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    Metabolically healthy obesity and cardiovascular events: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Eckel Nathalie,Meidtner Karina,Kalle-Uhlmann Tamara,Stefan Norbert,Schulze Matthias B European journal of preventive cardiology AIMS:Previous studies have provided inconsistent results about the cardiovascular risks for participants with metabolically healthy obesity (MHO). These uncertainties might partly reflect the lack of a uniform definition of MHO. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to examine whether there is a suitable approach that identifies obese participants who are not at an increased risk of cardiovascular events compared with healthy normal-weight participants. METHODS AND RESULTS:Twenty-two prospective studies were eligible for the meta-analysis. Using random-effect models, pooled relative risks (RRs) were calculated for the combined effects of obesity with the presence or absence of metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance, hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidaemia and any of these metabolic factors. Participants with MHO defined by the absence of metabolic syndrome were at increased risk for cardiovascular events compared with healthy normal-weight participants (pooled RR 1.45, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.20-1.70), but had lower risks than unhealthy normal-weight (RR 2.07, 95% CI 1.62-2.65) and obese (RR 2.31, 95% CI 1.99-2.69) participants. The risk associated with participants who had MHO was particularly high over the long term. Similar risk estimates were observed when MHO was defined by other approaches. CONCLUSIONS:None of the approaches clearly identified an obese subgroup not at increased risk of cardiovascular events compared with normal-weight healthy participants. A benign obese phenotype might be defined by strict definitions, but insufficient studies exist to support this. More research is needed to better define MHO. 10.1177/2047487315623884
    Early experience of an infectious and tropical diseases unit during the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic, Florence, Italy, February to March 2020. Lagi Filippo,Piccica Matteo,Graziani Lucia,Vellere Iacopo,Botta Annarita,Tilli Marta,Ottino Letizia,Borchi Beatrice,Pozzi Marco,Bartalesi Filippo,Mencarini Jessica,Spinicci Michele,Zammarchi Lorenzo,Pieralli Filippo,Zagli Giovanni,Nozzoli Carlo,Romagnoli Stefano,Bartoloni Alessandro, Euro surveillance : bulletin Europeen sur les maladies transmissibles = European communicable disease bulletin We analysed the first 84 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) patients hospitalised in an infectious and tropical disease unit in Florence, Italy, over 30 days after the start of the COVID-19 outbreak in Italy. A 12% reduction in the rate of intensive care unit transfer was observed after the implementation of intensity care measures in the regular ward such as increasing the nurse/patient ratio, presence of critical care physicians and using high flow nasal cannulae oxygenation. 10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2020.25.17.2000556
    Risk factors for hospitalization and severe outcomes of 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza in Quebec, Canada. Gilca Rodica,De Serres Gaston,Boulianne Nicole,Ouhoummane Najwa,Papenburg Jesse,Douville-Fradet Monique,Fortin Élise,Dionne Marc,Boivin Guy,Skowronski Danuta M Influenza and other respiratory viruses BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE:This case-control study was carried out to estimate risk factors associated with hospitalizations and severe outcomes [intensive care unit (ICU) admission or death] among patients with illness because of laboratory-confirmed 2009 pandemic A/H1N1 virus (pH1N1) during the first wave of pH1N1 activity in the province of Quebec, Canada. PATIENTS/METHODS:We collected epidemiologic information by phone using a standardized questionnaire from patients with laboratory-confirmed pH1N1 illness during the first spring/summer pandemic wave in Quebec, Canada. Risk factors associated with hospitalization were assessed by comparing hospitalized to community cases and for ICU admission or death through comparison with hospitalized cases. RESULTS:Cases (321 hospitalized patients including 47 ICU admissions and 15 deaths) were compared to controls (395 non-hospitalized patients) by using multivariable logistic regression adjusted for gender, age, education, being a health care worker, smoking, seasonal influenza vaccination, delay to consultation, antiviral use before admission, pregnancy, underlying medical conditions, and obesity. Age <5 years, underlying medical conditions (neuromuscular, cardiac, pulmonary, and renal conditions, diabetes, asthma, and other), and delayed consultation were associated with hospitalization. The strongest association with hospitalization was observed for neuromuscular disorders. Antiviral medication before hospital admission protected against severe disease. Association of obesity with hospitalization was not significant after adjustment in multivariable analysis. Among hospitalized patients, age ≥60 years and immune suppression were associated with death. CONCLUSIONS:Previously identified risk factors for seasonal influenza were also associated with increased risk of severe pH1N1 outcomes. The independent role of obesity needs to be further defined. 10.1111/j.1750-2659.2011.00204.x
    Underweight, overweight, and obesity as independent risk factors for hospitalization in adults and children from influenza and other respiratory viruses. Moser Joe-Ann S,Galindo-Fraga Arturo,Ortiz-Hernández Ana A,Gu Wenjuan,Hunsberger Sally,Galán-Herrera Juan-Francisco,Guerrero María Lourdes,Ruiz-Palacios Guillermo M,Beigel John H, Influenza and other respiratory viruses BACKGROUND:The relationship between obesity and risk of complications described during the 2009 influenza pandemic is poorly defined for seasonal influenza and other viral causes of influenza-like illness (ILI). METHODS:An observational cohort of hospitalized and outpatient participants with ILI was conducted in six hospitals in Mexico. Nasopharyngeal swabs were tested for influenza and other common respiratory pathogens. RESULTS:A total of 4778 participants were enrolled in this study and had complete data. A total of 2053 (43.0%) had severe ILI. Seven hundred and seventy-eight (16.3%) were positive for influenza, 2636 (55.2%) were positive for other viral respiratory pathogens, and 1364 (28.5%) had no respiratory virus isolated. Adults with influenza were more likely to be hospitalized if they were underweight (OR: 5.20), obese (OR: 3.18), or morbidly obese (OR: 18.40) compared to normal-weight adults. Obese adults with H1N1 had a sixfold increase in odds of hospitalization over H3N2 and B (obese OR: 8.96 vs 1.35, morbidly obese OR: 35.13 vs 5.58, respectively) compared to normal-weight adults. In adults with coronavirus, metapneumovirus, parainfluenza, and rhinovirus, participants that were underweight (OR: 4.07) and morbidly obese (OR: 2.78) were more likely to be hospitalized as compared to normal-weight adults. All-cause influenza-like illness had a similar but less pronounced association between underweight or morbidly obesity and hospitalization. CONCLUSIONS:There is an increased risk of being hospitalized in adult participants that are underweight or morbidly obese, regardless of their viral pathogen status. Having influenza, however, significantly increases the odds of hospitalization in those who are underweight or morbidly obese. 10.1111/irv.12618
    Impact of Obesity on Influenza A Virus Pathogenesis, Immune Response, and Evolution. Honce Rebekah,Schultz-Cherry Stacey Frontiers in immunology With the rising prevalence of obesity has come an increasing awareness of its impact on communicable disease. As a consequence of the 2009 H1N1 influenza A virus pandemic, obesity was identified for the first time as a risk factor for increased disease severity and mortality in infected individuals. Over-nutrition that results in obesity causes a chronic state of meta-inflammation with systemic implications for immunity. Obese hosts exhibit delayed and blunted antiviral responses to influenza virus infection, and they experience poor recovery from the disease. Furthermore, the efficacy of antivirals and vaccines is reduced in this population and obesity may also play a role in altering the viral life cycle, thus complementing the already weakened immune response and leading to severe pathogenesis. Case studies and basic research in human cohorts and animal models have highlighted the prolonged viral shed in the obese host, as well as a microenvironment that permits the emergence of virulent minor variants. This review focuses on influenza A virus pathogenesis in the obese host, and on the impact of obesity on the antiviral response, viral shed, and viral evolution. We comprehensively analyze the recent literature on how and why viral pathogenesis is altered in the obese host along with the impact of the altered host and pathogenic state on viral evolutionary dynamics in multiple models. Finally, we summarized the effectiveness of current vaccines and antivirals in this populations and the questions that remain to be answered. If current trends continue, nearly 50% of the worldwide population is projected to be obese by 2050. This population will have a growing impact on both non-communicable and communicable diseases and may affect global evolutionary trends of influenza virus. 10.3389/fimmu.2019.01071
    Cytokine storm intervention in the early stages of COVID-19 pneumonia. Sun Xinjuan,Wang Tianyuan,Cai Dayong,Hu Zhiwei,Chen Jin'an,Liao Hui,Zhi Liming,Wei Hongxia,Zhang Zhihong,Qiu Yuying,Wang Jing,Wang Aiping Cytokine & growth factor reviews Clinical intervention in patients with corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has demonstrated a strong upregulation of cytokine production in patients who are critically ill with SARS-CoV2-induced pneumonia. In a retrospective study of 41 patients with COVID-19, most patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection developed mild symptoms, whereas some patients later developed aggravated disease symptoms, and eventually passed away because of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS), as a consequence of a severe cytokine storm. Guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of SARS-CoV-2 infected pneumonia were first published January 30, 2020; these guidelines recommended for the first time that cytokine monitoring should be applied in severely ill patients to reduce pneumonia related mortality. The cytokine storm observed in COVID-19 illness is also an important component of mortality in other viral diseases, including SARS, MERS and influenza. In view of the severe morbidity and mortality of COVID-19 pneumonia, we review the current understanding of treatment of human coronavirus infections from the perspective of a dysregulated cytokine and immune response. 10.1016/j.cytogfr.2020.04.002
