingrid M,Pamer Eric G Cell Increasing antibiotic resistance among bacterial pathogens has rendered some infections untreatable with available antibiotics. Klebsiella pneumoniae, a bacterial pathogen that has acquired high-level antibiotic resistance, is a common cause of pulmonary infections. Optimal clearance of K. pneumoniae from the host lung requires TNF and IL-17A. Herein, we demonstrate that inflammatory monocytes are rapidly recruited to the lungs of K. pneumoniae-infected mice and produce TNF, which markedly increases the frequency of IL-17-producing innate lymphoid cells. While pulmonary clearance of K. pneumoniae is preserved in neutrophil-depleted mice, monocyte depletion or TNF deficiency impairs IL-17A-dependent resolution of pneumonia. Monocyte-mediated bacterial uptake and killing is enhanced by ILC production of IL-17A, indicating that innate lymphocytes engage in a positive-feedback loop with monocytes that promotes clearance of pneumonia. Innate immune defense against a highly antibiotic-resistant bacterial pathogen depends on crosstalk between inflammatory monocytes and innate lymphocytes that is mediated by TNF and IL-17A. 10.1016/j.cell.2016.03.017
    Mitochondrial Transfer via Tunneling Nanotubes is an Important Mechanism by Which Mesenchymal Stem Cells Enhance Macrophage Phagocytosis in the In Vitro and In Vivo Models of ARDS. Jackson Megan V,Morrison Thomas J,Doherty Declan F,McAuley Daniel F,Matthay Michael A,Kissenpfennig Adrien,O'Kane Cecilia M,Krasnodembskaya Anna D Stem cells (Dayton, Ohio) Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) have been reported to improve bacterial clearance in preclinical models of Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) and sepsis. The mechanism of this effect is not fully elucidated yet. The primary objective of this study was to investigate the hypothesis that the antimicrobial effect of MSC in vivo depends on their modulation of macrophage phagocytic activity which occurs through mitochondrial transfer. We established that selective depletion of alveolar macrophages (AM) with intranasal (IN) administration of liposomal clodronate resulted in complete abrogation of MSC antimicrobial effect in the in vivo model of Escherichia coli pneumonia. Furthermore, we showed that MSC administration was associated with enhanced AM phagocytosis in vivo. We showed that direct coculture of MSC with monocyte-derived macrophages enhanced their phagocytic capacity. By fluorescent imaging and flow cytometry we demonstrated extensive mitochondrial transfer from MSC to macrophages which occurred at least partially through tunneling nanotubes (TNT)-like structures. We also detected that lung macrophages readily acquire MSC mitochondria in vivo, and macrophages which are positive for MSC mitochondria display more pronounced phagocytic activity. Finally, partial inhibition of mitochondrial transfer through blockage of TNT formation by MSC resulted in failure to improve macrophage bioenergetics and complete abrogation of the MSC effect on macrophage phagocytosis in vitro and the antimicrobial effect of MSC in vivo. Collectively, this work for the first time demonstrates that mitochondrial transfer from MSC to innate immune cells leads to enhancement in phagocytic activity and reveals an important novel mechanism for the antimicrobial effect of MSC in ARDS. Stem Cells 2016;34:2210-2223. 10.1002/stem.2372
    Influenza and dengue virus co-infection impairs monocyte recruitment to the lung, increases dengue virus titers, and exacerbates pneumonia. Schmid Michael A,González Karla N,Shah Sanjana,Peña José,Mack Matthias,Talarico Laura B,Polack Fernando P,Harris Eva European journal of immunology Co-infections of influenza virus and bacteria are known to cause severe disease, but little information exists on co-infections with other acute viruses. Seasonal influenza and dengue viruses (DENV) regularly co-circulate in tropical regions. The pandemic spread of influenza virus H1N1 (hereafter H1N1) in 2009 led to additional severe disease cases that were co-infected with DENV. Here, we investigated the impact of co-infection on immune responses and pathogenesis in a new mouse model. Co-infection of otherwise sublethal doses of a Nicaraguan clinical H1N1 isolate and two days later with a virulent DENV2 strain increased systemic DENV titers and caused 90% lethality. Lungs of co-infected mice carried both viruses, developed severe pneumonia, and expressed a unique pattern of host mRNAs, resembling only partial responses against infection with either virus alone. A large number of monocytes were recruited to DENV-infected but not to co-infected lungs, and depletion and adoptive transfer experiments revealed a beneficial role of monocytes. Our study shows that co-infection with influenza and DENV impairs host responses, which fail to control DENV titers and instead, induce severe lung damage. Further, our findings identify key inflammatory pathways and monocyte function as targets for future therapies that may limit immunopathology in co-infected patients. 10.1002/eji.201646675
