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    Transcriptional dynamics of bile salt export pump during pregnancy: mechanisms and implications in intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy. Song Xiulong,Vasilenko Alexander,Chen Yuan,Valanejad Leila,Verma Ruchi,Yan Bingfang,Deng Ruitang Hepatology (Baltimore, Md.) UNLABELLED:Bile salt export pump (BSEP) is responsible for biliary secretion of bile acids, a rate-limiting step in the enterohepatic circulation of bile acids and transactivated by nuclear receptor farnesoid X receptor (FXR). Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP) is the most prevalent disorder among diseases unique to pregnancy and primarily occurs in the third trimester of pregnancy, with a hallmark of elevated serum bile acids. Currently, the transcriptional regulation of BSEP during pregnancy and its underlying mechanisms and involvement in ICP are not fully understood. In this study the dynamics of BSEP transcription in vivo in the same group of pregnant mice before, during, and after gestation were established with an in vivo imaging system (IVIS). BSEP transcription was markedly repressed in the later stages of pregnancy and immediately recovered after parturition, resembling the clinical course of ICP in human. The transcriptional dynamics of BSEP was inversely correlated with serum 17β-estradiol (E2) levels before, during, and after gestation. Further studies showed that E2 repressed BSEP expression in human primary hepatocytes, Huh 7 cells, and in vivo in mice. Such transrepression of BSEP by E2 in vitro and in vivo required estrogen receptor α (ERα). Mechanistic studies with chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP), protein coimmunoprecipitation (Co-IP), and bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) assays demonstrated that ERα directly interacted with FXR in living cells and in vivo in mice. CONCLUSION:BSEP expression was repressed by E2 in the late stages of pregnancy through a nonclassical E2/ERα transrepressive pathway, directly interacting with FXR. E2-mediated repression of BSEP expression represents an etiological contributing factor to ICP and therapies targeting the ERα/FXR interaction may be developed for prevention and treatment of ICP. 10.1002/hep.27171
    Targeting the FXR nuclear receptor to treat liver disease. Neuschwander-Tetri Brent A Gastroenterology 10.1053/j.gastro.2015.02.037
    Pathogenesis, diagnosis, and management of cholangiocarcinoma. Rizvi Sumera,Gores Gregory J Gastroenterology Cholangiocarcinomas (CCAs) are hepatobiliary cancers with features of cholangiocyte differentiation; they can be classified anatomically as intrahepatic CCA (iCCA), perihilar CCA (pCCA), or distal CCA. These subtypes differ not only in their anatomic location, but in epidemiology, origin, etiology, pathogenesis, and treatment. The incidence and mortality of iCCA has been increasing over the past 3 decades, and only a low percentage of patients survive until 5 years after diagnosis. Geographic variations in the incidence of CCA are related to variations in risk factors. Changes in oncogene and inflammatory signaling pathways, as well as genetic and epigenetic alterations and chromosome aberrations, have been shown to contribute to the development of CCA. Furthermore, CCAs are surrounded by a dense stroma that contains many cancer-associated fibroblasts, which promotes their progression. We have gained a better understanding of the imaging characteristics of iCCAs and have developed advanced cytologic techniques to detect pCCAs. Patients with iCCAs usually are treated surgically, whereas liver transplantation after neoadjuvant chemoradiation is an option for a subset of patients with pCCAs. We review recent developments in our understanding of the epidemiology and pathogenesis of CCA, along with advances in classification, diagnosis, and treatment. 10.1053/j.gastro.2013.10.013
    A Ligand for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma inhibits human cholangiocarcinoma cell growth: potential molecular targeting strategy for cholangioma. Kobuke T,Tazuma S,Hyogo H,Chayama K Digestive diseases and sciences Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) ligands have an antitumor effect. The aim of this study was to clarify whether PPARgamma ligands could inhibit the growth of human cholangiocarcinoma cells. PPAR( expression in HuH-28 and HuCCT1 cells (intrahepatic bile duct carcinoma) was determined using the reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Expression of PPARgamma mRNA was detected in both cell lines. Activation of PPARgamma by troglitazone caused marked growth inhibition in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Troglitazone inhibited the growth of human cholangiocarcinoma cell lines by inducing apoptosis and by cell cycle regulation (G1 arrest), and this was associated with caspase 3 and caspase 9 activation. Thus, molecular targeting with troglitazone, a nuclear receptor ligand, may be a promising strategy for treating cholangiocarcinoma, although a delivery system needs to be established. 10.1007/s10620-005-9064-2
    [Effect of PPAR-gamma ligand RGZ on inhibiting the cell proliferation of cholangiocarcinoma]. Wu Liang-Hong,Cheng Nan-Sheng,Xiong Xian-Ze,Wei Da-Peng Sichuan da xue xue bao. Yi xue ban = Journal of Sichuan University. Medical science edition OBJECTIVE:To investigate the effect that PPAR-gamma (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, PPAR-gamma) ligand rosiglitazone (rosiglitazone, RGZ) inhibits the cell proliferation of cholangiocarcinoma. METHODS:The cell line QBC939 of cholangiocarcinoma was interfered with different concentration of RGZ, and then calculated for the rate of cell proliferation inhibited at different concentration. The change of cell cycle and the rate of cell apoptosis at each concentration were detected by FCM. RESULTS:RGZ showed the significant effect on inhibiting the cell proliferation of cholangiocarcinoma, especially on the 1200 mg/L concentration group. The highest inhibited rate of QBC939 cell proliferation could be up to 83.66%. After RGZ used to treat the cultured QBC939 cell for 48 h and 72 h, the inhibited rates of QBC939 cell proliferations of 1200 mg/L, 600 mg/L,300 mg/ L,150 mg/L, 75 mg/L and 37.45 mg/L groups were compared to those of control group, and with the statistics result of P < 0.001. Meanwhile the cell cycles were controlled significantly as well, 62.77% of the cells were detained in stage G0/G1. CONCLUSION:In vitro PPAR-gamma ligand rosiglitazone has the significant proliferation inhibition effect to cell lines QBC939 of cholangiocarcinoma.
    Expression levels and significance of nuclear factor-κB and epidermal growth factor receptor in hepatolithiasis associated with intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma. Zhou Quanbo,Gong Yuanfeng,Huang Feng,Lin Qing,Zeng Bing,Li Zhihua,Chen Rufu Digestive surgery BACKGROUND:An increasing incidence of cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) and CCA mortality rates has been observed around the world. Patients with intrahepatic biliary stones have a 10% risk of developing CCA, and up to 70% of patients with histologically confirmed CCA have hepatolithiasis. Few previous studies have addressed the associations between the expression of nuclear factor (NF)-κB and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and clinicopathological prognosis in patients with hepatolithiasis-associated intrahepatic CCA. AIMS:This study was designed to investigate the clinicopathological and prognostic significance of NF-κB and EGFR expression in hepatolithiasis-associated intrahepatic CCA and hepatolithiasis. METHODS:A total of 90 liver specimens were immunohistochemically stained for NF-κB and EGFR expression, and the characteristics of 90 individual patients were retrospectively reviewed. RESULTS:Differences in the positive rates of NF-κB and EGFR expression between the hepatolithiasis-associated intrahepatic CCA group, intrahepatic lithiasis group, and control group were found to be statistically significant. EGFR expression was closely associated with the degree of differentiation and depth of invasion (p < 0.05). The 1-, 3-, and 5-year overall survival rates were respectively 42.8, 21.0, and 10.3% in intrahepatic CCA groups. The survival rate of the EGFR-negative group was higher than in the EGFR-positive group (p < 0.01). Lymph node metastasis (HR 1.24, 95% CI 1.02-1.51) and EGFR positivity (HR 1.74, 95% CI 1.30-2.23) were associated with decreases in the survival rate. CONCLUSION:The expression of NF-κB may be an early step in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinogenesis. Overexpression of EGFR is associated with the degree of malignancy and with poor prognosis. NF-κB and EGFR may cooperate during intrahepatic cholangiocarcinogenesis and progression. Lymph node metastasis and EGFR positivity were associated with decreases in the survival rate. 10.1159/000354341
    JAK-STAT pathway in carcinogenesis: is it relevant to cholangiocarcinoma progression? Smirnova Olga V,Ostroukhova Tatiana Yu,Bogorad Roman L World journal of gastroenterology The features of JAK-STAT signaling in liver cells are discussed in the current review. The role of this signaling cascade in carcinogenesis is accentuated. The possible involvement of this pathway and alteration of its elements are compared for normal cholangiocytes, cholangiocarcinoma predisposition and development. Prolactin and interleukin-6 are described in detail as the best studied examples. In addition, the non-classical nuclear translocation of cytokine receptors is discussed in terms of its possible implication to cholangiocarcinoma development. 10.3748/wjg.v13.i48.6478