    A systematic review and meta-analysis of screen time behaviour among North American indigenous populations. Foulds H J A,Rodgers C D,Duncan V,Ferguson L J Obesity reviews : an official journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity Screen time (computer, television, video game and smartphone/tablet activity) is associated with increased obesity and other health risks. This systematic review evaluates screen time among North American Indigenous populations and compares it with that of North American Europeans. Electronic databases (e.g. MEDLINE and EMBASE) were searched, and citations cross-referenced. Included articles reported screen time among First Nations/American Indians, Métis, Inuit/Alaskan Natives or Native Hawaiians. From 788 citations evaluated, 40 identified articles report television, video game, computer and/or overall screen time. Overall screen time was 3.65 ± 1.26 h day(-1) (n = 2,242, 8 articles) among Indigenous children/youth and 3.61 ± 2.95 h day(-1) (n = 155, 1 article) among adults. Among children/youth, 66.0% (n = 11 256, 9 articles) reported less than 2 h day(-1) of television screen time, while only 52.8% (n = 2,458, 1 article) of adults reported this volume. Screen time was generally greater among male population, youth, First Nations/American Indians and overweight/obese individuals. Indigenous children/youth reported greater overall screen time than North American Europeans (4.81 ± 2.84 h day(-1) , n = 1,182 vs. 3.40 ± 2.81 h day(-1) , n = 2,785; 3 articles; p < 0.0001). Screen time is common among North American Indigenous populations. Further research evaluating interventions to reduce screen time and chronic disease risks is required. 10.1111/obr.12389
    Dietary Patterns Independent of Fast Food Are Associated with Obesity among Korean Adults: Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010-2014. Kim Do-Yeon,Ahn Ahleum,Lee Hansongyi,Choi Jaekyung,Lim Hyunjung Nutrients Few studies have examined the multifaceted aspects of fast food consumption and dietary patterns for their effects on obesity. We examined the independent associations of obesity with fast food consumption and dietary pattern in Korean adults using a nationally representative cross-sectional survey. A total of 19,017 adults aged 19-64 years participated in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2010-2014. Fast food items were removed from diet and then dietary patterns were generated. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to examine the odds of overweight/obesity and central obesity according to fast food consumption and dietary patterns. Fast food consumers were about 10% of Korean adults. Both the "White rice and kimchi" pattern and "Meat and alcohol" pattern were associated with low intakes of fiber, calcium, vitamin C, grains, fruit, and milk ( < 0.05). Fast food consumers had higher "Meat and alcohol" and "Grains, fruit, and milk" patterns, and they had a lower "White rice and kimchi" pattern than non-fast food-consumers. Fast food consumers were not associated with overweight/obesity, whereas participants with the "Meat and alcohol" pattern had 14% higher overweight/obesity (95% CI: 1.01, 1.28) and 16% higher central obesity (95% CI: 1.00, 1.34). Fast food consumption was not directly associated with obesity, whereas the "Meat and alcohol" pattern had independent associations with overweight/obesity and central obesity among Korean adults. 10.3390/nu11112740
    Abnormalities of peripheral blood system in patients with COVID-19 in Wenzhou, China. Sun Suyu,Cai Xuejiao,Wang Huaguo,He Guiqing,Lin Yin,Lu Bibi,Chen Chaoyue,Pan Yong,Hu Xingzhong Clinica chimica acta; international journal of clinical chemistry BACKGROUND:In December 2019, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was first found in Wuhan, China and soon was reported all around the world. METHODS:All confirmed cases with COVID-19 in Wenzhou from January 19 to February 20, 2020, were collected and analyzed. Of the 116 patients with COVID-19, 27 were diagnosed as severe cases. Among severe cases, 9 were treated in ICU. The data of blood routine examination were analyzed and compared among common patients (as common group), severe patients admitted to intensive care unit (as severe ICU group) and severe patients not admitted to ICU (as severe non-ICU group). The blood routine examination results were dynamically observed in the above groups after admission. RESULTS:Patients with COVID-19 have lower counts of leucocytes, lymphocytes, eosinophils, platelets, and hemoglobin, but have higher neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and monocyte-lymphocyte ratio (MLR), which were compared with controls (P < 0.001). In severe ICU group, patients have the lowest count of lymphocytes, but the highest neutrophil count and NLR among the above three groups (all P values < 0.05); NLR and MLR indicators were combined for diagnostic efficacy analysis of severe COVID-19, and its area under the curve reached 0.925. The odds ratio of the delay in days to the start of the increase of eosinophil count for predicting the outcome of patients with severe COVID-19 was 2.291 after age adjusted. CONCLUSIONS:Patients with COVID-19 have abnormal peripheral blood routine examination results. Dynamic surveillance of peripheral blood system especially eosinophils is helpful in the prediction of severe COVID-19 cases. 10.1016/j.cca.2020.04.024
    Clinical Features and Outcomes of 98 Patients Hospitalized with SARS-CoV-2 Infection in Daegu, South Korea: A Brief Descriptive Study. Hong Kyung Soo,Lee Kwan Ho,Chung Jin Hong,Shin Kyeong Cheol,Choi Eun Young,Jin Hyun Jung,Jang Jong Geol,Lee Wonhwa,Ahn June Hong Yonsei medical journal Although some information on the epidemiology of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and a few selected cases has been reported, data on the clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients hospitalized therewith in South Korea are lacking. We conducted a retrospective single-center study of 98 consecutive hospitalized patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection at Yeungnam University Medical Center in Daegu, South Korea. Sixty patients were women (61.2%), and the mean age was 55.4±17.1 years. Thirteen patients (13.3%) were treated in the intensive care unit (ICU). The mean interval from symptom onset to hospitalization was 7.7±4.5 days. Patients who received ICU care were significantly older and were more likely to have diabetes mellitus. The National Early Warning Score on the day of admission was significantly higher in patients requiring ICU care. Acute respiratory distress syndrome (13/13 patients; 100%), septic shock (9/13; 69.2%), acute cardiac injury (9/13; 69.2%), and acute kidney injury (8/13; 61.5%) were more common in patients who received ICU care. All patients received antibiotic therapy, and most (97/98 patients; 99.0%) received antiviral therapy (lopinavir/ritonavir). Hydroxychloroquine was used in 79 patients (80.6%), and glucocorticoid therapy was used in 18 patients (18.4%). In complete blood counts, lymphopenia was the most common finding (40/98 patients; 40.8%). Levels of all proinflammatory cytokines were significantly higher in ICU patients. As of March 29, 2020, the mortality rate was 5.1%. Here, we report the clinical characteristics and laboratory findings of SARS-CoV-2 patients in South Korea up to March 29, 2020. 10.3349/ymj.2020.61.5.431
    Clinical Characteristics of 138 Hospitalized Patients With 2019 Novel Coronavirus-Infected Pneumonia in Wuhan, China. Wang Dawei,Hu Bo,Hu Chang,Zhu Fangfang,Liu Xing,Zhang Jing,Wang Binbin,Xiang Hui,Cheng Zhenshun,Xiong Yong,Zhao Yan,Li Yirong,Wang Xinghuan,Peng Zhiyong JAMA Importance:In December 2019, novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV)-infected pneumonia (NCIP) occurred in Wuhan, China. The number of cases has increased rapidly but information on the clinical characteristics of affected patients is limited. Objective:To describe the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of NCIP. Design, Setting, and Participants:Retrospective, single-center case series of the 138 consecutive hospitalized patients with confirmed NCIP at Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University in Wuhan, China, from January 1 to January 28, 2020; final date of follow-up was February 3, 2020. Exposures:Documented NCIP. Main Outcomes and Measures:Epidemiological, demographic, clinical, laboratory, radiological, and treatment data were collected and analyzed. Outcomes of critically ill patients and noncritically ill patients were compared. Presumed hospital-related transmission was suspected if a cluster of health professionals or hospitalized patients in the same wards became infected and a possible source of infection could be tracked. Results:Of 138 hospitalized patients with NCIP, the median age was 56 years (interquartile range, 42-68; range, 22-92 years) and 75 (54.3%) were men. Hospital-associated transmission was suspected as the presumed mechanism of infection for affected health professionals (40 [29%]) and hospitalized patients (17 [12.3%]). Common symptoms included fever (136 [98.6%]), fatigue (96 [69.6%]), and dry cough (82 [59.4%]). Lymphopenia (lymphocyte count, 0.8 × 109/L [interquartile range {IQR}, 0.6-1.1]) occurred in 97 patients (70.3%), prolonged prothrombin time (13.0 seconds [IQR, 12.3-13.7]) in 80 patients (58%), and elevated lactate dehydrogenase (261 U/L [IQR, 182-403]) in 55 patients (39.9%). Chest computed tomographic scans showed bilateral patchy shadows or ground glass opacity in the lungs of all patients. Most patients received antiviral therapy (oseltamivir, 124 [89.9%]), and many received antibacterial therapy (moxifloxacin, 89 [64.4%]; ceftriaxone, 34 [24.6%]; azithromycin, 25 [18.1%]) and glucocorticoid therapy (62 [44.9%]). Thirty-six patients (26.1%) were transferred to the intensive care unit (ICU) because of complications, including acute respiratory distress syndrome (22 [61.1%]), arrhythmia (16 [44.4%]), and shock (11 [30.6%]). The median time from first symptom to dyspnea was 5.0 days, to hospital admission was 7.0 days, and to ARDS was 8.0 days. Patients treated in the ICU (n = 36), compared with patients not treated in the ICU (n = 102), were older (median age, 66 years vs 51 years), were more likely to have underlying comorbidities (26 [72.2%] vs 38 [37.3%]), and were more likely to have dyspnea (23 [63.9%] vs 20 [19.6%]), and anorexia (24 [66.7%] vs 31 [30.4%]). Of the 36 cases in the ICU, 4 (11.1%) received high-flow oxygen therapy, 15 (41.7%) received noninvasive ventilation, and 17 (47.2%) received invasive ventilation (4 were switched to extracorporeal membrane oxygenation). As of February 3, 47 patients (34.1%) were discharged and 6 died (overall mortality, 4.3%), but the remaining patients are still hospitalized. Among those discharged alive (n = 47), the median hospital stay was 10 days (IQR, 7.0-14.0). Conclusions and Relevance:In this single-center case series of 138 hospitalized patients with confirmed NCIP in Wuhan, China, presumed hospital-related transmission of 2019-nCoV was suspected in 41% of patients, 26% of patients received ICU care, and mortality was 4.3%. 10.1001/jama.2020.1585