    Monocyte derived macrophages as an appropriate model for porcine cytomegalovirus immunobiology studies. Kavanová Lenka,Moutelíková Romana,Prodělalová Jana,Faldyna Matin,Toman Miroslav,Salát Jiří Veterinary immunology and immunopathology Porcine cytomegalovirus (PCMV) causes lifelong latent infections in swine. The pathogen is occasionally associated with inclusion body rhinitis and pneumonia in piglets, reproductive disorders in pregnant sows and respiratory disease complex in older pigs. Immunosuppressive potential of PCMV infection is discussed. Macrophages were recognised as one of target cell types where propagation of virus occurs. The aim of present study was to set up model PCMV infection of monocyte derived macrophages (MDMs) in vitro for PCMV immunobiology research. Obtained results showed that PCMV is able to infect and propagate in MDMs. Possible immunosuppressive effect of PCMV on infected macrophages was evaluated by measurement of immune relevant gene expression in MDMs. Infection decreased expression of IL-8 and TNF-α (pro-inflammatory cytokines) and increased expression of IL-10 (anti-inflammatory cytokine) on mRNA transcription level. Obtained data support hypothesis that higher sensitivity of animals to coinfection with other swine pathogens and its more severe clinical manifestations could potentially be the consequence of PCMV infection. 10.1016/j.vetimm.2018.01.008
    Targeting inflammatory monocytes in sepsis-associated encephalopathy and long-term cognitive impairment. Andonegui Graciela,Zelinski Erin L,Schubert Courtney L,Knight Derrice,Craig Laura A,Winston Brent W,Spanswick Simon C,Petri Björn,Jenne Craig N,Sutherland Janice C,Nguyen Rita,Jayawardena Natalie,Kelly Margaret M,Doig Christopher J,Sutherland Robert J,Kubes Paul JCI insight Sepsis-associated encephalopathy manifesting as delirium is a common problem in critical care medicine. In this study, patients that had delirium due to sepsis had significant cognitive impairments at 12-18 months after hospital discharge when compared with controls and Cambridge Neuropsychological Automated Test Battery-standardized scores in spatial recognition memory, pattern recognition memory, and delayed-matching-to-sample tests but not other cognitive functions. A mouse model of S. pneumoniae pneumonia-induced sepsis, which modeled numerous aspects of the human sepsis-associated multiorgan dysfunction, including encephalopathy, also revealed similar deficits in spatial memory but not new task learning. Both humans and mice had large increases in chemokines for myeloid cell recruitment. Intravital imaging of the brains of septic mice revealed increased neutrophil and CCR2+ inflammatory monocyte recruitment (the latter being far more robust), accompanied by subtle microglial activation. Prevention of CCR2+ inflammatory monocyte recruitment, but not neutrophil recruitment, reduced microglial activation and other signs of neuroinflammation and prevented all signs of cognitive impairment after infection. Therefore, therapeutically targeting CCR2+ inflammatory monocytes at the time of sepsis may provide a novel neuroprotective clinical intervention to prevent the development of persistent cognitive impairments. 10.1172/jci.insight.99364
    Hematoma size as major modulator of the cellular immune system after experimental intracerebral hemorrhage. Illanes Sergio,Liesz Arthur,Sun Li,Dalpke Alexander,Zorn Markus,Veltkamp Roland Neuroscience letters Inflammatory cascades are increasingly recognized as an important pathophysiological mechanism in intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). In contrast, the effect of ICH on the systemic immune system has barely been investigated. We examined the effects of different hematoma volumes on immune cell subpopulations in experimental murine ICH. In C57BL/6 mice, ICH was induced by striatal injection of autologous blood (10, 30 or 50 μL). Control animals received the respective sham operation. Three days after ICH induction, differential blood leukocyte counting was performed. Lymphocyte subpopulations were further characterized by flow cytometry in blood, spleen, lymph node and thymus. Infectious complications were studied using microbiological cultures of blood and lungs. Only after large ICH a marked decrease of leukocyte counts and most lymphocyte subsets was observed in all organs. Despite this general leukocytopenia, a significant, up to 10-fold increase, was detected in the monocyte population after extensive hemorrhage. After moderate ICH induction, only specific lymphocyte subpopulations were differentially affected. Mature thymic cells were unaffected while immature CD4+CD8+ cells were depleted by over 90% after large ICH. A significant proportion of mice with extensive ICH (36.4%) developed spontaneous pneumonia and/or bacteremia while none of the sham operated mice had infectious complications. The ICH size determines the extent of systemic immunomodulation. Large ICH predisposes animals to infections. 10.1016/j.neulet.2010.11.065