    TGR5 is essential for bile acid-dependent cholangiocyte proliferation in vivo and in vitro. Reich Maria,Deutschmann Kathleen,Sommerfeld Annika,Klindt Caroline,Kluge Stefanie,Kubitz Ralf,Ullmer Christoph,Knoefel Wolfram T,Herebian Diran,Mayatepek Ertan,Häussinger Dieter,Keitel Verena Gut OBJECTIVE:Cholestatic liver diseases in humans as well as bile acid (BA)-feeding and common bile duct ligation (CBDL) in rodents trigger hyperplasia of cholangiocytes within the portal fields. Furthermore, elevation of BA levels enhances proliferation and invasiveness of cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) cells in animal models, thus promoting tumour progression. TGR5 is a G-protein coupled BA receptor, which is highly expressed in cholangiocytes and postulated to mediate the proliferative effects of BA. DESIGN:BA-dependent cholangiocyte proliferation was examined in TGR5-knockout and wild type mice following cholic acid (CA)-feeding and CBDL. TGR5-dependent proliferation and protection from apoptosis was studied in isolated cholangiocytes and CCA cell lines following stimulation with TGR5 ligands and kinase inhibitors. TGR5 expression was analysed in human CCA tissue. RESULTS:Cholangiocyte proliferation was significantly reduced in TGR5-knockout mice in response to CA-feeding and CBDL. Taurolithocholic acid and TGR5-selective agonists induced cholangiocyte proliferation through elevation of reactive oxygen species and cSrc mediated epidermal growth factor receptor transactivation and subsequent Erk1/2 phosphorylation only in wild type but not in TGR5-knockout-derived cells. In human CCA tissue TGR5 was overexpressed and the pathway of TGR5-dependent proliferation via epidermal growth factor receptor and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 activation also translated to CCA cell lines. Furthermore, apoptosis was inhibited by TGR5-dependent CD95 receptor serine phosphorylation. CONCLUSIONS:TGR5 is an important mediator of BA-induced cholangiocyte proliferation in vivo and in vitro. Furthermore, TGR5 protects cholangiocytes from death receptor-mediated apoptosis. These mechanisms may protect cholangiocytes from BA toxicity under cholestatic conditions, however, they may trigger proliferation and apoptosis resistance in malignantly transformed cholangiocytes, thus promoting CCA progression. 10.1136/gutjnl-2015-309458
    Bile acid receptors in the biliary tree: TGR5 in physiology and disease. Deutschmann Kathleen,Reich Maria,Klindt Caroline,Dröge Carola,Spomer Lina,Häussinger Dieter,Keitel Verena Biochimica et biophysica acta. Molecular basis of disease Bile salts represent signalling molecules with a variety of endocrine functions. Bile salt effects are mediated by different receptor molecules, comprising ligand-activated nuclear transcription factors as well as G protein-coupled membrane-bound receptors. The farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and the plasma membrane-bound G protein-coupled receptor TGR5 (Gpbar-1) are prototypic bile salt receptors of both classes and are highly expressed in the liver including the biliary tree as well as in the intestine. In liver, TGR5 is localized in different non-parenchymal cells such as sinusoidal endothelial cells, Kupffer cells, hepatic stellate cells and small and large cholangiocytes. Through TGR5 bile salts can mediate choleretic, cell-protective as well as proliferative effects in cholangiocytes. A disturbance of these signalling mechanisms can contribute to the development of biliary diseases. In line with the important role of TGR5 for bile salt signalling, TGR5 knockout mice are more susceptible to cholestatic liver damage. Furthermore, in absence of TGR5 cholangiocyte proliferation in response to cholestasis is attenuated and intrahepatic and extrahepatic bile ducts show increased cell damage, underscoring the role of the receptor for biliary physiology. Decreased TGR5 expression may also contribute to the development or progression of cholangiopathies like primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) and primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) since reduced TGR5-dependent cell-protective mechanisms such as bicarbonate secretion renders cholangiocytes more vulnerable towards bile salt toxicity. Nevertheless, TGR5 overexpression or constant stimulation of the receptor can promote cholangiocyte proliferation leading to cyst growth in polycystic liver disease or even progression of cholangiocarcinoma. Not only the stimulation of TGR5-mediated pathways by suitable TGR5 agonists but also the inhibition of TGR5 signalling by the use of antagonists represent potential therapeutic approaches for different types of biliary diseases. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Cholangiocytes in Health and Disease edited by Jesus Banales, Marco Marzioni, Nicholas LaRusso and Peter Jansen. 10.1016/j.bbadis.2017.08.021
    Lithocholic acid decreases expression of bile salt export pump through farnesoid X receptor antagonist activity. Yu Jinghua,Lo Jane-L,Huang Li,Zhao Annie,Metzger Edward,Adams Alan,Meinke Peter T,Wright Samuel D,Cui Jisong The Journal of biological chemistry Bile salt export pump (BSEP) is a major bile acid transporter in the liver. Mutations in BSEP result in progressive intrahepatic cholestasis, a severe liver disease that impairs bile flow and causes irreversible liver damage. BSEP is a target for inhibition and down-regulation by drugs and abnormal bile salt metabolites, and such inhibition and down-regulation may result in bile acid retention and intrahepatic cholestasis. In this study, we quantitatively analyzed the regulation of BSEP expression by FXR ligands in primary human hepatocytes and HepG2 cells. We demonstrate that BSEP expression is dramatically regulated by ligands of the nuclear receptor farnesoid X receptor (FXR). Both the endogenous FXR agonist chenodeoxycholate (CDCA) and synthetic FXR ligand GW4064 effectively increased BSEP mRNA in both cell types. This up-regulation was readily detectable at as early as 3 h, and the ligand potency for BSEP regulation correlates with the intrinsic activity on FXR. These results suggest BSEP as a direct target of FXR and support the recent report that the BSEP promoter is transactivated by FXR. In contrast to CDCA and GW4064, lithocholate (LCA), a hydrophobic bile acid and a potent inducer of cholestasis, strongly decreased BSEP expression. Previous studies did not identify LCA as an FXR antagonist ligand in cells, but we show here that LCA is an FXR antagonist with partial agonist activity in cells. In an in vitro co-activator association assay, LCA decreased CDCA- and GW4064-induced FXR activation with an IC(50) of 1 microm. In HepG2 cells, LCA also effectively antagonized GW4064-enhanced FXR transactivation. These data suggest that the toxic and cholestatic effect of LCA in animals may result from its down-regulation of BSEP through FXR. Taken together, these observations indicate that FXR plays an important role in BSEP gene expression and that FXR ligands may be potential therapeutic drugs for intrahepatic cholestasis. 10.1074/jbc.M200474200
    Differential activation of the human farnesoid X receptor depends on the pattern of expressed isoforms and the bile acid pool composition. Vaquero Javier,Monte Maria J,Dominguez Mercedes,Muntané Jordi,Marin Jose J G Biochemical pharmacology The farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is a key sensor in bile acid homeostasis. Although four human FXR isoforms have been identified, the physiological role of this diversity is poorly understood. Here we investigated their subcellular localization, agonist sensitivity and response of target genes. Measurement of mRNA revealed that liver predominantly expressed FXRα1(+/-), whereas FXRα2(+/-) were the most abundant isoforms in kidney and intestine. In all cases, the proportion of FXRα(1/2)(+) and FXRα(1/2)(-) isoforms, i.e., with and without a 12bp insert, respectively, was approximately 50%. When FXR was expressed in liver and intestinal cells the magnitude of the response to GW4064 and bile acids differs among FXR isoforms. In both cell types the strongest response was that of FXRα1(-). Different efficacy of bile acids species to activate FXR was found. The four FXR isoforms shared the order of sensitivity to bile acids species. When in FXR-deficient cells FXR was transfected, unconjugated, but not taurine- and glycine-amidated bile acids, were able to activate FXR. In contrast, human hepatocytes and cell lines showing an endogenous expression of FXR were sensitive to both unconjugated and conjugated bile acids. This suggests that to activate FXR conjugated, but not unconjugated, bile acids require additional component(s) of the intracellular machinery not related with uptake processes, which are missing in some tumor cells. In conclusion, cell-specific pattern of FXR isoforms determine the overall tissue sensitivity to FXR agonists and may be involved in the differential response of FXR target genes to FXR activation. 10.1016/j.bcp.2013.07.022
    Bile acids induce the expression of the human peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha gene via activation of the farnesoid X receptor. Pineda Torra Inés,Claudel Thierry,Duval Caroline,Kosykh Vladimir,Fruchart Jean-Charles,Staels Bart Molecular endocrinology (Baltimore, Md.) Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha) is a nuclear receptor that controls lipid and glucose metabolism and exerts antiinflammatory activities. PPARalpha is also reported to influence bile acid formation and bile composition. Farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is a bile acid-activated nuclear receptor that mediates the effects of bile acids on gene expression and plays a major role in bile acid and possibly also in lipid metabolism. Thus, both PPARalpha and FXR appear to act on common metabolic pathways. To determine the existence of a molecular cross-talk between these two nuclear receptors, the regulation of PPARalpha expression by bile acids was investigated. Incubation of human hepatoma HepG2 cells with the natural FXR ligand chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) as well as with the nonsteroidal FXR agonist GW4064 resulted in a significant induction of PPARalpha mRNA levels. In addition, hPPARalpha gene expression was up-regulated by taurocholic acid in human primary hepatocytes. Cotransfection of FXR/retinoid X receptor in the presence of CDCA led to up to a 3-fold induction of human PPARalpha promoter activity in HepG2 cells. Mutation analysis identified a FXR response element in the human PPARalpha promoter (alpha-FXR response element (alphaFXRE)] that mediates bile acid regulation of this promoter. FXR bound the alphaFXRE site as demonstrated by gel shift analysis, and CDCA specifically increased the activity of a heterologous promoter driven by four copies of the alphaFXRE. In contrast, neither the murine PPARalpha promoter, in which the alphaFXRE is not conserved, nor a mouse alphaFXRE-driven heterologous reporter, were responsive to CDCA treatment. Moreover, PPARalpha expression was not regulated in taurocholic acid-fed mice. Finally, induction of hPPARalpha mRNA levels by CDCA resulted in an enhanced induction of the expression of the PPARalpha target gene carnitine palmitoyltransferase I by PPARalpha ligands. In concert, these results demonstrate that bile acids stimulate PPARalpha expression in a species-specific manner via a FXRE located within the human PPARalpha promoter. These results provide molecular evidence for a cross-talk between the FXR and PPARalpha pathways in humans. 10.1210/me.2002-0120