    Association of Body Mass Index With Lifetime Risk of Cardiovascular Disease and Compression of Morbidity. Khan Sadiya S,Ning Hongyan,Wilkins John T,Allen Norrina,Carnethon Mercedes,Berry Jarett D,Sweis Ranya N,Lloyd-Jones Donald M JAMA cardiology Importance:Prior studies have demonstrated lower all-cause mortality in individuals who are overweight compared with those with normal body mass index (BMI), but whether this may come at the cost of greater burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD) is unknown. Objective:To calculate lifetime risk estimates of incident CVD and subtypes of CVD and to estimate years lived with and without CVD by weight status. Design, Setting, and Participants:In this population-based study, we used pooled individual-level data from adults (baseline age, 20-39, 40-59, and 60-79 years) across 10 large US prospective cohorts, with 3.2 million person-years of follow-up from 1964 to 2015. All participants were free of clinical CVD at baseline with available BMI index and CVD outcomes data. Data were analyzed from October 2016 to July 2017. Exposures:World Health Organization-standardized BMI categories. Main Outcomes and Measures:Total CVD and CVD subtype, including fatal and nonfatal coronary heart disease, stroke, congestive heart failure, and other CVD deaths. Heights and weights were measured directly by investigators in each study, and BMI was calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared. We performed (1) modified Kaplan-Meier analysis to estimate lifetime risks, (2) adjusted competing Cox models to estimate joint cumulative risks for CVD or noncardiovascular death, and (3) the Irwin restricted mean to estimate years lived free of and with CVD. Results:Of the 190 672 in-person examinations included in this study, the mean (SD) age was 46.0 (15.0) years for men and 58.7 (12.9) years for women, and 140 835 patients (73.9%) were female. Compared with individuals with a normal BMI (defined as a BMI of 18.5 to 24.9), lifetime risks for incident CVD were higher in middle-aged adults in the overweight and obese groups. Compared with normal weight, among middle-aged men and women, competing hazard ratios for incident CVD were 1.21 (95% CI, 1.14-1.28) and 1.32 (95% CI, 1.24-1.40), respectively, for overweight (BMI, 25.0-29.9), 1.67 (95% CI, 1.55-1.79) and 1.85 (95% CI, 1.72-1.99) for obesity (BMI, 30.0-39.9), and 3.14 (95% CI, 2.48-3.97) and 2.53 (95% CI, 2.20-2.91) for morbid obesity (BMI, ≥40.0). Higher BMI had the strongest association with incident heart failure among CVD subtypes. Average years lived with CVD were longer for middle-aged adults in the overweight and obese groups compared with adults in the normal BMI group. Similar patterns were observed in younger and older adults. Conclusions and Relevance:In this study, obesity was associated with shorter longevity and significantly increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality compared with normal BMI. Despite similar longevity compared with normal BMI, overweight was associated with significantly increased risk of developing CVD at an earlier age, resulting in a greater proportion of life lived with CVD morbidity. 10.1001/jamacardio.2018.0022
    Obesity and cardiovascular disease: revisiting an old relationship. Koliaki Chrysi,Liatis Stavros,Kokkinos Alexander Metabolism: clinical and experimental A wealth of clinical and epidemiological evidence has linked obesity to a broad spectrum of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) including coronary heart disease, heart failure, hypertension, stroke, atrial fibrillation and sudden cardiac death. Obesity can increase CVD morbidity and mortality directly and indirectly. Direct effects are mediated by obesity-induced structural and functional adaptations of the cardiovascular system to accommodate excess body weight, as well as by adipokine effects on inflammation and vascular homeostasis. Indirect effects are mediated by co-existing CVD risk factors such as insulin resistance, hyperglycemia, hypertension and dyslipidemia. Adipose tissue (AT) quality and functionality are more relevant aspects for cardiometabolic risk than its total amount. The consequences of maladaptive AT expansion in obesity are local and systemic: the local include inflammation, hypoxia, dysregulated adipokine secretion and impaired mitochondrial function; the systemic comprise insulin resistance, abnormal glucose/lipid metabolism, hypertension, a pro-inflammatory and pro-thrombotic state and endothelial dysfunction, all of which provide linking mechanisms for the association between obesity and CVD. The present narrative review summarizes the major pathophysiological links between obesity and CVD (traditional and novel concepts), analyses the heterogeneity of obesity-related cardiometabolic consequences, and provides an overview of the cardiovascular impact of weight loss interventions. 10.1016/j.metabol.2018.10.011
    25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentrations Are Lower in Patients with Positive PCR for SARS-CoV-2. D'Avolio Antonio,Avataneo Valeria,Manca Alessandra,Cusato Jessica,De Nicolò Amedeo,Lucchini Renzo,Keller Franco,Cantù Marco Nutrients Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), with a clinical outcome ranging from mild to severe, including death. To date, it is unclear why some patients develop severe symptoms. Many authors have suggested the involvement of vitamin D in reducing the risk of infections; thus, we retrospectively investigated the 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations in plasma obtained from a cohort of patients from Switzerland. In this cohort, significantly lower 25(OH)D levels ( = 0.004) were found in PCR-positive for SARS-CoV-2 (median value 11.1 ng/mL) patients compared with negative patients (24.6 ng/mL); this was also confirmed by stratifying patients according to age >70 years. On the basis of this preliminary observation, vitamin D supplementation might be a useful measure to reduce the risk of infection. Randomized controlled trials and large population studies should be conducted to evaluate these recommendations and to confirm our preliminary observation. 10.3390/nu12051359
    Clinical findings of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 in Jiangsu province, China: A retrospective, multi-center study. Huang Rui,Zhu Li,Xue Leyang,Liu Longgen,Yan Xuebing,Wang Jian,Zhang Biao,Xu Tianmin,Ji Fang,Zhao Yun,Cheng Juan,Wang Yinling,Shao Huaping,Hong Shuqin,Cao Qi,Li Chunyang,Zhao Xiang-An,Zou Lei,Sang Dawen,Zhao Haiyan,Guan Xinying,Chen Xiaobing,Shan Chun,Xia Juan,Chen Yuxin,Yan Xiaomin,Wei Jie,Zhu Chuanwu,Wu Chao PLoS neglected tropical diseases Limited data are available for clinical characteristics of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outside Wuhan. This study aimed to describe the clinical characteristics of COVID-19 and identify the risk factors for severe illness of COVID-19 in Jiangsu province, China. Clinical data of hospitalized COVID-19 patients were retrospectively collected in 8 hospitals from 8 cities of Jiangsu province, China. Clinical findings of COVID-19 patients were described and risk factors for severe illness of COVID-19 were analyzed. By Feb 10, 2020, 202 hospitalized patients with COVID-19 were enrolled. The median age of patients was 44.0 years (interquartile range, 33.0-54.0). 55 (27.2%) patients had comorbidities. At the onset of illness, the common symptoms were fever (156 [77.2%]) and cough (120 [59.4%]). 66 (32.7%) patients had lymphopenia. 193 (95.5%) patients had abnormal radiological findings. 11 (5.4%) patients were admitted to the intensive care unit and none of the patients died. 23 (11.4%) patients had severe illness. Severe illness of COVID-19 was independently associated with body mass index (BMI) ≥ 28 kg/m2 (odds ratio [OR], 9.219; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.731 to 31.126; P<0.001) and a known history of type 2 diabetes (OR, 4.326; 95% CI, 1.059 to 17.668; P = 0.041). In this case series in Jiangsu Province, COVID-19 patients had less severe symptoms and had better outcomes than the initial COVID-19 patients in Wuhan. The BMI ≥ 28 kg/m2 and a known history of type 2 diabetes were independent risk factors of severe illness in patients with COVID-19. 10.1371/journal.pntd.0008280
    COVID-19 in Spain: Transplantation in the midst of the pandemic. Domínguez-Gil Beatriz,Coll Elisabeth,Fernández-Ruiz Mario,Corral Esther,Del Río Francisco,Zaragoza Rafael,Rubio Juan J,Hernández Domingo American journal of transplantation : official journal of the American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons Spain has been one of the most affected countries by the COVID-19 outbreak. As of April 28, 2020, the number of confirmed cases is 210 773, including 102 548 patients recovered, more than 10 300 admitted to the ICU, and 23 822 deaths, with a global case fatality rate of 11.3%. From the perspective of donation and transplantation, the Spanish system first focused on safety issues, providing recommendations for donor evaluation and testing, and to rule out SARS-CoV-2 infection in potential recipients prior to transplantation. Since the country entered into an epidemiological scenario of sustained community transmission and saturation of intensive care, developing donation and transplantation procedures has become highly complex. Since the national state of alarm was declared in Spain on March 13, 2020, the mean number of donors has declined from 7.2 to 1.2 per day, and the mean number of transplants from 16.1 to 2.1 per day. Increased mortality on the waiting list may become a collateral damage of this terrible pandemic. 10.1111/ajt.15983
    Characteristics, treatment, outcomes and cause of death of invasively ventilated patients with COVID-19 ARDS in Milan, Italy. Zangrillo Alberto,Beretta Luigi,Scandroglio Anna Mara,Monti Giacomo,Fominskiy Evgeny,Colombo Sergio,Morselli Federica,Belletti Alessandro,Silvani Paolo,Crivellari Martina,Monaco Fabrizio,Azzolini Maria Luisa,Reineke Raffaella,Nardelli Pasquale,Sartorelli Marianna,Votta Carmine D,Ruggeri Annalisa,Ciceri Fabio,De Cobelli Francesco,Tresoldi Moreno,Dagna Lorenzo,Rovere-Querini Patrizia,Serpa Neto Ary,Bellomo Rinaldo,Landoni Giovanni, Critical care and resuscitation : journal of the Australasian Academy of Critical Care Medicine Objective:Describe characteristics, daily care and outcomes of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Design:Case series of 73 patients. Setting:Large tertiary hospital in Milan. Participants:Mechanically ventilated patients with confirmed COVID-19 admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) between 20 February and 2 April 2020. Main outcome measures:Demographic and daily clinical data were collected to identify predictors of early mortality. Results:Of the 73 patients included in the study, most were male (83.6%), the median age was 61 years (interquartile range [IQR], 54-69 years), and hypertension affected 52.9% of patients. Lymphocytopenia (median, 0.77 x 10 per mm ; IQR, 0.58-1.00 x 10 per mm), hyperinflammation with C-reactive protein (median, 184.5 mg/dL; IQR, 108.2-269.1 mg/dL) and pro-coagulant status with D-dimer (median, 10.1 μg/m; IQR, 5.0-23.8 μg/m) were present. Median tidal volume was 6.7 mL/kg (IQR, 6.0-7.5 mL/kg), and median positive end-expiratory pressure was 12 cmHO (IQR, 10-14 cmHO). In the first 3 days, prone positioning (12-16 h) was used in 63.8% of patients and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in five patients (6.8%). After a median follow-up of 19.0 days (IQR, 15.0-27.0 days), 17 patients (23.3%) had died, 23 (31.5%) had been discharged from the ICU, and 33 (45.2%) were receiving invasive mechanical ventilation in the ICU. Older age (odds ratio [OR], 1.12; 95% CI, 1.04-1.22; = 0.004) and hypertension (OR, 6.15; 95% CI, 1.75-29.11; = 0.009) were associated with mortality, while early improvement in arterial partial pressure of oxygen (PaO) to fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO) ratio was associated with being discharged alive from the ICU ( = 0.002 for interaction). Conclusions:Despite multiple advanced critical care interventions, COVID-19 ARDS was associated with prolonged ventilation and high short term mortality. Older age and pre-admission hypertension were key mortality risk factors. Trial registration:ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT04318366.