    The Immune Response against , an Emerging Pathogen in Nosocomial Infections. García-Patiño María Guadalupe,García-Contreras Rodolfo,Licona-Limón Paula Frontiers in immunology is the etiologic agent of a wide range of nosocomial infections, including pneumonia, bacteremia, and skin infections. Over the last 45 years, an alarming increase in the antibiotic resistance of this opportunistic microorganism has been reported, a situation that hinders effective treatments. In order to develop effective therapies against it is crucial to understand the basis of host-bacterium interactions, especially those concerning the immune response of the host. Different innate immune cells such as monocytes, macrophages, dendritic cells, and natural killer cells have been identified as important effectors in the defense against ; among them, neutrophils represent a key immune cell indispensable for the control of the infection. Several immune strategies to combat have been identified such as recognition of the bacteria by immune cells through pattern recognition receptors, specifically toll-like receptors, which trigger bactericidal mechanisms including oxidative burst and cytokine and chemokine production to amplify the immune response against the pathogen. However, a complete picture of the protective immune strategies activated by this bacteria and its potential therapeutic use remains to be determined and explored. 10.3389/fimmu.2017.00441
    Functional Impairment of Mononuclear Phagocyte System by the Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus. Bohmwald Karen,Espinoza Janyra A,Pulgar Raúl A,Jara Evelyn L,Kalergis Alexis M Frontiers in immunology The mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS) comprises of monocytes, macrophages (MΦ), and dendritic cells (DCs). MPS is part of the first line of immune defense against a wide range of pathogens, including viruses, such as the human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV). The hRSV is an enveloped virus that belongs to the family, genus. This virus is the main etiological agent causing severe acute lower respiratory tract infection, especially in infants, children and the elderly. Human RSV can cause bronchiolitis and pneumonia and it has also been implicated in the development of recurrent wheezing and asthma. Monocytes, MΦ, and DCs significantly contribute to acute inflammation during hRSV-induced bronchiolitis and asthma exacerbation. Furthermore, these cells seem to be an important component for the association between hRSV and reactive airway disease. After hRSV infection, the first cells encountered by the virus are respiratory epithelial cells, alveolar macrophages (AMs), DCs, and monocytes in the airways. Because AMs constitute the predominant cell population at the alveolar space in healthy subjects, these cells work as major innate sentinels for the recognition of pathogens. Although adaptive immunity is crucial for viral clearance, AMs are required for the early immune response against hRSV, promoting viral clearance and controlling immunopathology. Furthermore, exposure to hRSV may affect the phagocytic and microbicidal capacity of monocytes and MΦs against other infectious agents. Finally, different studies have addressed the roles of different DC subsets during infection by hRSV. In this review article, we discuss the role of the lung MPS during hRSV infection and their involvement in the development of bronchiolitis. 10.3389/fimmu.2017.01643
    Monocytic HLA-DR expression in intensive care patients: interest for prognosis and secondary infection prediction. Lukaszewicz Anne-Claire,Grienay Marion,Resche-Rigon Matthieu,Pirracchio Romain,Faivre Valérie,Boval Bernadette,Payen Didier Critical care medicine OBJECTIVES:To test early measurement of human leukocyte antigen-DR expression on circulating monocytes (mHLA-DR) as prognostic marker, and the trend of mHLA-DR recovery for the prediction of late secondary infection risk in a large intensive care unit population. DESIGN:Prospective, observational study over 16 mos. SETTING:Intensive care unit in a tertiary teaching hospital. INCLUSION CRITERIA:Simplified Acute Physiology Score II >15, age >18 yrs. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS:The mHLA-DR was measured by flow cytometry within the first 3 days and twice a week until discharge. We used a logistic regression model for outcome prediction, and a competing risk approach to test the relationship between mHLA-DR recovery (log (mHLA-DR) slope) and incidence of secondary infection. A total of 283 consecutive patients suffering from various pathologies were monitored (Simplified Acute Physiology Score II = 39, Sepsis-related Organ Failure Assessment of 5 on day 0). Early mHLA-DR was decreased in the whole population, however, more deeply in sepsis (p < .0001). Low mHLA-DR was associated with mortality in the whole population (p = .003), as in subgroups (nonseptic, neurologic, and septic), but not when adjusted on Simplified Acute Physiology Score II. In patients with a length of stay of >7 days (n = 70), the lower the slope of mHLA-DR recovery, the higher the incidence of the first secondary infection (adjusted on early mHLA-DR, p = .04). CONCLUSIONS:For a given severity, mHLA-DR proved not to a predictive marker of outcome, but a weak trend of mHLA-DR recovery was associated with an increased risk of secondary infection. Monitoring immune functions through mHLA-DR in intensive care unit patients therefore could be useful to identify a high risk of secondary infection. 10.1097/CCM.0b013e3181ab858a