    Enhanced expression of farnesoid X receptor in human hepatocellular carcinoma. Kumagai Arisa,Fukushima Junichi,Takikawa Hajime,Fukuda Toshio,Fukusato Toshio Hepatology research : the official journal of the Japan Society of Hepatology AIM:The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of farnesoid X receptor (FXR) in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) tissues and cell lines and evaluate its clinicopathological significance. METHODS:Expression levels of FXR protein and mRNA in hepatocytes, hepatic stellate cells (SC), and HCC cells in human liver, HCC tissues and cultured cell lines were analyzed using immunohistochemical methods, western blotting (WB), and quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). The relationship between FXR expression and clinicopathological parameters was also investigated. RESULTS:Immunoreactivity for FXR was observed in nuclei of hepatocytes, SC and HCC cells. The intensity of nuclear FXR positive staining was comparable or increased in tumor cells of all HCC tissues when compared with hepatocytes of non-tumorous liver tissues of the same patients as well as in comparison with metastatic colon cancers. A significant level of FXR expression in four of six human HCC cell lines was also confirmed, while it was undetectable in three cholangiocarcinoma cell lines. However, FXR protein and mRNA levels in HCC tissues determined by WB and qRT-PCR were lower than those in non-tumorous liver tissues because of the high level of FXR expression in SC nuclei as detected by immunohistochemical double stain. Statistically significant relationships between FXR immunostaining intensity and high Ki-67 labeling indices or a history of transcatheter arterial chemoembolization in HCC patients were also disclosed. CONCLUSION:Contrary to previous reports, preserved or enhanced expression levels of nuclear FXR were detected in HCC, indicating that FXR may play significant roles in the biological behavior of HCC. 10.1111/hepr.12047
    Upregulation of microRNA-122 by farnesoid X receptor suppresses the growth of hepatocellular carcinoma cells. He Jialin,Zhao Kai,Zheng Lu,Xu Zhizhen,Gong Wei,Chen Shan,Shen Xiaodong,Huang Gang,Gao Min,Zeng Yijun,Zhang Yan,He Fengtian Molecular cancer BACKGROUND:microRNA-122 (miR-122) is the most abundant and specific miRNA in the liver. It acts as an important tumor suppressor in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) through regulating its target genes, but details of its own regulation are largely unknown. Farnesoid X receptor (FXR), a transcription factor with multiple functions, plays an important role in protecting against liver carcinogenesis, but it is unclear whether the anti-HCC effect of FXR is involved in the regulation of miR-122. METHODS:The levels of miR-122 and FXR in HCC tissues and cell lines were examined by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). qRT-PCR was also used to detect the expression of miR-122 target genes at mRNA level, while Western blotting was used to analyze that of their protein products. The effect of FXR on the transcriptional activity of miR-122 promoter was evaluated by a luciferase reporter assay. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay were performed to identify the FXR binding site within miR-122 promoter region. The cell proliferation was analyzed by a CCK-8 assay. The influence of FXR on tumor growth and miR-122 expression in vivo was monitored using HCC xenografts in nude mice. RESULTS:The expression of FXR was positively correlated with that of miR-122 in HCC tissues and cell lines. Activation of FXR in HCC cells upregulated miR-122 expression and in turn downregulated the expression of miR-122 target genes including insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor and cyclin G1. FXR bound directly to the DR2 element (-338 to -325) in miR-122 promoter region, and enhanced the promoter's transcriptional activity. Functional experiments showed that the FXR-mediated upregulation of miR-122 suppressed the proliferation of HCC cells in vitro and the growth of HCC xenografts in vivo. CONCLUSIONS:miR-122 is a novel target gene of FXR, and the upregulation of miR-122 by FXR represses the growth of HCC cells, suggesting that FXR may serve as a key transcriptional regulator for manipulating miR-122 expression, and the FXR/miR-122 pathway may therefore be a novel target for the treatment of HCC. 10.1186/s12943-015-0427-9
    Farnesoid X Receptor Activation Enhances Transforming Growth Factor β-Induced Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition in Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells. Kainuma Masahiko,Takada Ichiro,Makishima Makoto,Sano Keiji International journal of molecular sciences Farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is a receptor for bile acids and plays an important role in the regulation of bile acid metabolism in the liver. Although FXR has been shown to affect hepatocarcinogenesis through both direct and indirect mechanisms, potential roles of FXR in epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remain unclear. We examined the effect of several FXR ligands on EMT-related morphological changes in HCC cell lines, such as HuH-7 and Hep3B cells. FXR agonists (chenodeoxycholic acid, GW4064, and obeticholic acid)—but not an antagonist (guggulsterone)&mdash;induced actin polymerization and expression of N-cadherin and phosphorylated focal adhesion kinase, although they were less effective than transforming growth factor β (TGF-β). FXR agonist treatment enhanced TGF-β-induced EMT morphologic changes and FXR antagonist inhibited the effect of TGF-β. Thus, FXR activation enhances EMT in HCC and FXR antagonists may be EMT-suppressing drug candidates. 10.3390/ijms19071898
    Breast tumor kinase/protein tyrosine kinase 6 (Brk/PTK6) activity in normal and neoplastic biliary epithelia. Mizuguchi Yoshiaki,Specht Susan,Isse Kumiko,Sasatomi Eizaburo,Lunz John G,Takizawa Toshihiro,Demetris Anthony J Journal of hepatology BACKGROUND & AIMS:Breast tumor kinase (BRK) augments proliferation and promotes cell survival in breast cancers via interactions with SH2 and SH3 ligand-containing proteins, such as receptor tyrosine kinases (RTK; e.g. EGFR, ErbB2/neu). Since RTK contribute to cholangiocarcinoma (CC) evolution we probed BRK protein expression and function in normal and CC livers. METHODS:Immunohistochemical staining of normal livers and CC (n=93) in a tissue microarray and three CC and an immortalized human cholangiocyte cell lines (real-time PCR, Western blotting, siRNA) were used to study the functional relationships between BRK, EGFR, ErbB2, SAM68, and SPRR2a. RESULTS:BRK protein was expressed in normal human intrahepatic bile ducts; all CC cell lines and a majority of CC showed strong BRK protein expression. Multiplex immunostaining/tissue cytometry and immunoprecipitation studies showed: 1) BRK co-localized with EGFR and ErbB2/neu; 2) BRK(high)/EGFR(high)-co-expressing CC cells had significantly higher Ki67 labeling and; 3) stronger BRK protein expression was seen in perihilar and distal CC than intrahepatic CC and directly correlated with CC differentiation. In cell lines, BRK expression augmented proliferation in response to exogenous EGF, whereas BRK siRNA significantly reduced growth. The SH3 ligand-containing, SPRR2A activated pTyr342 BRK, which in turn, phosphorylated SAM68, causing nuclear localization and increased cell proliferation similar to observations in breast cancers. CONCLUSION:BRK expression in a majority of CC can interact with RTK, augmenting growth and interfering with proliferation inhibitors (SAM68). Therapeutically targeting BRK function (in addition to RTK) should be of benefit for CC treatment. 10.1016/j.jhep.2015.02.047
    Mutant IDH inhibits HNF-4α to block hepatocyte differentiation and promote biliary cancer. Saha Supriya K,Parachoniak Christine A,Ghanta Krishna S,Fitamant Julien,Ross Kenneth N,Najem Mortada S,Gurumurthy Sushma,Akbay Esra A,Sia Daniela,Cornella Helena,Miltiadous Oriana,Walesky Chad,Deshpande Vikram,Zhu Andrew X,Hezel Aram F,Yen Katharine E,Straley Kimberly S,Travins Jeremy,Popovici-Muller Janeta,Gliser Camelia,Ferrone Cristina R,Apte Udayan,Llovet Josep M,Wong Kwok-Kin,Ramaswamy Sridhar,Bardeesy Nabeel Nature Mutations in isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) and IDH2 are among the most common genetic alterations in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (IHCC), a deadly liver cancer. Mutant IDH proteins in IHCC and other malignancies acquire an abnormal enzymatic activity allowing them to convert α-ketoglutarate (αKG) to 2-hydroxyglutarate (2HG), which inhibits the activity of multiple αKG-dependent dioxygenases, and results in alterations in cell differentiation, survival, and extracellular matrix maturation. However, the molecular pathways by which IDH mutations lead to tumour formation remain unclear. Here we show that mutant IDH blocks liver progenitor cells from undergoing hepatocyte differentiation through the production of 2HG and suppression of HNF-4α, a master regulator of hepatocyte identity and quiescence. Correspondingly, genetically engineered mouse models expressing mutant IDH in the adult liver show an aberrant response to hepatic injury, characterized by HNF-4α silencing, impaired hepatocyte differentiation, and markedly elevated levels of cell proliferation. Moreover, IDH and Kras mutations, genetic alterations that co-exist in a subset of human IHCCs, cooperate to drive the expansion of liver progenitor cells, development of premalignant biliary lesions, and progression to metastatic IHCC. These studies provide a functional link between IDH mutations, hepatic cell fate, and IHCC pathogenesis, and present a novel genetically engineered mouse model of IDH-driven malignancy. 10.1038/nature13441