    Clinical Presentation of COVID-19: A Systematic Review Focusing on Upper Airway Symptoms. Lovato Andrea,de Filippis Cosimo Ear, nose, & throat journal AIM:Pharyngodynia, nasal congestion, rhinorrhea, smell, and taste dysfunctions could be the presenting symptoms of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. The aim was to perform a systematic review of current evidences on clinical presentation of COVID-19, focusing on upper airway symptoms in order to help otolaryngologists identifying suspected cases. METHODS:We searched PubMed and Web of Science electronic databases. RESULTS:We included 5 retrospective clinical studies for a total of 1556 hospitalized patients with COVID-19, 57.5% were male and mean age was 49.1 years. Pooled data revealed that pharyngodynia was present in 12.4% of patients, nasal congestion in 3.7%, and rhinorrhea was rare. No reports on COVID-19 and olfactory/gustative disorders matched inclusion criteria but preliminary evidences suggested they could be present. Common symptoms were fever (85.6%), cough (68.7%), and fatigue (39.4%). Frequent comorbidities were hypertension (17.4%), diabetes (3.8%), and coronary heart disease (3.8%); 83% of patients had alterations on chest computed tomography that were bilateral in 89.5% of cases. Ground-glass opacity was the most common finding (50%). Lymphopenia (77.2%) and leucopenia (30.1%) were common. Critical cases with complications were 9%, intensive care unit admission was required in 7.3%, invasive ventilation in 3.4%, and mortality was 2.4%. CONCLUSION:Otolaryngologists should know that pharyngodynia, nasal congestion, olfactory, and gustative disorders could be the presenting symptoms of COVID-19. Clinical presentation together with radiological and laboratory findings could help to identify suspected cases. 10.1177/0145561320920762
    Prevalence of comorbidities in the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV): a systematic review and meta-analysis. Badawi Alaa,Ryoo Seung Gwan International journal of infectious diseases : IJID : official publication of the International Society for Infectious Diseases The Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is associated with life-threatening severe illnesses and a mortality rate of approximately 35%, particularly in patients with underlying comorbidities. A systematic analysis of 637 MERS-CoV cases suggests that diabetes and hypertension are equally prevalent in approximately 50% of the patients. Cardiac diseases are present in 30% and obesity in 16% of the cases. These conditions down-regulate the synthesis of proinflammatory cytokines and impair the host's innate and humoral immune systems. In conclusion, protection against MERS-CoV and other respiratory infections can be improved if public health vaccination strategies are tailored to target persons with chronic disorders. 10.1016/j.ijid.2016.06.015
    Clinical presentation and initial management critically ill patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in Brescia, Italy. Piva Simone,Filippini Matteo,Turla Fabio,Cattaneo Sergio,Margola Alessio,De Fulviis Silvia,Nardiello Ida,Beretta Alessandra,Ferrari Laura,Trotta Raffaella,Erbici Gloria,Focà Emanuele,Castelli Francesco,Rasulo Frank,Lanspa Michael J,Latronico Nicola Journal of critical care PURPOSE:An ongoing pandemic of COVID-19 that started in Hubei, China has resulted in massive strain on the healthcare infrastructure in Lombardy, Italy. The management of these patients is still evolving. MATERIALS AND METHODS:This is a single-center observational cohort study of critically ill patients infected with COVID-19. Bedside clinicians abstracted daily patient data on history, treatment, and short-term course. We describe management and a proposed severity scale for treatment used in this hospital. RESULTS:44 patients were enrolled; with incomplete information on 11. Of the 33 studied patients, 91% were male, median age 64; 88% were overweight or obese. 45% were hypertensive, 12% had been taking an ACE-inhibitor. Noninvasive ventilation was performed on 39% of patients for part or all or their ICU stay with no provider infection. Most patients received antibiotics for pneumonia. Patients also received lopinivir/ritonavir (82%), hydroxychloroquine (79%), and tocilizumab (12%) according to this treatment algorithm. Nine of 10 patients survived their ICU course and were transferred to the floor, with one dying in the ICU. CONCLUSIONS:ICU patients with COVID-19 frequently have hypertension. Many could be managed with noninvasive ventilation, despite the risk of aerosolization. The use of a severity scale augmented clinician management. 10.1016/j.jcrc.2020.04.004
    COVID-19 and the cardiovascular system: implications for risk assessment, diagnosis, and treatment options. Guzik Tomasz J,Mohiddin Saidi A,Dimarco Anthony,Patel Vimal,Savvatis Kostas,Marelli-Berg Federica M,Madhur Meena S,Tomaszewski Maciej,Maffia Pasquale,D'Acquisto Fulvio,Nicklin Stuart A,Marian Ali J,Nosalski Ryszard,Murray Eleanor C,Guzik Bartlomiej,Berry Colin,Touyz Rhian M,Kreutz Reinhold,Wang Dao Wen,Bhella David,Sagliocco Orlando,Crea Filippo,Thomson Emma C,McInnes Iain B Cardiovascular research The novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) outbreak, caused by SARS-CoV-2, represents the greatest medical challenge in decades. We provide a comprehensive review of the clinical course of COVID-19, its comorbidities, and mechanistic considerations for future therapies. While COVID-19 primarily affects the lungs, causing interstitial pneumonitis and severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), it also affects multiple organs, particularly the cardiovascular system. Risk of severe infection and mortality increase with advancing age and male sex. Mortality is increased by comorbidities: cardiovascular disease, hypertension, diabetes, chronic pulmonary disease, and cancer. The most common complications include arrhythmia (atrial fibrillation, ventricular tachyarrhythmia, and ventricular fibrillation), cardiac injury [elevated highly sensitive troponin I (hs-cTnI) and creatine kinase (CK) levels], fulminant myocarditis, heart failure, pulmonary embolism, and disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). Mechanistically, SARS-CoV-2, following proteolytic cleavage of its S protein by a serine protease, binds to the transmembrane angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) -a homologue of ACE-to enter type 2 pneumocytes, macrophages, perivascular pericytes, and cardiomyocytes. This may lead to myocardial dysfunction and damage, endothelial dysfunction, microvascular dysfunction, plaque instability, and myocardial infarction (MI). While ACE2 is essential for viral invasion, there is no evidence that ACE inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) worsen prognosis. Hence, patients should not discontinue their use. Moreover, renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) inhibitors might be beneficial in COVID-19. Initial immune and inflammatory responses induce a severe cytokine storm [interleukin (IL)-6, IL-7, IL-22, IL-17, etc.] during the rapid progression phase of COVID-19. Early evaluation and continued monitoring of cardiac damage (cTnI and NT-proBNP) and coagulation (D-dimer) after hospitalization may identify patients with cardiac injury and predict COVID-19 complications. Preventive measures (social distancing and social isolation) also increase cardiovascular risk. Cardiovascular considerations of therapies currently used, including remdesivir, chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, tocilizumab, ribavirin, interferons, and lopinavir/ritonavir, as well as experimental therapies, such as human recombinant ACE2 (rhACE2), are discussed. 10.1093/cvr/cvaa106
    Analysis of Characteristics in Death Patients with COVID-19 Pneumonia without Underlying Diseases. Hu Yiqi,Deng He,Huang Lu,Xia Liming,Zhou Xin Academic radiology 10.1016/j.acra.2020.03.023
    Association of Obesity with Disease Severity Among Patients with Coronavirus Disease 2019. Kalligeros Markos,Shehadeh Fadi,Mylona Evangelia K,Benitez Gregorio,Beckwith Curt G,Chan Philip A,Mylonakis Eleftherios Obesity (Silver Spring, Md.) OBJECTIVE:The aim of this study was to explore the potential association of obesity and other chronic diseases with severe outcomes, such as intensive care unit (ICU) admission and invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV), in patients hospitalized with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS:This study analyzed a retrospective cohort of 103 patients hospitalized with COVID-19. Demographic data, past medical history, and hospital course were collected and analyzed. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was implemented to examine associations. RESULTS:From February 17 to April 5, 103 consecutive patients were hospitalized with COVID-19. Among them, 44 patients (42.7%) were admitted to the ICU, and 29 (65.9%) required IMV. The prevalence of obesity was 47.5% (49 of 103). In a multivariate analysis, severe obesity (BMI ≥ 35 kg/m ) was associated with ICU admission (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 5.39, 95% CI: 1.13-25.64). Moreover, patients who required IMV were more likely to have had heart disease (aOR: 3.41, 95% CI: 1.05-11.06), obesity (BMI = 30-34.9 kg/m ; aOR: 6.85, 95% CI: 1.05-44.82), or severe obesity (BMI ≥ 35 kg/m ; aOR: 9.99, 95% CI: 1.39-71.69). CONCLUSIONS:In our analysis, severe obesity (BMI ≥ 35 kg/m ) was associated with ICU admission, whereas history of heart disease and obesity (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m ) were independently associated with the use of IMV. Increased vigilance and aggressive treatment of patients with obesity and COVID-19 are warranted. 10.1002/oby.22859
    Novel coronavirus 2019-nCoV: prevalence, biological and clinical characteristics comparison with SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV. Meo S A,Alhowikan A M,Al-Khlaiwi T,Meo I M,Halepoto D M,Iqbal M,Usmani A M,Hajjar W,Ahmed N European review for medical and pharmacological sciences OBJECTIVE:Human infections with zoonotic coronavirus contain emerging and reemerging pathogenic characteristics which have raised great public health concern. This study aimed at investigating the global prevalence, biological and clinical characteristics of novel coronavirus, Wuhan China (2019-nCoV), Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (SARS-CoV), and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infection outbreaks. MATERIALS AND METHODS:The data on the global outbreak of "2019-nCoV, SARS-CoV, and MERS-CoV" were obtained from World Health Organization (WHO), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), concerned ministries and research institutes. We also recorded the information from research documents published in global scientific journals indexed in ISI Web of Science and research centers on the prevalence, biological and clinical characteristics of 2019-nCoV, SARS-CoV, and MERS-CoV. RESULTS:Worldwide, SARS-CoV involved 32 countries, with 8422 confirmed cases and 916 (10.87%) casualties from November 2002 to August 2003. MERS-CoV spread over 27 states, causing 2496 cases and 868 (34.77%) fatalities during the period April 2012 to December 2019. However, the novel coronavirus 2019-nCoV spread swiftly the global borders of 27 countries. It infected 34799 people and resulted in 724 (2.08%) casualties during the period December 29, 2019 to February 7, 2020. The fatality rate of coronavirus MERS-CoV was (34.77%) higher than SARS-CoV (10.87%) and 2019-nCoV (2.08%); however, the 2019-nCoV transmitted rapidly in comparison to SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV. CONCLUSIONS:The novel coronavirus 2019-nCoV has diverse epidemiological and biological characteristics, making it more contagious than SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV. It has affected more people in a short time period compared to SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV, although the fatality rate of MERS-CoV was higher than SARS-CoV and 2019-nCoV. The major clinical manifestations in coronavirus infections 2019-nCoV, MERS-CoV, and SARS CoV are fever, chills, cough, shortness of breath, generalized myalgia, malaise, drowsy, diarrhea, confusion, dyspnea, and pneumonia. Global health authorities should take immediate measures to prevent the outbreaks of such emerging and reemerging pathogens across the globe to minimize the disease burden locally and globally. 10.26355/eurrev_202002_20379