    Alveolar Hypoxia-Induced Pulmonary Inflammation: From Local Initiation to Secondary Promotion by Activated Systemic Inflammation. Chen Ting,Yang Chengzhong,Li Manman,Tan Xiaoling Journal of vascular research Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a pathological condition with high mortality and morbidity. Hypoxic PH (HPH) is a common form of PH occurring mainly due to lung disease and/or hypoxia. Most causes of HPH are associated with persistent or intermittent alveolar hypoxia, including exposure to high altitude and chronic obstructive respiratory disease. Recent evidence suggests that inflammation is a critical step for HPH initiation and development. A detailed understanding of the initiation and progression of pulmonary inflammation would help in exploring potential clinical treatments for HPH. In this review, the mechanism for alveolar hypoxia-induced local lung inflammation and its progression are discussed as follows: (1) low alveolar PO2 levels activate resident lung cells, mainly the alveolar macrophages, which initiate pulmonary inflammation; (2) systemic inflammation is induced by alveolar hypoxia through alveolar macrophage activation; (3) monocytes are recruited into the pulmonary circulation by alveolar hypoxia-induced macrophage activation, which then contributes to the progression of pulmonary inflammation during the chronic phase of alveolar hypoxia, and (4) alveolar hypoxia-induced systemic inflammation contributes to the development of HPH. We hypothesize that a combination of alveolar hypoxia-induced local lung inflammation and the initiation of systemic inflammation ("second hit") is essential for HPH progression. 10.1159/000452800
    Inflammation induced by influenza virus impairs human innate immune control of pneumococcus. Jochems Simon P,Marcon Fernando,Carniel Beatriz F,Holloway Mark,Mitsi Elena,Smith Emma,Gritzfeld Jenna F,Solórzano Carla,Reiné Jesús,Pojar Sherin,Nikolaou Elissavet,German Esther L,Hyder-Wright Angie,Hill Helen,Hales Caz,de Steenhuijsen Piters Wouter A A,Bogaert Debby,Adler Hugh,Zaidi Seher,Connor Victoria,Gordon Stephen B,Rylance Jamie,Nakaya Helder I,Ferreira Daniela M Nature immunology Colonization of the upper respiratory tract by pneumococcus is important both as a determinant of disease and for transmission into the population. The immunological mechanisms that contain pneumococcus during colonization are well studied in mice but remain unclear in humans. Loss of this control of pneumococcus following infection with influenza virus is associated with secondary bacterial pneumonia. We used a human challenge model with type 6B pneumococcus to show that acquisition of pneumococcus induced early degranulation of resident neutrophils and recruitment of monocytes to the nose. Monocyte function was associated with the clearance of pneumococcus. Prior nasal infection with live attenuated influenza virus induced inflammation, impaired innate immune function and altered genome-wide nasal gene responses to the carriage of pneumococcus. Levels of the cytokine CXCL10, promoted by viral infection, at the time pneumococcus was encountered were positively associated with bacterial load. 10.1038/s41590-018-0231-y
    The contributions of lung macrophage and monocyte heterogeneity to influenza pathogenesis. Duan Mubing,Hibbs Margaret L,Chen Weisan Immunology and cell biology The lung myeloid cell microenvironment comprises airway, alveolar and interstitial macrophages, peripheral blood recruited lung monocytes as well as residential and migratory dendritic cell subsets. Findings from fate mapping, parabiosis, transcriptome and epigenome profiling studies now indicate that tissue macrophage and monocyte subsets possess specialized functions which differentially impact homoeostatic tolerance, pathogen detection and pathogen killing. In the lungs, residential alveolar macrophages are catabolic and immunosuppressive in contrast to the classically pro-inflammatory repertoire of lung monocytes and monocyte-derived dendritic cells recruited during acute inflammation. Here, we review the identity and functions of all lung macrophage and monocyte subsets during homoeostasis and acute lung inflammation, with a special focus on their contributions to influenza virus detection, clearance and the development of influenza-induced lung pathologies. Subsequent implications for the development of new therapeutic targets against influenza-induced lung pathologies will also be discussed. 10.1038/icb.2016.97