    Overexpression of vitamin D receptor indicates a good prognosis for cholangiocarcinoma: implications for therapeutics. Seubwai Wunchana,Wongkham Chaisiri,Puapairoj Anucha,Khuntikeo Narong,Wongkham Sopit Cancer BACKGROUND:Up-regulation of vitamin D receptor (VDR) expression has been shown in several tumors and is thought to represent an important endogenous response to tumor progression. The authors aimed to verify the expression of VDR and its clinical significance in histologically proven cholangiocarcinoma (CCA). METHODS:The antiproliferative activity of vitamin D3 on CCA cell lines was explored. The immunohistochemistry of 111 paraffin-embedded CCA tissues showed that VDR expression gradually increased during CCA development. Normal bile duct epithelium rarely expresses VDR, whereas more than 74% of CCA tissues showed positive VDR staining, of which 40% were high. Approximately 80%-90%of CCA patients with papillary and well differentiated adenocarcinomas had positive VDR expression in tumor tissues, whereas 39% positive VDR expression was found in those with poorly differentiated CCAs (P < .001). RESULTS:Expression of VDR was shown to be compatible with an overall favorable prognosis for CCA. Treatment with 1,25(OH)(2)D(3), an active metabolite of vitamin D3, in the CCA cell lines with high expression of VDR significantly reduced cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner. The effect was not demonstrated in the CCA cell lines that had lower VDR expression. CONCLUSIONS:These data indicated an active role for VDR in mediating the antiproliferative effects of 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) in CCA cell lines. VDR expression may constitute an important prerequisite for using vitamin D and/or its analogs in the treatment of CCA. Investigation of a mechanism by which VDR and its ligand mediate these processes is needed to provide the basis for the potential use of this hormone and its derivatives in the prevention and treatment of CCA. 10.1002/cncr.22716
    The H4 histamine receptor agonist, clobenpropit, suppresses human cholangiocarcinoma progression by disruption of epithelial mesenchymal transition and tumor metastasis. Meng Fanyin,Han Yuyan,Staloch Dustin,Francis Taylor,Stokes Allison,Francis Heather Hepatology (Baltimore, Md.) UNLABELLED:Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is a biliary cancer arising from damaged bile ducts. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) occurs as epithelial cells begin to resemble mesenchymal cells leading to increased invasion potential as the extracellular matrix (ECM) degrades. Histamine exerts its effects by way of four receptors (H1-H4 HRs). Clobenpropit, a potent H4HR agonist, inhibits mammary adenocarcinoma growth. We have shown that (1) cholangiocytes and CCA cells express H1-H4 HRs and (2) the H3HR decreases CCA proliferation. We evaluated the effects of clobenpropit on CCA proliferation, invasion, EMT phenotypes, and ECM degradation. In vitro, we used CCA cell lines to study proliferation, signaling pathways, and the morphological invasive potential. Gene and protein expression of the hepatobiliary epithelial markers CK-7, CK-8, and CK-19, the focal contact protein paxillin, and the mesenchymal markers fibronectin, s100A4, and vimentin were evaluated. Cell invasion across an ECM layer was quantitated and matrix metalloproteinase-1, -2, -3, -9, and -11 gene and protein expression was examined. Evaluation of the specific role of H4HR was performed by genetic knockdown of the H3HR and overexpression of H4HR. Proliferation was evaluated by proliferating cellular nuclear antigen immunoblotting. In vivo, xenograft tumors were treated with either vehicle or clobenpropit for 39 days. Tumor volume was recorded every other day. Clobenpropit significantly decreased CCA proliferation by way of a Ca(2+) -dependent pathway and altered morphological development and invasion. Loss of H3HR expression or overexpression of H4HR significantly decreased CCA proliferation. In vivo, clobenpropit inhibited xenograft tumor growth compared with controls. CONCLUSION:Modulation of H4HR by clobenpropit disrupts EMT processes, ECM breakdown, and invasion potential and decreases tumor growth. Interruption of tumorigenesis and invasion by histamine may add to therapeutic advances for CCAs. 10.1002/hep.24573
    PPARgamma ligands inhibit cholangiocarcinoma cell growth through p53-dependent GADD45 and p21 pathway. Han Chang,Demetris A Jake,Michalopoulos George K,Zhan Qimin,Shelhamer James H,Wu Tong Hepatology (Baltimore, Md.) Ligands of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARgamma) induce differentiation and growth inhibition in several human cancers. However, the role of PPARgamma ligands in the growth control of human cholangiocarcinoma cells remains unknown. This study was designed to investigate the biological functions and molecular mechanisms of PPARgamma ligands in the growth regulation of human cholangiocarcinoma cells. Western blot analysis showed that PPARgamma is expressed in all of the three human cholangiocarcinoma cell lines used in this study (SG231, CC-LP-1, and HuCCT1). Transient transfection assays using a peroxisome proliferator response element (PPRE) reporter construct showed that the PPARgamma expressed in human cholangiocarcinoma cells is functional as a transcription activator. Exposure of SG231, CC-LP-1, and HuCCT1 cells to PPARgamma ligands 15-deoxy-delta12, 14-prostaglandin J(2) (15d-PGJ(2)) and troglitazone for 24 to 96 hours resulted in a dose-dependent inhibition of cell growth. Flow cytometry analysis showed that 15d-PGJ(2) and troglitazone-induced cell cycle arrest at the G2/M checkpoint. Consistent with these findings, both 15d-PGJ(2) and troglitazone significantly inhibited the G2/M cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) Cdc2 activity. Furthermore, cells treated with 15d-PGJ(2) and troglitazone showed elevated expression of p53 and two p53-controlled downstream genes, GADD45 and p21(WAF1/Cip1). Dominant negative inhibition of p53 in SG231 cells significantly blocked the 15d-PGJ(2) and troglitazone-induced growth inhibition, G2/M arrest, and GADD45/p21 induction. 15d-PGJ(2) and troglitazone failed to directly inhibit Cdc2 activity in a cell-free system in spite of direct association between GADD45 and PPARgamma proteins. In conclusion, these results show a novel p53-dependent mechanism in the PPARgamma ligand-mediated inhibition of cholangiocarcinoma growth and suggest a potential therapeutic role of PPARgamma ligands in the treatment of human cholangiocarcinoma. 10.1053/jhep.2003.50296
    Amplified in breast cancer 1 enhances human cholangiocarcinoma growth and chemoresistance by simultaneous activation of Akt and Nrf2 pathways. Chen Qiang,Li Wenjiao,Wan Yunyan,Xia Xiaochun,Wu Qiao,Chen Yanling,Lai Zhide,Yu Chundong,Li Wengang Hepatology (Baltimore, Md.) UNLABELLED:Transcriptional coactivator amplified in breast cancer 1 (AIB1) plays important roles in the progression of several cancers such as prostate cancer, breast cancer, and hepatocellular carcinoma. However, its role in cholangiocarcinoma (CCA), a chemoresistant bile duct carcinoma with a poor prognosis, remains unclear. In this study we found that AIB1 protein was frequently overexpressed in human CCA specimens and CCA cell lines. Down-regulation of AIB1 induced the G2/M arrest and decreased the expression of mitosis-promoting factors including Cyclin A, Cyclin B, and Cdk1 through suppressing the Akt pathway, which resulted in inhibiting CCA cell proliferation. In addition, AIB1 enhanced the chemoresistance of CCA cells at least in part through up-regulating the expression of antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2. AIB1 regulated the expression of Bcl-2 in CCA cells through activating the Akt pathway as well as suppressing intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). AIB1 suppressed ROS by up-regulating antioxidants such as glutathione synthetase and glutathione peroxidase, which are targets of the NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), a critical transcription factor that regulates antioxidants, detoxification enzymes, and drug efflux proteins. AIB1 also increased the expression of another two Nrf2 targets, ABCC2 and ABCG2, to enhance drug efflux. AIB1 served as an essential coactivator for Nrf2 activation by physically interacting with Nrf2 to enhance its transcriptional activity. CONCLUSION:AIB1 plays an important role in proliferation and chemoresistance of CCA through simultaneous activation of Akt and Nrf2 pathways, suggesting that AIB1 is a potential molecular target for CCA treatment. 10.1002/hep.25549