    Obesity paradox in cardiovascular disease: where do we stand? Carbone Salvatore,Canada Justin M,Billingsley Hayley E,Siddiqui Mohammad S,Elagizi Andrew,Lavie Carl J Vascular health and risk management Obesity is associated with an increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD), particularly heart failure (HF) and coronary heart disease (CHD). The mechanisms through which obesity increases CVD risk involve changes in body composition that can affect hemodynamics and alters heart structure. Pro-inflammatory cytokines produced by the adipose tissue itself which can induce cardiac dysfunction and can promote the formation of atherosclerotic plaques. When obesity and HF or CHD coexist, individuals with class I obesity present a more favorable prognosis compared to individuals who are normal or underweight. This phenomenon has been termed the "obesity paradox." Obesity is defined as an excess fat mass (FM), but individuals with obesity typically also present with an increased amount of lean mass (LM). The increase in LM may explain part of the obesity paradox as it is associated with improved cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), a major determinant of clinical outcomes in the general population, but particularly in those with CVD, including HF. While increased LM is a stronger prognosticator in HF compared to FM, in patients with CHD excess FM can exert protective effects particularly when not associated with increased systemic inflammation. In the present review, we discuss the mechanisms through which obesity may increase the risk for CVD, and how it may exert protective effects in the setting of established CVD, with a focus on body composition. We also highlight the importance of measuring or estimating CRF, including body composition-adjusted measures of CRF (ie, lean peak oxygen consumption) for an improved risk status stratification in patients with CVD and finally, we discuss the potential non-pharmacologic therapeutics, such as exercise training and dietary interventions, aimed at improving CRF and perhaps clinical outcomes. 10.2147/VHRM.S168946
    Factors associated with severe disease in hospitalized adults with pandemic (H1N1) 2009 in Spain. Viasus D,Paño-Pardo J R,Pachón J,Campins A,López-Medrano F,Villoslada A,Fariñas M C,Moreno A,Rodríguez-Baño J,Oteo J A,Martínez-Montauti J,Torre-Cisneros J,Segura F,Gudiol F,Carratalà J, Clinical microbiology and infection : the official publication of the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases The risk factors for complications in patients with influenza A (H1N1)v virus infection have not been fully elucidated. We performed an observational analysis of a prospective cohort of hospitalized adults with confirmed pandemic influenza A (H1N1)v virus infection at 13 hospitals in Spain, between June 12 and November 10, 2009, to identify factors associated with severe disease. Severe disease was defined as the composite outcome of intensive-care unit (ICU) admission or in-hospital mortality. During the study period, 585 adult patients (median age 40 years) required hospitalization because of pandemic (H1N1) 2009. At least one comorbid condition was present in 318 (54.4%) patients. Pneumonia was diagnosed in 234 (43.2%) patients and bacterial co-infection in 45 (7.6%). Severe disease occurred in 75 (12.8%) patients, of whom 71 required ICU admission and 13 (2.2%) died. Independent factors for severe disease were age <50 years (OR, 2.39; 95% CI, 1.05-5.47), chronic comorbid conditions (OR, 2.93; 95% CI, 1.41-6.09), morbid obesity (OR, 6.7; 95% CI, 2.25-20.19), concomitant and secondary bacterial co-infection (OR, 2.78; 95% CI, 1.11-7) and early oseltamivir therapy (OR, 0.32; 95% CI 0.16-0.63). In conclusion, although adults hospitalized for pandemic (H1N1) 2009 suffer from significant morbidity, mortality is lower than that reported in the earliest studies. Younger age, chronic comorbid conditions, morbid obesity and bacterial co-infection are independent risk factors for severe disease, whereas early oseltamivir therapy is a protective factor. 10.1111/j.1469-0691.2010.03362.x
    Obesity is associated with higher risk of intensive care unit admission and death in influenza A (H1N1) patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Fezeu L,Julia C,Henegar A,Bitu J,Hu F B,Grobbee D E,Kengne A-P,Hercberg S,Czernichow S Obesity reviews : an official journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity The aim of this study was to assess the association between obesity and the risk of intensive care unit (ICU) admission and death among patients hospitalized for influenza A (H1N1) viral infection. A systematic review of the Medline and Cochrane databases using 'obesity', 'hospitalization', 'influenza A viral infection', various synonyms, and reference lists of retrieved articles from January 2009 to January 2010. Studies comparing the prevalence of obesity among patients with confirmed infection for influenza A virus and who were either hospitalized or admitted to ICU/died were included. A total of 3059 subjects from six cross-sectional studies, who were hospitalized for influenza A (H1N1) viral infection, were included in this meta-analysis. Severely obese H1N1 patients (body mass index ≥ 40 kg m(-2), n = 804) were as twice as likely to be admitted to ICU or die (odds ration: 2.01, 95% confidence interval: 1.29-3.14, P < 0.002) compared with H1N1 patients who were not severely obese. Having a body mass index ≥ 30 kg m(-2) was similarly associated with a more than twofold increased risk of ICU admission or death although this did not reach statistical significance (2.14, 0.92-4.99, P < 0.07). This meta-analysis supports the view that obesity is associated with higher risks of ICU admission or death in patients with influenza A (H1N1) infection. Therefore, morbid obese patients should be monitored more intensively when hospitalized. 10.1111/j.1467-789X.2011.00864.x
    Obesity and vitamin D deficiency: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Pereira-Santos M,Costa P R F,Assis A M O,Santos C A S T,Santos D B Obesity reviews : an official journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity Over the past decade, there have been an increasing number of studies on the association between vitamin D deficiency and anthropometric state. However, we did not identify any meta-analyses of the relationship between obesity and vitamin D deficiency in different age groups. Thus, we evaluated the association between obesity and vitamin D deficiency. We searched for observational studies published up to April 2014 in PubMed/Medline, Web of Science and Scopus databases. We performed a meta-analysis in accordance with the random-effects model to obtain the summary measurement (prevalence ratio, PR). Among the 29,882 articles identified, 23 met the inclusion criteria. The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency was 35% higher in obese subjects compared to the eutrophic group (PR: 1.35; 95% CI: 1.21-1.50) and 24% higher than in the overweight group (PR: 1.24; 95% CI: 1.14-1.34). These results indicate that the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency was more elevated in obese subjects. The vitamin D deficiency was associated with obesity irrespective of age, latitude, cut-offs to define vitamin D deficiency and the Human Development Index of the study location. 10.1111/obr.12239
    The effect of obesity on lung function. Dixon Anne E,Peters Ubong Expert review of respiratory medicine INTRODUCTION:There is a major epidemic of obesity, and many obese patients suffer with respiratory symptoms and disease. The overall impact of obesity on lung function is multifactorial, related to mechanical and inflammatory aspects of obesity. Areas covered: Obesity causes substantial changes to the mechanics of the lungs and chest wall, and these mechanical changes cause asthma and asthma-like symptoms such as dyspnea, wheeze, and airway hyperresponsiveness. Excess adiposity is also associated with increased production of inflammatory cytokines and immune cells that may also lead to disease. This article reviews the literature addressing the relationship between obesity and lung function, and studies addressing how the mechanical and inflammatory effects of obesity might lead to changes in lung mechanics and pulmonary function in obese adults and children. Expert commentary: Obesity has significant effects on respiratory function, which contribute significantly to the burden of respiratory disease. These mechanical effects are not readily quantified with conventional pulmonary function testing and measurement of body mass index. Changes in mediators produced by adipose tissue likely also contribute to altered lung function, though as of yet this is poorly understood. 10.1080/17476348.2018.1506331
    Risk Factors Associated with Clinical Outcomes in 323 COVID-19 Hospitalized Patients in Wuhan, China. Hu Ling,Chen Shaoqiu,Fu Yuanyuan,Gao Zitong,Long Hui,Wang Jian-Ming,Ren Hong-Wei,Zuo Yi,Li Huan,Wang Jie,Xu Qing-Bang,Yu Wen-Xiong,Liu Jia,Shao Chen,Hao Jun-Jie,Wang Chuan-Zhen,Ma Yao,Wang Zhanwei,Yanagihara Richard,Deng Youping Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America BACKGROUND:With evidence of sustained transmission in more than 190 countries, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been declared a global pandemic. Data are urgently needed about risk factors associated with clinical outcomes. METHODS:A retrospective review of 323 hospitalized patients with COVID-19 in Wuhan was conducted. Patients were classified into three disease severity groups (non-severe, severe, and critical), based on initial clinical presentation. Clinical outcomes were designated as favorable and unfavorable, based on disease progression and response to treatments. Logistic regression models were performed to identify risk factors associated with clinical outcomes, and log-rank test was conducted for the association with clinical progression. RESULTS:Current standard treatments did not show significant improvement in patient outcomes. By univariate logistic regression analysis, 27 risk factors were significantly associated with clinical outcomes. Multivariate regression indicated age over 65 years (p<0.001), smoking (p=0.001), critical disease status (p=0.002), diabetes (p=0.025), high hypersensitive troponin I (>0.04 pg/mL, p=0.02), leukocytosis (>10 x 109/L, p<0.001) and neutrophilia (>75 x 109/L, p<0.001) predicted unfavorable clinical outcomes. By contrast, the administration of hypnotics was significantly associated with favorable outcomes (p<0.001), which was confirmed by survival analysis. CONCLUSIONS:Hypnotics may be an effective ancillary treatment for COVID-19. We also found novel risk factors, such as higher hypersensitive troponin I, predicted poor clinical outcomes. Overall, our study provides useful data to guide early clinical decision making to reduce mortality and improve clinical outcomes of COVID-19. 10.1093/cid/ciaa539
    Clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients with severe covid-19 with diabetes. Yan Yongli,Yang Yan,Wang Fen,Ren Huihui,Zhang Shujun,Shi Xiaoli,Yu Xuefeng,Dong Kun BMJ open diabetes research & care OBJECTIVE:This study explores the clinical characteristics of patients with diabetes with severe covid-19, and the association of diabetes with survival duration in patients with severe covid-19. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:In this single-center, retrospective, observational study, the clinical and laboratory characteristics of 193 patients with severe covid-19 were collected. 48 patients with severe covid-19 had diabetes, and 145 patients (ie, the controls) did not have diabetes. A severe case was defined as including at least one of the following criteria: (1) Respiratory rate >30/min. (2) Oxygen saturation ≤93%. (3) PaO/FiO≤300 mm Hg. (4) Patients, either with shock or respiratory failure, requiring mechanical ventilation, or combined with other organ failure, requiring admission to intensive care unit (ICU). RESULTS:Of 193 patients with severe covid-19, 48 (24.9%) had diabetes. Compared with patients with severe covid-19 without diabetes, patients with diabetes were older, susceptible to receiving mechanical ventilation and admission to ICU, and had higher mortality. In addition, patients with severe covid-19 with diabetes had higher levels of leukocyte count, neutrophil count, high-sensitivity C reaction protein, procalcitonin, ferritin, interleukin (IL) 2 receptor, IL-6, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor α, D-dimer, fibrinogen, lactic dehydrogenase and N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide. Among patients with severe covid-19 with diabetes, more non-survivors were men (30 (76.9%) 9 (23.1%)). Non-survivors had severe inflammatory response, and cardiac, hepatic, renal and coagulation impairment. Finally, the Kaplan-Meier survival curve showed a trend towards poorer survival in patients with severe covid-19 with diabetes than patients without diabetes. The HR was 1.53 (95% CI 1.02 to 2.30; p=0.041) after adjustment for age, sex, hypertension, cardiovascular disease and cerebrovascular disease by Cox regression. The median survival durations from hospital admission in patients with severe covid-19 with and without diabetes were 10 days and 18 days, respectively. CONCLUSION:The mortality rate in patients with severe covid-19 with diabetes is considerable. Diabetes may lead to an increase in the risk of death. 10.1136/bmjdrc-2020-001343
    Clinical features of patients infected with 2019 novel coronavirus in Wuhan, China. Huang Chaolin,Wang Yeming,Li Xingwang,Ren Lili,Zhao Jianping,Hu Yi,Zhang Li,Fan Guohui,Xu Jiuyang,Gu Xiaoying,Cheng Zhenshun,Yu Ting,Xia Jiaan,Wei Yuan,Wu Wenjuan,Xie Xuelei,Yin Wen,Li Hui,Liu Min,Xiao Yan,Gao Hong,Guo Li,Xie Jungang,Wang Guangfa,Jiang Rongmeng,Gao Zhancheng,Jin Qi,Wang Jianwei,Cao Bin Lancet (London, England) BACKGROUND:A recent cluster of pneumonia cases in Wuhan, China, was caused by a novel betacoronavirus, the 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV). We report the epidemiological, clinical, laboratory, and radiological characteristics and treatment and clinical outcomes of these patients. METHODS:All patients with suspected 2019-nCoV were admitted to a designated hospital in Wuhan. We prospectively collected and analysed data on patients with laboratory-confirmed 2019-nCoV infection by real-time RT-PCR and next-generation sequencing. Data were obtained with standardised data collection forms shared by WHO and the International Severe Acute Respiratory and Emerging Infection Consortium from electronic medical records. Researchers also directly communicated with patients or their families to ascertain epidemiological and symptom data. Outcomes were also compared between patients who had been admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) and those who had not. FINDINGS:By Jan 2, 2020, 41 admitted hospital patients had been identified as having laboratory-confirmed 2019-nCoV infection. Most of the infected patients were men (30 [73%] of 41); less than half had underlying diseases (13 [32%]), including diabetes (eight [20%]), hypertension (six [15%]), and cardiovascular disease (six [15%]). Median age was 49·0 years (IQR 41·0-58·0). 27 (66%) of 41 patients had been exposed to Huanan seafood market. One family cluster was found. Common symptoms at onset of illness were fever (40 [98%] of 41 patients), cough (31 [76%]), and myalgia or fatigue (18 [44%]); less common symptoms were sputum production (11 [28%] of 39), headache (three [8%] of 38), haemoptysis (two [5%] of 39), and diarrhoea (one [3%] of 38). Dyspnoea developed in 22 (55%) of 40 patients (median time from illness onset to dyspnoea 8·0 days [IQR 5·0-13·0]). 26 (63%) of 41 patients had lymphopenia. All 41 patients had pneumonia with abnormal findings on chest CT. Complications included acute respiratory distress syndrome (12 [29%]), RNAaemia (six [15%]), acute cardiac injury (five [12%]) and secondary infection (four [10%]). 13 (32%) patients were admitted to an ICU and six (15%) died. Compared with non-ICU patients, ICU patients had higher plasma levels of IL2, IL7, IL10, GSCF, IP10, MCP1, MIP1A, and TNFα. INTERPRETATION:The 2019-nCoV infection caused clusters of severe respiratory illness similar to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus and was associated with ICU admission and high mortality. Major gaps in our knowledge of the origin, epidemiology, duration of human transmission, and clinical spectrum of disease need fulfilment by future studies. FUNDING:Ministry of Science and Technology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, National Natural Science Foundation of China, and Beijing Municipal Science and Technology Commission. 10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30183-5
    Stress and Obesity. Tomiyama A Janet Annual review of psychology Many pathways connect stress and obesity, two highly prevalent problems facing society today. First, stress interferes with cognitive processes such as executive function and self-regulation. Second, stress can affect behavior by inducing overeating and consumption of foods that are high in calories, fat, or sugar; by decreasing physical activity; and by shortening sleep. Third, stress triggers physiological changes in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, reward processing in the brain, and possibly the gut microbiome. Finally, stress can stimulate production of biochemical hormones and peptides such as leptin, ghrelin, and neuropeptide Y. Obesity itself can be a stressful state due to the high prevalence of weight stigma. This article therefore traces the contribution of weight stigma to stress and obesogenic processes, ultimately describing a vicious cycle of stress to obesity to stigma to stress. Current obesity prevention efforts focus solely on eating and exercise; the evidence reviewed in this article points to stress as an important but currently overlooked public policy target. 10.1146/annurev-psych-010418-102936
    Epidemic of COVID-19 in China and associated Psychological Problems. Ahmed Md Zahir,Ahmed Oli,Aibao Zhou,Hanbin Sang,Siyu Liu,Ahmad Akbaruddin Asian journal of psychiatry The world is experiencing pandemic of the COVID-19 now, a RNA virus that spread out from Wuhan, China. Two countries, China first and later Italy, have gone to full lock down due to rapid spread of this virus. Till to date, no epidemiological data on mental health problems due to outbreak of the COVID-19 and mass isolation were not available. To meet this need, the present study was undertaken to assess the mental health status of Chinese people. An online survey was conducted on a sample of 1074 Chinese people, majority of whom from Hubei province. Lack of adequate opportunities to conduct face to face interview, anxiety, depression, mental well-being and alcohol consumption behavior were assessed via self-reported measures. Results showed higher rate of anxiety, depression, hazardous and harmful alcohol use, and lower mental wellbeing than usual ratio. Results also revealed that young people aged 21-40 years are in more vulnerable position in terms of their mental health conditions and alcohol use. To address mental health crisis during this epidemic, it is high time to implement multi-faceted approach (i.e. forming multidisciplinary mental health team, providing psychiatric treatments and other mental health services, utilizing online counseling platforms, rehabilitation program, ensuring certain care for vulnerable groups, etc.). 10.1016/j.ajp.2020.102092
    Survey of Insomnia and Related Social Psychological Factors Among Medical Staff Involved in the 2019 Novel Coronavirus Disease Outbreak. Zhang Chenxi,Yang Lulu,Liu Shuai,Ma Simeng,Wang Ying,Cai Zhongxiang,Du Hui,Li Ruiting,Kang Lijun,Su Meilei,Zhang Jihui,Liu Zhongchun,Zhang Bin Frontiers in psychiatry Objective:The outbreak of the 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) not only caused particularly large public health problems, but also caused great psychological distress, especially for medical staff. We aimed to investigate the prevalence rate of insomnia and to confirm the related social psychological factors among medical staff in hospitals during the COVID-19 outbreak. Method:Medical staff members in China were recruited, including frontline medical workers. The questionnaire, administered through the WeChat program, obtained demographic data and asked self-design questions related to the COVID-19 outbreak, insomnia/depressive/anxiety symptoms, and stress-related symptoms. We used a logistic regression analysis to examine the associations between sociodemographic factors and insomnia symptoms. Result:There were a total of 1,563 participants in our study. Five-hundred-and-sixty-four (36.1%) participants had insomnia symptoms according to the Insomnia Severity Index (ISI) (total score ≥ 8). A multiple binary logistic regression model revealed that insomnia symptoms were associated with an education level of high school or below (OR = 2.69, = 0.042, 95% CI = 1.0-7.0), being a doctor (OR = 0.44, = 0.007, 95% CI = 0.2-0.8), currently working in an isolation unit (OR = 1.71, = 0.038, 95% CI = 1.0-2.8), is worried about being infected (OR = 2.30, p < 0.001, 95% CI = 1.6-3.4), perceived lack of helpfulness in terms of psychological support from news or social media with regard to COVID-19 (OR = 2.10, = 0.001, 95% CI = 1.3-3.3), and having very strong uncertainty regarding effective disease control (OR = 3.30, = 0.013, 95% CI = 1.3-8.5). Conclusion:Our study found that more than one-third of the medical staff suffered insomnia symptoms during the COVID-19 outbreak. The related factors included education level, an isolation environment, psychological worries about the COVID-19 outbreak, and being a doctor. Interventions for insomnia among medical staff are needed considering the various sociopsychological factors at play in this situation. 10.3389/fpsyt.2020.00306
    Initial Public Health Response and Interim Clinical Guidance for the 2019 Novel Coronavirus Outbreak - United States, December 31, 2019-February 4, 2020. Patel Anita,Jernigan Daniel B, MMWR. Morbidity and mortality weekly report On December 31, 2019, Chinese health officials reported a cluster of cases of acute respiratory illness in persons associated with the Hunan seafood and animal market in the city of Wuhan, Hubei Province, in central China. On January 7, 2020, Chinese health officials confirmed that a novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) was associated with this initial cluster (1). As of February 4, 2020, a total of 20,471 confirmed cases, including 2,788 (13.6%) with severe illness,* and 425 deaths (2.1%) had been reported by the National Health Commission of China (2). Cases have also been reported in 26 locations outside of mainland China, including documentation of some person-to-person transmission and one death (2). As of February 4, 11 cases had been reported in the United States. On January 30, the World Health Organization (WHO) Director-General declared that the 2019-nCoV outbreak constitutes a Public Health Emergency of International Concern. On January 31, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) Secretary declared a U.S. public health emergency to respond to 2019-nCoV. Also on January 31, the president of the United States signed a "Proclamation on Suspension of Entry as Immigrants and Nonimmigrants of Persons who Pose a Risk of Transmitting 2019 Novel Coronavirus," which limits entry into the United States of persons who traveled to mainland China to U.S. citizens and lawful permanent residents and their families (3). CDC, multiple other federal agencies, state and local health departments, and other partners are implementing aggressive measures to slow transmission of 2019-nCoV in the United States (4,5). These measures require the identification of cases and their contacts in the United States and the appropriate assessment and care of travelers arriving from mainland China to the United States. These measures are being implemented in anticipation of additional 2019-nCoV cases in the United States. Although these measures might not prevent the eventual establishment of ongoing, widespread transmission of the virus in the United States, they are being implemented to 1) slow the spread of illness; 2) provide time to better prepare health care systems and the general public to be ready if widespread transmission with substantial associated illness occurs; and 3) better characterize 2019-nCoV infection to guide public health recommendations and the development of medical countermeasures including diagnostics, therapeutics, and vaccines. Public health authorities are monitoring the situation closely. As more is learned about this novel virus and this outbreak, CDC will rapidly incorporate new knowledge into guidance for action by CDC and state and local health departments. 10.15585/mmwr.mm6905e1