    Plasma Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein-1 Level as a Predictor of the Severity of Community-Acquired Pneumonia. Yong Kok-Khun,Chang Jer-Hwa,Chien Ming-Hsien,Tsao Shih-Ming,Yu Ming-Chih,Bai Kuan-Jen,Tsao Thomas Chang-Yao,Yang Shun-Fa International journal of molecular sciences Monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1 increases in the serum of immunocompetent patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). However, the correlation between the circulating level of MCP-1 and severity of CAP remains unclear. This study investigated differential changes in the plasma MCP-1 levels of patients with CAP before and after an antibiotic treatment and further analyzes the association between the CAP severity and MCP-1 levels. We measured the plasma MCP-1 levels of 137 patients with CAP and 74 healthy controls by using a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Upon initial hospitalization, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II); confusion, urea level, respiratory rate, blood pressure, and age of >64 years (CURB-65); and pneumonia severity index (PSI) scores were determined for assessing the CAP severity in these patients. The antibiotic treatment reduced the number of white blood cells (WBCs) and neutrophils as well as the level of C-reactive protein (CRP) and MCP-1. The plasma MCP-1 level, but not the CRP level or WBC count, correlated with the CAP severity according to the PSI (r = 0.509, p < 0.001), CURB-65 (r = 0.468, p < 0.001), and APACHE II (r = 0.360, p < 0.001) scores. We concluded that MCP-1 levels act in the development of CAP and are involved in the severity of CAP. 10.3390/ijms17020179
    Duration and magnitude of hypotension and monocyte deactivation in patients with community-acquired pneumonia. Simon Peter M,Delude Russell L,Lee MinJae,Kong Lan,Guzik Lynda J,Huang David T,Angus Derek C,Kellum John A, Shock (Augusta, Ga.) The objective was to examine the relationship of duration and magnitude of arterial hypotension to subsequent cellular immune suppression and cytokinemia in patients hospitalized with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). We studied an observational cohort of 525 subjects hospitalized after presenting to the emergency department with radiographic and clinical signs of CAP. We compared the duration and magnitude of hypotension, using the cardiovascular Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (CV SOFA) subscore, to day 3 monocyte expression of human leukocyte antigen-DR (mHLA-DR), a previously validated marker of cellular immune suppression. A significant association of CV SOFA with decreased mHLA-DR expression was present in univariate analysis (P < 0.001) and persisted after adjustment for illness severity and other covariates (P = 0.01). With CV SOFA separated into components of magnitude and duration, after covariate adjustment, only duration was associated with day 3 mHLA-DR expression (P = 0.03). Levels of key proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin 6 [IL-6], IL-10, tumor necrosis factor) increased with hypotension exposure and were also associated with mHLA-DR expression. In patients admitted with CAP, arterial hypotension over the first 3 days is associated with markers of monocyte deactivation. The duration of exposure to hypotension may be more important than the magnitude, and monocyte deactivation correlates with IL-6 and IL-10 release. These results suggest that persistent hypotension might contribute to immunosuppression following septic shock. 10.1097/SHK.0b013e318235331e
    Heterogeneity of lung mononuclear phagocytes during pneumonia: contribution of chemokine receptors. Chen Lanlin,Zhang Zhimin,Barletta Kathryn E,Burdick Marie D,Mehrad Borna American journal of physiology. Lung cellular and molecular physiology Bacterial pneumonia is a common and dangerous illness. Mononuclear phagocytes, which comprise monocyte, resident and recruited macrophage, and dendritic cell subsets, are critical to antimicrobial defenses, but the dynamics of their recruitment to the lungs in pneumonia is not established. We hypothesized that chemokine-mediated traffic of mononuclear phagocytes is important in defense against bacterial pneumonia. In a mouse model of Klebsiella pneumonia, circulating Ly6C(hi) and, to a lesser extent, Ly6C(lo) monocytes expanded in parallel with accumulation of inflammatory macrophages and CD11b(hi) dendritic cells and plasmacytoid dendritic cells in the lungs, whereas numbers of alveolar macrophages remained constant. CCR2 was expressed by Ly6C(hi) monocytes, recruited macrophages, and airway dendritic cells; CCR6 was prominently expressed by airway dendritic cells; and CX3CR1 was ubiquitously expressed by blood monocytes and lung CD11b(hi) dendritic cells during infection. CCR2-deficient, but not CCL2-, CX3CR1-, or CCR6-deficient animals exhibited worse outcomes of infection. The absence of CCR2 had no detectable effect on neutrophils but resulted in reduction of all subsets of lung mononuclear phagocytes in the lungs, including alveolar macrophages and airway and plasmacytoid dendritic cells. In addition, absence of CCR2 skewed the phenotype of lung mononuclear phagocytes, abrogating the appearance of M1 macrophages and TNF-producing dendritic cells in the lungs. Taken together, these data define the dynamics of mononuclear phagocytes during pneumonia. 10.1152/ajplung.00194.2013