    TGF-β signaling is an effective target to impair survival and induce apoptosis of human cholangiocarcinoma cells: A study on human primary cell cultures. Lustri Anna Maria,Di Matteo Sabina,Fraveto Alice,Costantini Daniele,Cantafora Alfredo,Napoletano Chiara,Bragazzi Maria Consiglia,Giuliante Felice,De Rose Agostino M,Berloco Pasquale B,Grazi Gian Luca,Carpino Guido,Alvaro Domenico PloS one Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) and its subtypes (mucin- and mixed-CCA) arise from the neoplastic transformation of cholangiocytes, the epithelial cells lining the biliary tree. CCA has a high mortality rate owing to its aggressiveness, late diagnosis and high resistance to radiotherapy and chemotherapeutics. We have demonstrated that CCA is enriched for cancer stem cells which express epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) traits, with these features being associated with aggressiveness and drug resistance. TGF-β signaling is upregulated in CCA and involved in EMT. We have recently established primary cell cultures from human mucin- and mixed-intrahepatic CCA. In human CCA primary cultures with different levels of EMT trait expression, we evaluated the anticancer effects of: (i) CX-4945, a casein kinase-2 (CK2) inhibitor that blocks TGF-β1-induced EMT; and (ii) LY2157299, a TGF-β receptor I kinase inhibitor. We tested primary cell lines expressing EMT trait markers (vimentin, N-cadherin and nuclear catenin) but negative for epithelial markers, and cell lines expressing epithelial markers (CK19-positive) in association with EMT traits. Cell viability was evaluated by MTS assays, apoptosis by Annexin V FITC and cell migration by wound-healing assay. RESULTS:at a dose of 10 μM, CX4945 significantly decreased cell viability of primary human cell cultures from both mucin and mixed CCA, whereas in CK19-positive cell cultures, the effect of CX4945 on cell viability required higher concentrations (>30μM). At the same concentrations, CX4945 also induced apoptosis (3- fold increase vs controls) which correlated with the expression level of CK2 in the different CCA cell lines (mucin- and mixed-CCA). Indeed, no apoptotic effects were observed in CK19-positive cells expressing lower CK2 levels. The effects of CX4945 on viability and apoptosis were associated with an increased number of γ-H2ax (biomarker for DNA double-strand breaks) foci, suggesting the active role of CK2 as a repair mechanism in CCAs. LY2157299 failed to influence cell proliferation or apoptosis but significantly inhibited cell migration. At a 50 μM concentration, in fact, LY2157299 significantly impaired (at 24, 48 and 120 hrs) the wound-healing of primary cell cultures from both mucin-and mixed-CCA. In conclusion, we demonstrated that CX4945 and LY2157299 exert relevant but distinct anticancer effects against human CCA cells, with CX4945 acting on cell viability and apoptosis, and LY2157299 impairing cell migration. These results suggest that targeting the TGF-β signaling with a combination of CX-4945 and LY2157299 could have potential benefits in the treatment of human CCA. 10.1371/journal.pone.0183932
    Overexpression of membrane metalloendopeptidase inhibits substance P stimulation of cholangiocarcinoma growth. Meng Fanyin,DeMorrow Sharon,Venter Julie,Frampton Gabriel,Han Yuyan,Francis Heather,Standeford Holly,Avila Shanika,McDaniel Kelly,McMillin Matthew,Afroze Syeda,Guerrier Micheleine,Quezada Morgan,Ray Debolina,Kennedy Lindsey,Hargrove Laura,Glaser Shannon,Alpini Gianfranco American journal of physiology. Gastrointestinal and liver physiology Substance P (SP) promotes cholangiocyte growth during cholestasis by activating its receptor, NK1R. SP is a proteolytic product of tachykinin (Tac1) and is deactivated by membrane metalloendopeptidase (MME). This study aimed to evaluate the functional role of SP in the regulation of cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) growth. NK1R, Tac1, and MME expression and SP secretion were assessed in human CCA cells and nonmalignant cholangiocytes. The proliferative effects of SP (in the absence/presence of the NK1R inhibitor, L-733,060) and of L-733,060 were evaluated. In vivo, the effect of L-733,060 treatment or MME overexpression on tumor growth was evaluated by using a xenograft model of CCA in nu/nu nude mice. The expression of Tac1, MME, NK1R, PCNA, CK-19, and VEGF-A was analyzed in the resulting tumors. Human CCA cell lines had increased expression of Tac1 and NK1R, along with reduced levels of MME compared with nonmalignant cholangiocytes, resulting in a subsequent increase in SP secretion. SP treatment increased CCA cell proliferation in vitro, which was blocked by L-733,060. Treatment with L-733,060 alone inhibited CCA proliferation in vitro and in vivo. Xenograft tumors derived from MME-overexpressed human Mz-ChA-1 CCA cells had a slower growth rate than those derived from control cells. Expression of PCNA, CK-19, and VEGF-A decreased, whereas MME expression increased in the xenograft tumors treated with L-733,060 or MME-overexpressed xenograft tumors compared with controls. The study suggests that SP secreted by CCA promotes CCA growth via autocrine pathway. Blockade of SP secretion and NK1R signaling may be important for the management of CCA. 10.1152/ajpgi.00018.2014
    A novel positive feedback loop between peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-delta and prostaglandin E2 signaling pathways for human cholangiocarcinoma cell growth. Xu Lihong,Han Chang,Wu Tong The Journal of biological chemistry Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-delta (PPARdelta) is a nuclear receptor implicated in lipid oxidation and the pathogenesis of obesity and diabetes. This study was designed to examine the potential effect of PPARdelta on human cholangiocarcinoma cell growth and its mechanism of actions. Overexpression of PPARdelta or activation of PPARdelta by its pharmacological ligand, GW501516, at low doses (0.5-50 nM) promoted the growth of three human cholangiocarcinoma cell lines (CCLP1, HuCCT1, and SG231). This effect was mediated by induction of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) gene expression and production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) that in turn transactivated epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and Akt. In support of this, inhibition of COX-2, EGFR, and Akt prevented the PPARdelta-induced cell growth. Furthermore, PPARdelta activation or PGE2 treatment induced the phosphorylation of cytosolic phospholipase A2alpha (cPLA2alpha), a key enzyme that releases arachidonic acid (AA) substrate for PG production via COX. Overexpression or activation of cPLA2alpha enhanced PPARdelta binding to PPARdelta response element (DRE) and increased PPARdelta reporter activity, indicating a novel role of cPLA2alpha for PPARdelta activation. Consistent with this, AA enhanced the binding of PPARdelta to DRE, in vitro, suggesting a direct role of AA for PPARdelta activation. In contrast, although PGE2 treatment increased the DRE reporter activity in intact cells, it failed to induce PPARdelta binding to DRE in cell-free system, suggesting that cPLA2alpha-mediated AA release is required for PGE2-induced PPARdelta activation. Taken together, these observations reveal that PPARdelta induces COX-2 expression in human cholangiocarcinoma cells and that the COX-2-derived PGE2 further activates PPARdelta through phosphorylation of cPLA2alpha. This positive feedback loop plays an important role for cholangiocarcinoma cell growth and may be targeted for chemoprevention and treatment. 10.1074/jbc.M600135200
    MART-10 represses cholangiocarcinoma cell growth and high vitamin D receptor expression indicates better prognosis for cholangiocarcinoma. Chiang Kun-Chun,Yeh Ta-Sen,Huang Cheng-Cheng,Chang Yu-Chan,Juang Horng-Heng,Cheng Chi-Tung,Pang Jong-Hwei S,Hsu Jun-Te,Takano Masashi,Chen Tai C,Kittaka Atsushi,Hsiao Michael,Yeh Chun-Nan Scientific reports Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is a devastating disease due to no effective treatments available. Since the non-mineral functions of vitamin D emerges, 1α,25(OH)D, the active form of vitamin D, has been applied in anti-cancer researches. In this study, we demonstrated that both the 1α,25(OH)D analog, MART-10, and 1α,25(OH)D possessed anti-growth effect on human CCA cells with MART-10 much more potent than 1α,25(OH)D. The growth inhibition of both drugs were mediated by induction of G0/G1 cell cycle arrest through upregulation of p27 and downregulation of CDK4, CDK6, and cyclin D3. Human neutrophil gelatinase associated lipocalin (NGAL) was found to be involved in 1α,25(OH)D and MART-10 meditated growth inhibition for CCA as knockdown of NGAL decreased Ki-67 expression in SNU308 cells and rendered SNU308 cells less responsive to 1α,25(OH)D and MART-10 treatment. Vitamin D receptor (VDR) knockdown partly abolished MART-10-induced inhibition of NGAL and cell growth in SNU308 cells. The xenograft animal study demonstrated MART-10 could effectively repressed CCA growth in vivo without inducing obvious side effects. The IHC examination of human CCA specimen for VDR revealed that higher VDR expression was linked with better prognosis. Collectively, our results suggest that MART-10 could be a promising regimen for CCA treatment. 10.1038/srep43773
    Genistein reduces the activation of AKT and EGFR, and the production of IL6 in cholangiocarcinoma cells involving estrogen and estrogen receptors. Tanjak Pariyada,Thiantanawat Apinya,Watcharasit Piyajit,Satayavivad Jutamaad International journal of oncology Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is a malignant tumor of the biliary epithelium associated with Opisthorchis viverrini, primary sclerosing cholangitis and hepatitis viral infection. In the global population, men have higher incidence rates for CCA than women; thus, a gender disparity in the progression of chronic inflammation of the biliary duct leading to malignancy may involve the effects of estrogen (E2). Genistein (GE), a prominent phytoestrogen found in soy products, is an estrogen receptor β (ERβ) agonist and a tyrosine kinase inhibitor. The present study investigated the effects of GE on the growth of CCA cells by cell viability assay. The effects on signaling proteins were detected by western blot analysis and ELISA. Gene expression was examined by RT-qPCR. Two human intrahepatic CCA cell lines, HuCCA‑1 and RMCCA‑1, were utilized. GE (50‑200 µM) reduced the viability of the two cell lines, and also inhibited the activation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and AKT, as evidenced by decreasing protein levels of phosphorylated (p)-EGFR (Tyr1173) and p‑AKT (Ser473), respectively. GE altered the mitogen‑activated protein kinase signaling cascade by mediating decreased protein levels of p‑p38 and increased protein levels of p‑ERK1/2. GE significantly decreased the levels of interleukin 6 (IL6) and induced the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). GE also downregulated the expression of p‑ERα (Ser118) protein and ERα mRNA levels. Finally, GE induced the downregulation of the protein levels of ERβ. Of note, E2 deprivation potentiated the GE-induced reduction of p‑EGFR (Tyr1173) and total AKT proteins and production of IL6, and mediated the downregulation of GE-induced iNOS protein. In conclusion, GE inhibited the growth of human CCA cell lines by reducing the activation of EGFR and AKT, and by attenuating the production of IL6. E2 and ER were also involved in the growth-inhibitory effect of GE in CCA cells. 10.3892/ijo.2018.4375