    Practical recommendations for the management of diabetes in patients with COVID-19. Bornstein Stefan R,Rubino Francesco,Khunti Kamlesh,Mingrone Geltrude,Hopkins David,Birkenfeld Andreas L,Boehm Bernhard,Amiel Stephanie,Holt Richard Ig,Skyler Jay S,DeVries J Hans,Renard Eric,Eckel Robert H,Zimmet Paul,Alberti Kurt George,Vidal Josep,Geloneze Bruno,Chan Juliana C,Ji Linong,Ludwig Barbara The lancet. Diabetes & endocrinology Diabetes is one of the most important comorbidities linked to the severity of all three known human pathogenic coronavirus infections, including severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. Patients with diabetes have an increased risk of severe complications including Adult Respiratory Distress Syndrome and multi-organ failure. Depending on the global region, 20-50% of patients in the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic had diabetes. Given the importance of the link between COVID-19 and diabetes, we have formed an international panel of experts in the field of diabetes and endocrinology to provide some guidance and practical recommendations for the management of diabetes during the pandemic. We aim to briefly provide insight into potential mechanistic links between the novel coronavirus infection and diabetes, present practical management recommendations, and elaborate on the differential needs of several patient groups. 10.1016/S2213-8587(20)30152-2
    The Role of Adipocytes and Adipocyte-Like Cells in the Severity of COVID-19 Infections. Kruglikov Ilja L,Scherer Philipp E Obesity (Silver Spring, Md.) Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19), caused by the highly pathogenic severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), demonstrates high morbidity and mortality caused by development of a severe acute respiratory syndrome connected with extensive pulmonary fibrosis. In this Perspective, we argue that adipocytes and adipocyte-like cells, such as pulmonary lipofibroblasts, may play an important role in the pathogenic response to SARS-CoV-2. Expression of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (the functional receptor for SARS-CoV) is upregulated in adipocytes of patients with obesity and diabetes, which turns adipose tissue into a potential target and viral reservoir. This may explain why obesity and diabetes are potential comorbidities for COVID-19 infections. Similar to the recently established adipocyte-myofibroblast transition, pulmonary lipofibroblasts located in the alveolar interstitium and closely related to classical adipocytes demonstrate the ability to transdifferentiate into myofibroblasts that play an integral part of pulmonary fibrosis. This may significantly increase the severity of the local response to SARS-CoV-2 in the lung. To reduce the severity and mortality associated with COVID-19, we propose to probe for the clinical response to thiazolidinediones, peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ agonists that are well-known antidiabetic drugs. Thiazolidinediones are able to stabilize lipofibroblasts in their "inactive" state, preventing the transition to myofibroblasts and thereby reducing the development of pulmonary fibrosis and stimulating its resolution. 10.1002/oby.22856
    The mutual effects of COVID-19 and obesity. Abbas Ahmed M,Fathy Safaa K,Fawzy Andro T,Salem Amera S,Shawky Mario S Obesity medicine •The rate of obesity was increased during this era of the COVID-19 epidemic.•Obesity is dangerous in COVID-19 patients.•Obesity is associated with other co-morbidities could affect the prognosis of COVID-19 patients. 10.1016/j.obmed.2020.100250
    Ensuring mental health care during the SARS-CoV-2 epidemic in France: A narrative review. Chevance A,Gourion D,Hoertel N,Llorca P-M,Thomas P,Bocher R,Moro M-R,Laprévote V,Benyamina A,Fossati P,Masson M,Leaune E,Leboyer M,Gaillard R L'Encephale OBJECTIVE:The lack of resources and coordination to face the coronavirus epidemic raises concerns for the health of patients with mental disorders in a country where we still have memories of the dramatic experience of famine in psychiatric hospitals during the Second World War. This article aims to propose guidance to ensure mental health care during the SARS-CoV epidemic in France. METHODS:The authors performed a narrative review identifying relevant results in the scientific and medical literature and in local initiatives in France. RESULTS:We identified four types of major vulnerabilities among patients with mental disorders during this pandemic: (1) medical comorbidities that are more frequently found among patients with mental disorders (cardiovascular and pulmonary pathologies, diabetes, obesity, etc.) which are risk factors for severe covid-19 infection; (2) age (the elderly form the population most vulnerable to the coronavirus); (3) cognitive and behavioural disorders, which can hamper compliance with confinement and hygiene measures and finally and (4) psychosocial vulnerability as a result of stigmatization and/or socio-economic difficulties. Furthermore, the mental health healthcare system is more vulnerable than other healthcare systems. Current government plans are poorly suited to psychiatric establishments in a context of major shortages of organizational, material and human resources. In addition, a certain number of structural aspects make the psychiatric institution particularly vulnerable: many beds have been closed, wards have high densities of patients, mental health community facilities are closed, and medical teams are understaffed and poorly trained to face infectious diseases. There are also major issues when referring patients with acute mental disorders to intensive care units. To maintain the continuity of psychiatric care in this pandemic situation, several directions can be considered, in particular with the creation of "COVID+ units". These units are under the dual supervision of a psychiatrist and an internist/infectious disease specialist; all new entrants are placed in quarantine for 14 days; the nursing staff receives specific training, daily medical check-ups and close psychological support. Family visits are prohibited and replaced by videoconference. At the end of hospitalization, in particular for the population of patients in compulsory ambulatory care situations, specific case-management are organized with the possibility of home visits, in order to support patients when they get back home and to help them cope with the experience of confinement, which is liable to induce recurrences of mental disorders. The total or partial closure of community mental health facilities is particularly disturbing for patients, but a regular follow-up is possible with telemedicine and should include the monitoring of suicide risk and psycho-education strategies; developing support platforms could also be very helpful in this context. Private practice psychiatrists also have a crucial role of information towards their patients on confinement and barrier measures, and also on measures to prevent the psychological risks inherent in confinement: maintenance of regular sleep r, physical exercise, social interactions, stress management and coping strategies, prevention of addictions, etc. They should also be trained to prevent, detect and treat early warning symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder, because their prevalence was high in the regions of China most affected by the pandemic. DISCUSSION:French mental healthcare is now facing a great and urgent need for reorganization and must also prepare in the coming days and weeks to face an epidemic of emotional disorders due to the confinement of the general population. 10.1016/j.encep.2020.04.005
    Long-term conditions and severe acute respiratory syndrome SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19). Robinson Patricia British journal of community nursing Observation of infection trends through the course of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic has indicated that those with certain pre-existing chronic conditions, such as hypertension, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and obesity, are particularly likely to develop severe infection and experience disastrous sequelae, including near-fatal pneumonia. This article aims to outline how SARS-CoV-2 affects people and to consider why individuals living with long-term conditions are at increased risk from infection caused by this virus. A summary of available clinical guidelines with recommendations is presented, to provide community nurses with the up-to-date information required for protecting individuals living with a number of long-term conditions. Additionally, special measures required are outlined, so that community nurses may reflect on how to best provide nursing care for individuals living with long-term conditions and understand protection measures for individuals at increased risk from severe COVID-19. 10.12968/bjcn.2020.25.5.247
    Dietary disinhibition mediates the relationship between poor sleep quality and body weight. Blumfield Michelle L,Bei Bei,Zimberg Iona Z,Cain Sean W Appetite BACKGROUND:Inadequate sleep independently influences eating habits and weight status. However, the relationship between these three factors has not been well quantified. The objective of this study was to examine if eating behavior (i.e. dietary restraint, disinhibition and hunger) mediates the relationship between sleep and body mass index (BMI) in a large sample of American adults. METHOD:Cross-sectional data from the Nathan Kline Institute Rockland sample were assessed (n = 602; 38.9 ± 14.5 years). Self-reported sleep and eating behavior were measured using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and Three Factor Eating Questionnaire, respectively. Path analysis was used to examine relationships amongst the construct, with mediation tested via bootstrapped confidence intervals. RESULTS:Poorer sleep quality was associated with both greater hunger (P = 0.03) and higher disinhibited eating (overeating in the presence of palatable foods or other disinhibiting stimuli like emotional stress; P < 0.001) behaviors. Higher disinhibited eating behavior was also associated with higher BMI (P < 0.001). There was a significant indirect relationship between sleep quality and BMI via disinhibition (b [95% CI] = 0.13 [0.06, 0.21], P = 0.001). No significant effects were found when total sleep time or time in bed were replaced as predictors in the mediation model. CONCLUSION:Disinhibited eating behavior mediated the relationship between sleep quality and weight status in both males and females. This mediation was due to aspects of sleep quality other than duration. These results suggest that improving sleep quality may benefit weight loss by helping to reduce an individuals' susceptibility to overeating. 10.1016/j.appet.2017.10.022