    Inflammatory Macrophage Expansion in Pulmonary Hypertension Depends upon Mobilization of Blood-Borne Monocytes. Florentin Jonathan,Coppin Emilie,Vasamsetti Sathish Babu,Zhao Jingsi,Tai Yi-Yin,Tang Ying,Zhang Yingze,Watson Annie,Sembrat John,Rojas Mauricio,Vargas Sara O,Chan Stephen Y,Dutta Partha Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950) Pulmonary inflammation, which is characterized by the presence of perivascular macrophages, has been proposed as a key pathogenic driver of pulmonary hypertension (PH), a vascular disease with increasing global significance. However, the mechanisms of expansion of lung macrophages and the role of blood-borne monocytes in PH are poorly understood. Using multicolor flow cytometric analysis of blood in mouse and rat models of PH and patients with PH, an increase in blood monocytes was observed. In parallel, lung tissue displayed increased chemokine transcript expression, including those responsible for monocyte recruitment, such as and , accompanied by an expansion of interstitial lung macrophages. These data indicate that blood monocytes are recruited to lung perivascular spaces and differentiate into inflammatory macrophages. Correspondingly, parabiosis between congenically different hypoxic mice demonstrated that most interstitial macrophages originated from blood monocytes. To define the actions of these cells in PH in vivo, we reduced blood monocyte numbers via genetic deficiency of or in chronically hypoxic male mice and by pharmacologic inhibition of Cxcl1 in monocrotaline-exposed rats. Both models exhibited decreased inflammatory blood monocytes, as well as interstitial macrophages, leading to a substantial decrease in arteriolar remodeling but with a less robust hemodynamic effect. This study defines a direct mechanism by which interstitial macrophages expand in PH. It also demonstrates a pathway for pulmonary vascular remodeling in PH that depends upon interstitial macrophage-dependent inflammation yet is dissociated, at least in part, from hemodynamic consequences, thus offering guidance on future anti-inflammatory therapeutic strategies in this disease. 10.4049/jimmunol.1701287
    Intravascular donor monocytes play a central role in lung transplant ischaemia-reperfusion injury. Tatham Kate Colette,O'Dea Kieran Patrick,Romano Rosalba,Donaldson Hannah Elizabeth,Wakabayashi Kenji,Patel Brijesh Vipin,Thakuria Louit,Simon Andre Rudiger,Sarathchandra Padmini, ,Marczin Nandor,Takata Masao Thorax RATIONALE:Primary graft dysfunction in lung transplant recipients derives from the initial, largely leukocyte-dependent, ischaemia-reperfusion injury. Intravascular lung-marginated monocytes have been shown to play key roles in experimental acute lung injury, but their contribution to lung ischaemia-reperfusion injury post transplantation is unknown. OBJECTIVE:To define the role of donor intravascular monocytes in lung transplant-related acute lung injury and primary graft dysfunction. METHODS:Isolated perfused C57BL/6 murine lungs were subjected to warm ischaemia (2 hours) and reperfusion (2 hours) under normoxic conditions. Monocyte retention, activation phenotype and the effects of their depletion by intravenous clodronate-liposome treatment on lung inflammation and injury were determined. In human donor lung transplant samples, the presence and activation phenotype of monocytic cells (low side scatter, 27E10+, CD14+, HLA-DR+, CCR2+) were evaluated by flow cytometry and compared with post-implantation lung function. RESULTS:In mouse lungs following ischaemia-reperfusion, substantial numbers of lung-marginated monocytes remained within the pulmonary microvasculature, with reduced L-selectin and increased CD86 expression indicating their activation. Monocyte depletion resulted in reductions in lung wet:dry ratios, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid protein, and perfusate levels of RAGE, MIP-2 and KC, while monocyte repletion resulted in a partial restoration of the injury. In human lungs, correlations were observed between pre-implantation donor monocyte numbers/their CD86 and TREM-1 expression and post-implantation lung dysfunction at 48 and 72 hours. CONCLUSIONS:These results indicate that lung-marginated intravascular monocytes are retained as a 'passenger' leukocyte population during lung transplantation, and play a key role in the development of transplant-associated ischaemia-reperfusion injury. 10.1136/thoraxjnl-2016-208977
    Low-pathogenicity Mycoplasma spp. alter human monocyte and macrophage function and are highly prevalent among patients with ventilator-acquired pneumonia. Nolan T J,Gadsby N J,Hellyer T P,Templeton K E,McMullan R,McKenna J P,Rennie J,Robb C T,Walsh T S,Rossi A G,Conway Morris A,Simpson A J Thorax BACKGROUND:Ventilator-acquired pneumonia (VAP) remains a significant problem within intensive care units (ICUs). There is a growing recognition of the impact of critical-illness-induced immunoparesis on the pathogenesis of VAP, but the mechanisms remain incompletely understood. We hypothesised that, because of limitations in their routine detection, Mycoplasmataceae are more prevalent among patients with VAP than previously recognised, and that these organisms potentially impair immune cell function. METHODS AND SETTING:159 patients were recruited from 12 UK ICUs. All patients had suspected VAP and underwent bronchoscopy and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). VAP was defined as growth of organisms at >10(4) colony forming units per ml of BAL fluid on conventional culture. Samples were tested for Mycoplasmataceae (Mycoplasma and Ureaplasma spp.) by PCR, and positive samples underwent sequencing for speciation. 