    Secretin inhibits cholangiocarcinoma growth via dysregulation of the cAMP-dependent signaling mechanisms of secretin receptor. Onori Paolo,Wise Candace,Gaudio Eugenio,Franchitto Antonio,Francis Heather,Carpino Guido,Lee Vien,Lam Ian,Miller Timothy,Dostal David E,Glaser Shannon S International journal of cancer Secretin plays a key role in the regulation of normal cholangiocyte physiology via secretin receptor (SCTR). SCTR expression is upregulated during extrahepatic cholestasis induced by bile duct ligation and closely associated with cholangiocyte proliferative responses. Although well studied in normal cholangiocytes, the role of secretin and the expression of SCTR in the regulation of cholangiocarcinoma proliferation are unknown. In vitro, secretin (10(-7) M) displayed differential effects on normal cholangiocyte [H-69 and human intrahepatic biliary epithelial cell line (HIBEpiC)] and cholangiocarcinoma (Mz-ChA-1, HuH-28, TFK-1, SG231, CCLP1 and HuCC-T1) cell lines as such secretin is mitogenic for normal cholangiocytes and antiproliferative for cholangiocarcinoma. As expected in normal cholangiocytes (HIBEpiC), secretin increased intracellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) levels. However, the effect of secretin on intracellular cAMP levels was suppressed in Mz-ChA-1 cells. Secretin-stimulated intracellular cAMP levels in Mz-ChA-1 were restored by pretreatment with pertussis toxin, suggesting that the receptor coupled to Galpha(i) rather than Galpha(s). SCTR expression was found to be downregulated in 4 of the 6 cholangiocarcinoma cell lines evaluated and in human cholangiocarcinoma biopsy samples. In vivo, secretin significantly inhibited the tumor size and more than doubled tumor latency, which was associated with a decrease in proliferating cell nuclear antigen and an increase in cleaved-caspase 3 expression levels. Our results demonstrate that secretin and/or the modulation of SCTR expression might have potential as a therapeutic tool in the treatment of cholangiocarcinoma. 10.1002/ijc.25028
    Prostaglandin E2 promotes human cholangiocarcinoma cell proliferation, migration and invasion through the upregulation of β-catenin expression via EP3-4 receptor. Du Mingzhan,Shi Feng,Zhang Hai,Xia Shukai,Zhang Min,Ma Juan,Bai Xiaoming,Zhang Li,Wang Yipin,Cheng Shanyu,Yang Qinyi,Leng Jing Oncology reports Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) is involved in cholangiocarcinoma cell proliferation, migration and invasion through E prostanoid receptors, including EP1, EP2 and EP4. However, the functions and the mechanisms of those splice variants of EP3 receptors in promoting liver cancer cell growth and invasion remain to be elucidated. In our previous studies, four isoforms of EP3 receptors, EP3-4, EP3-5, EP3-6 and EP3-7 receptors, were detected in CCLP1 and HuCCT1 cells. However, the functions of these receptors in these cells have yet to be determined. It was reported that β-catenin is closely correlated with malignancy, including cholangiocarcinoma. The present study was designed to examine the effects of 4-7 isoforms of EP3 in promoting cholangiocarcinoma progression and the mechanisms by which PGE2 increases β-catenin protein via EP3 receptors. The results showed that PGE2 promotes cholangiocarcinoma progression via the upregulation of β-catenin protein, and the EP3-4 receptor pathway is mainly responsible for this regulation. These findings reveal that PGE2 upregulated the cholangiocarcinoma cell β-catenin protein through the EP3-4R/Src/EGFR/PI3K/AKT/GSK-3β pathway. The present study identified the functions of EP3 and the mechanisms by which PGE2 regulates β-catenin expression and promoted cholangiocarcinoma cell growth and invasion. 10.3892/or.2015.4043
    H3 histamine receptor-mediated activation of protein kinase Calpha inhibits the growth of cholangiocarcinoma in vitro and in vivo. Francis Heather,Onori Paolo,Gaudio Eugenio,Franchitto Antonio,DeMorrow Sharon,Venter Julie,Kopriva Shelley,Carpino Guido,Mancinelli Romina,White Mellanie,Meng Fanyin,Vetuschi Antonella,Sferra Roberta,Alpini Gianfranco Molecular cancer research : MCR Histamine regulates functions via four receptors (HRH1, HRH2, HRH3, and HRH4). The d-myo-inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP(3))/Ca(2+)/protein kinase C (PKC)/mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway regulates cholangiocarcinoma growth. We evaluated the role of HRH3 in the regulation of cholangiocarcinoma growth. Expression of HRH3 in intrahepatic and extrahepatic cell lines, normal cholangiocytes, and human tissue arrays was measured. In Mz-ChA-1 cells stimulated with (R)-(alpha)-(-)-methylhistamine dihydrobromide (RAMH), we measured (a) cell growth, (b) IP(3) and cyclic AMP levels, and (c) phosphorylation of PKC and mitogen-activated protein kinase isoforms. Localization of PKCalpha was visualized by immunofluorescence in cell smears and immunoblotting for PKCalpha in cytosol and membrane fractions. Following knockdown of PKCalpha, Mz-ChA-1 cells were stimulated with RAMH before evaluating cell growth and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)-1/2 phosphorylation. In vivo experiments were done in BALB/c nude mice. Mice were treated with saline or RAMH for 44 days and tumor volume was measured. Tumors were excised and evaluated for proliferation, apoptosis, and expression of PKCalpha, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A, VEGF-C, VEGF receptor 2, and VEGF receptor 3. HRH3 expression was found in all cells. RAMH inhibited the growth of cholangiocarcinoma cells. RAMH increased IP(3) levels and PKCalpha phosphorylation and decreased ERK1/2 phosphorylation. RAMH induced a shift in the localization of PKCalpha expression from the cytosolic domain into the membrane region of Mz-ChA-1 cells. Silencing of PKCalpha prevented RAMH inhibition of Mz-ChA-1 cell growth and ablated RAMH effects on ERK1/2 phosphorylation. In vivo, RAMH decreased tumor growth and expression of VEGF and its receptors; PKCalpha expression was increased. RAMH inhibits cholangiocarcinoma growth by PKCalpha-dependent ERK1/2 dephosphorylation. Modulation of PKCalpha by histamine receptors may be important in regulating cholangiocarcinoma growth. 10.1158/1541-7786.MCR-09-0261
    The role of MAPK-ERK pathway in 67-kDa laminin receptor-induced FasL expression in human cholangiocarcinoma cells. Duan Shi-Gang,Cheng Long,Li Da-Jiang,Zhu Jin,Xiong Yan,Li Xiao-Wu,Wang Shu-Guang Digestive diseases and sciences BACKGROUND AND AIMS:Cancer cells are thought to possess immune evasion properties due to FasL overexpression in many types of human tumors. In the present study, we set out to investigate the role of MAPK-ERK pathway in 67-kDa laminin receptor induced FasL expression and FasL-mediated apoptosis in human cholangiocarcinoma cells. METHODS:The expression of FasL and its promoter activity in cultured cholangiocarcinoma cells were examined after treatment with laminin or transfection with plasmids containing siRNA targeted to 67-kDa laminin receptor. The effects of MAPK-ERK cascade inhibitor and c-Myc inhibition by siRNA on 67-kDa laminin receptor-induced FasL expression were determined. Apoptosis assay was performed to analyze the apoptosis of lymphocytes cocultured with cholangiocarcinoma cells treated with or without MAPK-ERK cascade inhibitor. RESULTS:Our results revealed that the specific MAPK-ERK cascade inhibitor, PD98059, significantly attenuated phosphorylation of c-Myc on Ser-62 and FasL upregulation in QBC-939 cells and these cells showed decreased cytotoxicity against Fas-sensitive Jurkat T cells. A luciferase reporter assay revealed that FasL promoter activity was significantly reduced in cells treated with PD98059 or transfected with c-Myc siRNA. CONCLUSIONS:Based on these results, we conclude that 67LR induces FasL expression and cytotoxicity against Fas-sensitive Jurkat T cells in human cholangiocarcinoma cells through the phosphorylation of c-Myc on Ser-62 and the subsequent activation of the FasL promoter through the ERK pathway. 10.1007/s10620-009-1121-9
    [Expression of epidermal growth factor receptor, ErbB2 and matrix metalloproteinase-9 in hepatolithiasis and cholangiocarcinoma]. Kim Hyo Jung,Kim Jae Seon,Kang Chang Don,Lee Sung Joon,Kim Jin Yong,Yeon Jong Eun,Park Jong-Jae,Shim Jae Jeong,Byun Kwan Soo,Bak Young-Tae,Lee Chang Hong The Korean journal of gastroenterology = Taehan Sohwagi Hakhoe chi BACKGROUND/AIMS:Hepatolithiasis is a common disease in East Asia and presents as a histological feature of proliferative glands containing mucin. 5-10% of hepatolithiasis is known to be associated with cholangiocarcinoma. Recent studies reported that epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) could be activated through heparin binding- EGF cleavage by metalloproteinases. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) which digest the extracellular matrix are required for cancer cell invasion and the expression of MMP-9 is known to be increased in cholangiocarcinoma. However, there has been few studies on the expressions and roles of EGFR and MMP in hepatolithiasis. This study was performed to clarify and compare the expressions of EGFR, erbB2 and MMP-9 in hepatolithiasis and cholangiocarcinoma. METHODS:Surgically resected liver tissues with hepatolithiasis (n = 14), cholangiocarcinoma (n = 20) and trauma (n = 2 as controls) were included. The expressions of EGFR, erbB2 and MMP-9 in tissue samples were examined by immunohistochemistry using respective monoclonal antibodies. RESULTS:In traumatic livers, the expressions of EGFR, erbB2 and MMP-9 were all negative. The expression of EGFR was increased in hepatolithiasis group (79%, 11/14) compared with cholangiocarcinoma group (25%, 5/20) (p < 0.05). The expression of erbB2 was detected only in cholangiocarcinoma (25%, 5/20). MMP-9 was increased in both hepatolithiasis (79%, 11/14) and cholangiocarcinoma (95%, 19/20) (p > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS:EGFR expression appears to be the dominant component in periductular hyperplasia of hepatolithiasis and MMP-9 is upregulated not only in cholangiocarcinoma but also in hepatolithiasis. This study suggests that EGFR and MMP-9 are associated with cholangiocarcinoma and hepatolithiasis.