    Obesity survival paradox in pneumonia: a meta-analysis. Nie Wei,Zhang Yi,Jee Sun Ha,Jung Keum Ji,Li Bing,Xiu Qingyu BMC medicine BACKGROUND:It is unclear whether an 'obesity survival paradox' exists for pneumonia. Therefore, we conducted a meta-analysis to assess the associations between increased body mass index (BMI), pneumonia risk, and mortality risk. METHODS:Cohort studies were identified from the PubMed and Embase databases. Summary relative risks (RRs) with their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using a random effects model. RESULTS:Thirteen cohort studies on pneumonia risk (n = 1,536,623), and ten cohort studies on mortality (n = 1,375,482) were included. Overweight and obese individuals were significantly associated with an increased risk of pneumonia (RR = 1.33, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.71, P = 0.02, I(2) = 87%). In the dose-response analysis, the estimated summary RR of pneumonia per 5 kg/m(2) increase in BMI was 1.04 (95% CI 1.01 to 1.07, P = 0.01, I(2) = 84%). Inversely, overweight and obese subjects were significantly associated with reduced risk of pneumonia mortality (RR = 0.83, 95% CI 0.77 to 0.91, P < 0.01, I(2) = 34%). The estimated summary RR of mortality per 5 kg/m(2) increase in BMI was 0.95 (95% CI 0.93 to 0.98, P < 0.01, I(2) = 77%). CONCLUSIONS:This meta-analysis suggests that an 'obesity survival paradox' exists for pneumonia. Because this meta-analysis is based on observational studies, more studies are required to confirm the results. 10.1186/1741-7015-12-61
    Obesity and outcomes in patients hospitalized with pneumonia. Kahlon S,Eurich D T,Padwal R S,Malhotra A,Minhas-Sandhu J K,Marrie T J,Majumdar S R Clinical microbiology and infection : the official publication of the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Studies suggest obesity is paradoxically associated with better outcomes for patients with pneumonia. Therefore, we examined the impact of obesity on short-term mortality in patients hospitalized with pneumonia. For 2 years clinical and radiographic data were prospectively collected on all consecutive adults admitted with pneumonia to six hospitals in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. We identified 907 patients who also had body mass index (BMI, kg/m(2)) collected and categorized them as underweight (BMI < 18.5), normal (18.5 to <25), overweight (25 to <30) and obese (>30). Overall, 65% were >65 years, 52% were female, and 15% reported recent weight loss. Eighty-four (9%) were underweight, 358 (39%) normal, 228 (25%) overweight, and 237 (26%) obese. Two-thirds had severe pneumonia (63% PSI Class IV/V) and 79 (9%) patients died. In-hospital mortality was greatest among those that were underweight (12 [14%]) compared with normal (36 [10%]), overweight (21 [9%]) or obese (10 [4%], p <0.001 for trend). Compared with those of normal weight, obese patients had significantly lower rates of in-hospital mortality in multivariable logistic regression analyses: adjusted odds ratio (OR), 0.46; 95% CI, 0.22-0.97; p 0.04. However, compared with patients with normal weight, neither underweight (adjusted OR, 1.13; 95% CI, 0.54-2.4; p 0.7) nor overweight (adjusted OR, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.52-1.69; p 0.8) were associated with in-hospital mortality. In conclusion, in patients hospitalized with pneumonia, obesity was independently associated with lower short-term mortality, while neither being underweight nor overweight were. This suggests a protective influence of BMIs > 30 kg/m(2) that requires better mechanistic understanding. 10.1111/j.1469-0691.2012.04003.x
    Inflammation and macrophage modulation in adipose tissues. Vieira-Potter Victoria J Cellular microbiology The adipose tissue is an active endocrine organ that harbours not only mature and developing adipocytes but also a wide array of immune cells, including macrophages, a key immune cell in determining metabolic functionality. With adipose tissue expansion, M1 pro-inflammatory macrophage infiltration increases, activates other immune cells, and affects lipid trafficking and metabolism, in part via inhibiting mitochondrial function and increasing reactive oxygen species (ROS). The pro-inflammatory cytokines produced and released interfere with insulin signalling, while inhibiting M1 macrophage activation improves systemic insulin sensitivity. In healthy adipose tissue, M2 alternative macrophages predominate and associate with enhanced lipid handling and mitochondrial function, anti-inflammatory cytokine production, and inhibition of ROS. The sequence of events leading to macrophage infiltration and activation in adipose tissue remains incompletely understood but lipid handling of both macrophages and adipocytes appears to play a major role. 10.1111/cmi.12336
    Presenting Characteristics, Comorbidities, and Outcomes Among 5700 Patients Hospitalized With COVID-19 in the New York City Area. Richardson Safiya,Hirsch Jamie S,Narasimhan Mangala,Crawford James M,McGinn Thomas,Davidson Karina W, ,Barnaby Douglas P,Becker Lance B,Chelico John D,Cohen Stuart L,Cookingham Jennifer,Coppa Kevin,Diefenbach Michael A,Dominello Andrew J,Duer-Hefele Joan,Falzon Louise,Gitlin Jordan,Hajizadeh Negin,Harvin Tiffany G,Hirschwerk David A,Kim Eun Ji,Kozel Zachary M,Marrast Lyndonna M,Mogavero Jazmin N,Osorio Gabrielle A,Qiu Michael,Zanos Theodoros P JAMA Importance:There is limited information describing the presenting characteristics and outcomes of US patients requiring hospitalization for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Objective:To describe the clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients with COVID-19 hospitalized in a US health care system. Design, Setting, and Participants:Case series of patients with COVID-19 admitted to 12 hospitals in New York City, Long Island, and Westchester County, New York, within the Northwell Health system. The study included all sequentially hospitalized patients between March 1, 2020, and April 4, 2020, inclusive of these dates. Exposures:Confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection by positive result on polymerase chain reaction testing of a nasopharyngeal sample among patients requiring admission. Main Outcomes and Measures:Clinical outcomes during hospitalization, such as invasive mechanical ventilation, kidney replacement therapy, and death. Demographics, baseline comorbidities, presenting vital signs, and test results were also collected. Results:A total of 5700 patients were included (median age, 63 years [interquartile range {IQR}, 52-75; range, 0-107 years]; 39.7% female). The most common comorbidities were hypertension (3026; 56.6%), obesity (1737; 41.7%), and diabetes (1808; 33.8%). At triage, 30.7% of patients were febrile, 17.3% had a respiratory rate greater than 24 breaths/min, and 27.8% received supplemental oxygen. The rate of respiratory virus co-infection was 2.1%. Outcomes were assessed for 2634 patients who were discharged or had died at the study end point. During hospitalization, 373 patients (14.2%) (median age, 68 years [IQR, 56-78]; 33.5% female) were treated in the intensive care unit care, 320 (12.2%) received invasive mechanical ventilation, 81 (3.2%) were treated with kidney replacement therapy, and 553 (21%) died. As of April 4, 2020, for patients requiring mechanical ventilation (n = 1151, 20.2%), 38 (3.3%) were discharged alive, 282 (24.5%) died, and 831 (72.2%) remained in hospital. The median postdischarge follow-up time was 4.4 days (IQR, 2.2-9.3). A total of 45 patients (2.2%) were readmitted during the study period. The median time to readmission was 3 days (IQR, 1.0-4.5) for readmitted patients. Among the 3066 patients who remained hospitalized at the final study follow-up date (median age, 65 years [IQR, 54-75]), the median follow-up at time of censoring was 4.5 days (IQR, 2.4-8.1). Conclusions and Relevance:This case series provides characteristics and early outcomes of sequentially hospitalized patients with confirmed COVID-19 in the New York City area. 10.1001/jama.2020.6775
    [Clinical characteristics and outcomes of 112 cardiovascular disease patients infected by 2019-nCoV]. Peng Y D,Meng K,Guan H Q,Leng L,Zhu R R,Wang B Y,He M A,Cheng L X,Huang K,Zeng Q T Zhonghua xin xue guan bing za zhi To explore the clinical characteristics and prognosis of the new coronavirus 2019-nCoV patients combined with cardiovascular disease (CVD). A retrospective analysis was performed on 112 COVID-19 patients with CVD admitted to the western district of Union Hospital in Wuhan, from January 20, 2020 to February 15, 2020. They were divided into critical group (ICU, =16) and general group (=96) according to the severity of the disease and patients were followed up to the clinical endpoint. The observation indicators included total blood count, C-reactive protein (CRP), arterial blood gas analysis, myocardial injury markers, coagulation function, liver and kidney function, electrolyte, procalcitonin (PCT), B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP), blood lipid, pulmonary CT and pathogen detection. Compared with the general group, the lymphocyte count (0.74 (0.34, 0.94)×10/L vs. 0.99 (0.71, 1.29)×10/L, =0.03) was extremely lower in the critical group, CRP (106.98 (81.57, 135.76) mg/L vs. 34.34 (9.55,76.54) mg/L, <0.001) and PCT (0.20 (0.15,0.48) μg/L vs. 0.11 (0.06,0.20) μg/L, <0.001) were significantly higher in the critical group. The BMI of the critical group was significantly higher than that of the general group (25.5 (23.0, 27.5) kg/m vs. 22.0 (20.0, 24.0) kg/m,=0.003). Patients were further divided into non-survivor group (17, 15.18%) group and survivor group (95, 84.82%). Among the non-survivors, there were 88.24% (15/17) patients with BMI> 25.0 kg/m, which was significantly higher than that of survivors (18.95% (18/95), <0.001). Compared with the survived patients, oxygenation index (130 (102, 415) vs. 434 (410, 444), <0.001) was significantly lower and lactic acid (1.70 (1.30, 3.00) mmol/L vs. 1.20 (1.10, 1.60) mmol/L, <0.001) was significantly higher in the non-survivors. There was no significant difference in the proportion of ACEI/ARB medication between the critical group and the general group or between non-survivors and survivors (all >0.05). COVID-19 patients combined with CVD are associated with a higher risk of mortality. Critical patients are characterized with lower lymphocyte counts. Higher BMI are more often seen in critical patients and non-survivor. ACEI/ARB use does not affect the morbidity and mortality of COVID-19 combined with CVD. Aggravating causes of death include fulminant inflammation, lactic acid accumulation and thrombotic events. 10.3760/cma.j.cn112148-20200220-00105
    Obesity Increases the Duration of Influenza A Virus Shedding in Adults. Maier Hannah E,Lopez Roger,Sanchez Nery,Ng Sophia,Gresh Lionel,Ojeda Sergio,Burger-Calderon Raquel,Kuan Guillermina,Harris Eva,Balmaseda Angel,Gordon Aubree The Journal of infectious diseases Epidemiologic studies indicate that obesity increases the risk of severe complications and death from influenza virus infections, especially in elderly individuals. This work investigates the effect of obesity on the duration of viral shedding within household transmission studies in Managua, Nicaragua, over 3 seasons (2015-2017). Symptomatic obese adults were shown to shed influenza A virus 42% longer than nonobese adults (adjusted event time ratio [ETR], 1.42; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.06-1.89); no association was observed with influenza B virus shedding duration. Even among paucisymptomatic and asymptomatic adults, obesity increased the influenza A shedding duration by 104% (adjusted ETR, 2.04; 95% CI, 1.35-3.09). These findings suggest that obesity may play an important role in influenza transmission. 10.1093/infdis/jiy370