36 healthy donors underwent BAL for comparison. Additionally, healthy donor monocytes and macrophages were exposed to Mycoplasma salivarium and their ability to respond to lipopolysaccharide and undertake phagocytosis was assessed. RESULTS:Mycoplasmataceae were found in 49% (95% CI 33% to 65%) of patients with VAP, compared with 14% (95% CI 9% to 25%) of patients without VAP. Patients with sterile BAL fluid had a similar prevalence to healthy donor BAL fluid (10% (95% CI 4% to 20%) vs 8% (95% CI 2% to 22%)). The most common organism identified was M. salivarium. Blood monocytes from healthy volunteers incubated with M. salivarium displayed an impaired TNF-α response to lipopolysaccharide (p=0.0003), as did monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs) (p=0.024). MDM exposed to M. salivarium demonstrated impaired phagocytosis (p=0.005). DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS:This study demonstrates a high prevalence of Mycoplasmataceae among patients with VAP, with a markedly lower prevalence among patients with suspected VAP in whom subsequent cultures refuted the diagnosis. The most common organism found, M. salivarium, is able to alter the functions of key immune cells. Mycoplasmataceae may contribute to VAP pathogenesis. 10.1136/thoraxjnl-2015-208050
    Monocyte subsets study in children with Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia. Wang Zhihua,Yang Lei,Ye Jing,Wang Yushui,Liu Yan Immunologic research The aim of this study was to evaluate the changes in the three subsets of monocyte (classical, intermediate, and non-classical) and the expression of human leukocyte antigen-DR (HLA-DR) on monocyte subsets during MP pneumonia in children. Monocyte subsets were analyzed in the peripheral blood of healthy volunteers and MP pneumonia patients at the stages of admission and remission after clinical therapy. They were defined as classical (CD14CD16), intermediate (CD14CD16), and non-classical (CD14CD16) using flow cytometry. Furthermore, three subsets of monocyte were analyzed for the expression of HLA-DR. Patients with MP pneumonia at admission had a higher proportion of intermediate and non-classical monocytes than healthy subjects (all P < 0.05). The proportion of intermediate subset and non-classical subset was lower in MP pneumonia patients at remission than at admission (all P < 0.05). In comparison with the other monocyte subsets, intermediate subset showed a significantly higher percentage of HLA-DR in MP pneumonia patients at admission (P < 0.05). Further analysis revealed that the expression of HLA-DR on intermediate subset was lower in severe patients than in non-severe patients (P < 0.05).Our data has shown for the first time that MP pneumonia is associated with the increased proportion of non-classical and intermediate monocytes, indicating the involvement of monocyte-related mechanisms in the pathogenesis of this disease. Additionally, the decreased expression of HLA-DR on CD14CD16 subset may be a potential indicator of the severity of MP pneumonia. 10.1007/s12026-019-09096-6
    Diagnostic value of blood parameters for community-acquired pneumonia. Huang Yukai,Liu Aihua,Liang Ling,Jiang Jiawei,Luo Haihua,Deng Weiming,Lin Guohui,Wu Maosheng,Li Tianwang,Jiang Yong International immunopharmacology BACKGROUND:Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) has a high rate of morbidity and mortality. Blood parameters, including neutrophil, platelet, lymphocyte, monocyte, neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR), platelet to lymphocyte ratio (PLR), and monocyte to lymphocyte ratio (MLR), have been proposed as indicators of systemic inflammation and infection. However, few studies have focused on the diagnostic value of blood parameters for CAP. OBJECTIVE:The study aims to determine the diagnostic value of blood parameters for CAP and to investigate their relationship with disease severity. METHODS:CAP patients who fulfilled the inclusion criteria were enrolled in this study. Healthy age- and gender-matched subjects were also enrolled as a control group. Blood parameters, blood biochemistry, C-reactive protein (CRP), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), procalcitonin (PCT), days in hospital, body temperature, pneumonia severity index (PSI), and CURB-65 were recorded. The area under the curve (AUC) values was determined using the receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve. The correlation between the variables was tested with Pearson correlation analysis. RESULTS:The study included 80 CAP patients and 49 healthy subjects. White blood cell (WBC), neutrophil, monocyte, MLR, PLR, and NLR levels in the CAP group were higher than that of control group, while lymphocyte and hemoglobin (HGB) levels were lower (P < 0.05). The ROC curve result showed that NLR and MLR yielded higher AUC values than other variables. Monocyte was positively correlated with ESR and negatively with body temperature, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and