    67 laminin receptor promotes the malignant potential of tumour cells up-regulating lysyl oxidase-like 2 expression in cholangiocarcinoma. Xu Jing,Li Dajing,Li Xiaowu,Liu Zipei,Li Tianyu,Jiang Peng,He Qiang,Tian Feng,Gao Yang,Wang Dechun,Wang Shuguang Digestive and liver disease : official journal of the Italian Society of Gastroenterology and the Italian Association for the Study of the Liver BACKGROUND:67 laminin receptor (67LR) plays an important role in the invasion and metastasis of cholangiocarcinoma, but its mechanism remains unclear. AIMS:We investigated the clinical significance of 67LR and its relation to lysyl oxidase-like 2 (LOXL2) in 67LR-mediated invasion and metastasis in cholangiocarcinoma. METHODS:The clinical significance of 67LR and LOXL2 expression and the prognosis of patients were investigated in 73 cancerous and 32 paracancerous tissues by immunohistochemistry. The impact of LOXL2 on invasion, metastasis and 67LR expression was evaluated in cholangiocarcinoma cells by shRNA or expressed-plasmid transfection. RESULTS:Expression of 67LR was recognized in 35.62% cholangiocarcinoma tissue, and none in paracancerous tissues. LOXL2 was positively correlated with expression of 67LR. Expression of 67LR or LOXL2 in cholangiocarcinomas was significantly associated with lymph node metastasis, differentiation and poor overall survival. Cox analysis showed that 67LR can act as an independent prognostic biomarker of prognosis in cholangiocarcinoma patients. Expression of LOXL2 decreased by knockdown of 67LR and increased by overexpression of 67LR in cholangiocarcinoma cells. Knockdown of LOXL2 reduced invasion and metastasis in vitro and in vivo. CONCLUSION:67LR may regulate the expression of LOXL2 to promote invasion and metastasis in cholangiocarcinoma cells. It could be used as an independent prognostic marker in cholangiocarcinoma patients. 10.1016/j.dld.2014.03.017
    Tumor necrosis factor alpha promotes invasiveness of cholangiocarcinoma cells via its receptor, TNFR2. Tanimura Yoko,Kokuryo Toshio,Tsunoda Nobuyuki,Yamazaki Yukiko,Oda Koji,Nimura Yuji,Naing Mon Naing,Huang Pengyu,Nakanuma Yasuni,Chen Min-Fu,Jan Yi-Yin,Yeh Ta-Sen,Chiu Cheng-Taug,Hsieh Ling-Ling,Hamaguchi Michinari Cancer letters We studied the effect of TNF-alpha stimulation on a cholangiocarcinoma cell line, CCKS1. CCKS1 expressed only one type TNF receptor, TNFR2. Treatment of CCKS1 with TNF-alpha substantially activated NFkappaB, MAPK and Akt signalings which in turn activated matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) secretion and in vitro invasiveness of CCKS1. Pretreatment of cells with anti-TNFR2 neutralizing antibody inhibited the TNF-alpha-dependent signaling and MMP-9 secretion and subsequently blocked invasion in vitro. Moreover, an inhibitor for matrix metalloproteinase, Galardin, suppressed the invasion in a dose-dependent manner. Similarly, pharmacological inhibition of signaling clearly suppressed the TNF-alpha dependent MMP-9 secretion. These results strongly suggest that TNF-alpha-TNFR2 signaling plays an important role to convert the cholangiocarcinoma cells to be more aggressive one. 10.1016/j.canlet.2004.07.027
    Cell death/proliferation roles for nc886, a non-coding RNA, in the protein kinase R pathway in cholangiocarcinoma. Kunkeaw N,Jeon S H,Lee K,Johnson B H,Tanasanvimon S,Javle M,Pairojkul C,Chamgramol Y,Wongfieng W,Gong B,Leelayuwat C,Lee Y S Oncogene We have recently identified nc886 (pre-miR-886 or vtRNA2-1) as a novel type of non-coding RNA that inhibits activation of protein kinase R (PKR). PKR's pro-apoptotic role through eukaryotic initiation factor 2 α (eIF2α) phosphorylation is well established in the host defense against viral infection. Paradoxically, some cancer patients have elevated PKR activity; however, its cause and consequence are not understood. Initially, we evaluated the expression of nc886, PKR and eIF2α in non-malignant cholangiocyte and cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) cells. nc886 is repressed in CCA cells and this repression is the cause of PKR's activation therein. nc886 alone is necessary and sufficient for suppression of PKR via direct physical interaction. Consistently, artificial suppression of nc886 in cholangiocyte cells activates the canonical PKR/eIF2α cell death pathway, suggesting a potential significance of the nc886 suppression and the consequent PKR activation in eliminating pre-malignant cells during tumorigenesis. In comparison, active PKR in CCA cells does not induce phospho-eIF2α nor apoptosis, but promotes the pro-survival nuclear factor-κB pathway. Thus, PKR has a dual life or death role during tumorigenesis. Similarly to the CCA cell lines, nc886 tends to be decreased but PKR tends to be activated in our clinical samples from CCA patients. Collectively from our data, we propose a tumor surveillance model for nc886's role in the PKR pathway during tumorigenesis. 10.1038/onc.2012.382
    The Importance of CYP19A1 in Estrogen Receptor-Positive Cholangiocarcinoma. Kaewlert Waleeporn,Sakonsinsiri Chadamas,Namwat Nisana,Sawanyawisuth Kanlayanee,Ungarreevittaya Piti,Khuntikeo Narong,Armartmuntree Napat,Thanan Raynoo Hormones & cancer CYP19A1, also called aromatase, is a key enzyme for converting androgens to estrogens of estrogen synthesis. Elevated serum estrogen and high expression levels of estrogen-related proteins are found in cholangiocarcinoma (CCA; bile duct cancer). However, the expression of CYP19A1 in relation to estrogen-related proteins, including estrogen receptors (ERα, ERβ, and GPR30) and an estrogen response protein (TFF1), has never been explored in CCA. In this study, we investigated the expressions of CYP19A1 and estrogen-related proteins in CCA tissues (n = 74; 51 males and 23 females) using immunohistochemistry. The results showed that CYP19A1 was overexpressed in CCA cells compared with that in normal bile duct cells in the adjacent tissues. High expression of CYP19A1 was correlated with the metastatic status of the patients. High CYP19A1 expression was also positively correlated with GPR30 expression. Correlation between high CYP19A1 expression in the tumor tissues and shorter survival time was more prominent in male than in female CCA patients. To elucidate further, the effect of CYP19A1 knockdown on a CCA cell line was examined using a specific siRNA. When CYP19A1 gene expression was suppressed, migration and proliferation activities of CCA cells were significantly reduced. Moreover, the cell proliferation of high CYP19A1-expressing KKU-213 cells was more profoundly suppressed by CYP19A1 inhibitors (exemestane and letrozole) than low CYP19A1-expressing KKU-100 cells. Thus, CYP19A1 promotes CCA progression with aggressive clinical outcomes via increased migration and proliferation activities of cancer cells. CYP19A1 can be a potential chemotherapeutic target for CCA, especially in male patients. 10.1007/s12672-018-0349-2
    EGF/EGFR axis contributes to the progression of cholangiocarcinoma through the induction of an epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Clapéron Audrey,Mergey Martine,Nguyen Ho-Bouldoires Thanh Huong,Vignjevic Danijela,Wendum Dominique,Chrétien Yves,Merabtene Fatiha,Frazao Alexandra,Paradis Valérie,Housset Chantal,Guedj Nathalie,Fouassier Laura Journal of hepatology BACKGROUND & AIMS:Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a cellular process involved in cancer progression. The first step of EMT consists in the disruption of E-cadherin-mediated adherens junctions. Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA), a cancer with a poor prognosis due to local invasion and metastasis, displays EMT features. EGFR, a receptor tyrosine kinase, plays a major role in CCA progression. The aim of the study was to determine if EMT is induced by EGFR in CCA cells. METHODS:In vivo, the expression of E-cadherin was analysed in CCA tumours of 100 patients and correlated with pathological features and EGFR expression, and in a xenograft model in mice treated with gefitinib, an inhibitor of EGFR. In vitro, the regulation of EMT by EGFR was investigated in CCA cell lines. RESULTS:In human CCA, a cytoplasmic localization of E-cadherin occurred in 50% of the tumours was associated with the peripheral type of CCA, tumour size, the presence of satellite nodules and EGFR overexpression. In xenografted tumours, E-cadherin displayed a cytoplasmic pattern whereas the treatment of mice with gefitinib restored the membranous expression of E-cadherin. In vitro, EGF induced scattering of CCA cells that resulted from the disruption of adherens junctions. Internalization and decreased expression of E-cadherin, as well as nuclear translocation of β-catenin, were observed in EGF-treated CCA cells. In these cells, EMT-transcription factors (i.e., Slug and Zeb-1) and mesenchymal markers (i.e., N-cadherin and α-SMA) were induced, favoring cell invasiveness through cytoskeleton remodeling. All these effects were inhibited by gefitinib. CONCLUSIONS:The EGF/EGFR axis triggers EMT in CCA cells highlighting the key role of this pathway in CCA progression. 10.1016/j.jhep.2014.03.033