creatinine (CREA). NLR was positively correlated with CRP, PCT, days in hospital, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), AST, and PSI. MLR was positively correlated with CRP, PCT, and body temperature. An increase in ALT or AST of >2 times of normal was defined as liver injury, and CAP patients were divided into the liver normal group and liver injury group. Sixty-nine patients belonged to the liver normal group, and 11 patients belonged to the liver injury group. Blood parameters, ESR, CRP, PCT, PSI, and CURB-65 were compared between the two groups. The results demonstrated that the monocyte level in the liver injury group was lower than that of the liver normal group (P < 0.05). The ROC curve result showed that the AUC value of monocyte for liver injury was 0.838 (95% confidence interval: 0.733-0.943), which was higher than other variables. CONCLUSIONS:NLR and MLR were elevated in CAP patients, resulting in a higher diagnostic value for CAP. NLR showed a significant correlation to PSI, indicating the disease severity of CAP. Monocyte had a higher diagnostic value for liver injury in CAP patients. 10.1016/j.intimp.2018.08.022
    Changes in blood monocyte Toll-like receptor and serum surfactant protein A reveal a pathophysiological mechanism for community-acquired pneumonia in patients with type 2 diabetes. Que Y,Shen X Internal medicine journal BACKGROUND:The lung is one of the target organs of microangiopathy in diabetes mellitus (DM); patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are vulnerable to pneumonia, and a variety of pathophysiological mechanisms has been described. AIM:This study aimed to determine the pathophysiological mechanism of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in T2DM patients. METHODS:A total of 90 individuals was included in this study comprised of three groups (n = 30): healthy control, T2DM and T2DM+ CAP groups. Toll-like receptor (TLR)2 and 4 protein and messenger RNA expression in peripheral blood monocytes(PBMC) was assessed by western blot and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, respectively, and surfactant protein A (SP-A) levels were examined in serum samples by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. RESULTS:In T2DM and T2DM+CAP groups, levels of both TLR2/4 protein and mRNA in PBMC were decreased compared with controls (P <0.05), with lower levels observed in the T2DM+CAP group in comparison with T2DM patients (P <0.05). The serum SP-A levels in T2DM+CAP individuals were significantly higher than the values obtained for T2DM patients (P <0.05). It also showed apparent increases when compared with that in controls although no statistical significance was detected. CONCLUSION:In T2DM patients with pneumonia, TLR2/4 levels in PBMC and serum SP-A were altered, maybe playing an important role in the susceptibility to pneumonia in T2DM patients. 10.1111/imj.12978
    Predicting the Outcomes of Subjects With Severe Community-Acquired Pneumonia Using Monocyte Human Leukocyte Antigen-DR. Zhuang Yugang,Li Wenjie,Wang Huiqi,Peng Hu,Chen Yanqing,Zhang Xiangyu,Chen Yuanzhuo,Gao Chengjin Respiratory care BACKGROUND:The objective was to study the level of monocyte-human leukocyte antigen-DR (mHLA-DR), an immune function-related biomarker, at 24 h after admission, to predict the outcomes of subjects with severe pneumonia. METHODS:Subjects with severe community-acquired pneumonia (n = 102) were included in the study. Blood samples were collected from each subject 24 h after admission. Data regarding age, sex, PaO2 /FIO2, comorbidities, occurrence of altered mental status, bacteremia, septic shock, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II score, and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score within the first 24 h; the highest temperature within 24 h after admission; mechanical ventilation usage; timing of antibiotic therapy; ICU stay; and 28-d survival were collected. Expression of mHLA-DR was measured by flow cytometry. RESULTS:APACHE II score and SOFA score were significantly higher (P < .001), whereas the mHLA-DR expression was significantly lower (P < .001) in the non-survivors than in the survivors. The outcomes at day 28 after admission were significantly associated with the APACHE II score (P = .002, odds ratio [OR] = 1.27, 95% CI 1.10-1.48), the SOFA score (P = .003, OR = 1.52, 95% CI 1.15-2.00), and mHLA-DR level (P = .01, OR = 0.91, 95% CI 0.85-0.98), as shown by logistic regression. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.877 (95% CI 0.81-0.94, P < .001), 0.862 (95% CI 0.79-0.93, P < .001), and 0.781 (95% CI 0.69-0.87, P < .001) for APACHE II score, SOFA score, and the mHLA-DR expression, respectively. The optimal threshold for mHLA-DR level was 27.2%. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed that subjects with mHLA-DR ≥ 27.2% had significantly better outcomes compared with < 27.2% level (P < .001, log rank test, hazard ratio = 0.963, 95% CI 0.94-0.99). CONCLUSIONS:mHLA-DR may be a reliable biomarker that can predict the outcomes of patients with severe community-acquired pneumonia, and 27.2% may be the cut-off value to predict the outcomes. 10.4187/respcare.03953