    Oncogenic activity of retinoic acid receptor γ is exhibited through activation of the Akt/NF-κB and Wnt/β-catenin pathways in cholangiocarcinoma. Huang Gui-Li,Luo Qi,Rui Gang,Zhang Wei,Zhang Qiu-Yan,Chen Qing-Xi,Shen Dong-Yan Molecular and cellular biology Aberrant expression and function of retinoic acid receptor γ (RARγ) are often involved in the progression of several cancers. However, the role of RARγ in cholangiocarcinoma (CCA), chemoresistant bile duct carcinoma with a poor prognosis, remains unclear. In the present study, we found that RARγ was frequently overexpressed in human CCA specimens. Its overexpression was associated with poor differentiation, lymph node metastasis, high serum carbohydrate antigen 19-9 level, and poor prognosis of CCA. Downregulation of RARγ reduced CCA cell proliferation, migration, invasion, and colony formation ability in vitro and tumorigenic potential in nude mice. RARγ knockdown resulted in upregulation of cell cycle inhibitor P21, as well as downregulation of cyclin D1, proliferating cell nuclear antigen, and matrix metallopeptidase 9, in parallel with suppression of the Akt/NF-κB pathway. Furthermore, overexpression of RARγ contributed to the multidrug chemoresistance of CCA cells, at least in part due to upregulation of P glycoprotein via activation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway. Molecular mechanism studies revealed that RARγ interacted with β-catenin and led to β-catenin nuclear translocation. Taken together, our results suggested that RARγ plays an important role in the proliferation, metastasis, and chemoresistance of CCA through simultaneous activation of the Akt/NF-κB and Wnt/β-catenin pathways, serving as a potential molecular target for CCA treatment. 10.1128/MCB.00384-13
    Hepatocyte nuclear factor 6 inhibits the growth and metastasis of cholangiocarcinoma cells by regulating miR-122. Zhu Huaqiang,Mi Yuetang,Jiang Xian,Zhou Xu,Li Rui,Wei Zheng,Jiang Hongchi,Lu Jun,Sun Xueying Journal of cancer research and clinical oncology PURPOSE:Hepatocyte nuclear factor 6 (HNF6) is a liver-enriched transcription factor and highly expressed in mature bile duct epithelial cells. This study sought to investigate the role of HNF6, particularly the molecular mechanisms for how HNF6 is involved in the growth and metastasis of cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) cells. METHODS:The expression of HNF6, miR-122 and key molecules was examined by Western blot analysis and real-time RT-PCR. Stable transfectants, HCCC-HNF(low) and RBE-HNF(high), were generated from human CCA HCCC-9810 and RBE cells, respectively. The regulatory effect of HNF6 on miR-122 was evaluated by luciferase reporter assay. Cell proliferation, cycle distribution, migration and invasion were analyzed. The xenograft model was used to assess the effects of HNF6 overexpression on tumorigenesis, growth, metastasis and therapeutic potentials. RESULTS:Human CCA tissues and cells expressed lower levels of HNF6, which positively correlated with miR-122. HNF6 regulated the expression of miR-122 by stimulating its promoter. HNF6 overexpression inhibited cell proliferation by inducing cell cycle arrest at G1 phase through regulating miR-122, cyclin G1 and insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor. HNF6 inhibited the migration and invasion of CCA cells by regulating matrix metalloproteinase-2 and metalloproteinase-9, reversion-inducing-cysteine-rich protein with kazal motifs, E-cadherin and N-cadherin. Co-transfection of anti-miR-122 abrogated the effects of HNF6. HNF6 overexpression inhibited the ability of cells to form tumors and to metastasize to the lungs of mice, and the growth of established tumors. CONCLUSIONS:The results indicate that HNF6 may serve as a tumor suppressor by regulating miR-122, and its overexpression may represent a mechanism-based therapy for CCA. 10.1007/s00432-016-2121-8
    Retinoid X receptor α enhances human cholangiocarcinoma growth through simultaneous activation of Wnt/β-catenin and nuclear factor-κB pathways. Huang Gui-Li,Zhang Wei,Ren Hong-Yue,Shen Xue-Ying,Chen Qing-Xi,Shen Dong-Yan Cancer science Retinoid X receptor α (RXRα) plays important roles in the malignancy of several cancers such as human prostate tumor, breast cancer, and thyroid tumor. However, its exact functions and molecular mechanisms in cholangiocarcinoma (CCA), a chemoresistant carcinoma with poor prognosis, remain unclear. In this study we found that RXRα was frequently overexpressed in human CCA tissues and CCA cell lines. Downregulation of RXRα led to decreased expression of mitosis-promoting factors including cyclin D1and cyclin E, and the proliferating cell nuclear antigen, as well as increased expression of cell cycle inhibitor p21, resulting in inhibition of CCA cell proliferation. Furthermore, RXRα knockdown attenuated the expression of cyclin D1 through suppression of Wnt/β-catenin signaling. Retinoid X receptor α upregulated proliferating cell nuclear antigen expression through nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) pathways, paralleled with downregulation of p21. Thus, the Wnt/β-catenin and NF-κB pathways account for the inhibition of CCA cell growth induced by RXRα downregulation. Retinoid X receptor α plays an important role in proliferation of CCA through simultaneous activation of Wnt/β-catenin and NF-κB pathways, indicating that RXRα might serve as a potential molecular target for CCA treatment. 10.1111/cas.12802
    MicroRNA-421 functions as an oncogenic miRNA in biliary tract cancer through down-regulating farnesoid X receptor expression. Zhong Xiang-yu,Yu Jian-hua,Zhang Wei-guang,Wang Zhi-dong,Dong Qin,Tai Sheng,Cui Yun-fu,Li Hui Gene MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in the development of most cancers. However, few studies have been conducted to determine their relationship to biliary tract cancer (BTC). Farnesoid X receptor (FXR) has been reported to be a tumor suppressor for hepatocellular carcinoma and breast cancer; but few studies have focused on its correlation with BTC. In this study, we identified miR-421 as a potential regulator of FXR expression. We found that their expression amount was inversely correlated as FXR was aberrantly down-regulated in both primary tumor specimens and cell lines; while miR-421 was significantly up-regulated. Ectopic expression of miR-421 significantly decreased FXR protein concentration in BTC cells and promoted cell proliferation, colony formation and migration in vitro. Furthermore, a decrease in miR-421 expression induced G(0)/G(1) cell cycle arrest. In conclusion, our study identified microRNA-421 functions as an oncomiR in BTC by targeting FXR. This finding may provide a novel therapeutic strategy for treatment of biliary tract cancer. 10.1016/j.gene.2011.11.028
    Pathogenesis of primary sclerosing cholangitis and advances in diagnosis and management. Eaton John E,Talwalkar Jayant A,Lazaridis Konstantinos N,Gores Gregory J,Lindor Keith D Gastroenterology Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC), first described in the mid-1850s, is a complex liver disease that is heterogeneous in its presentation. PSC is characterized by chronic cholestasis associated with chronic inflammation of the biliary epithelium, resulting in multifocal bile duct strictures that can affect the entire biliary tree. Chronic inflammation leads to fibrosis involving the hepatic parenchyma and biliary tree, which can lead to cirrhosis and malignancy. The etiology of PSC is not fully understood, which in part explains the lack of effective medical therapy for this condition. However, we have begun to better understand the molecular pathogenesis of PSC. The recognition of specific clinical subtypes and their pattern of progression could improve phenotypic and genotypic classification of the disease. We review our current understanding of this enigmatic disorder and discuss important topics for future studies. 10.1053/j.gastro.2013.06.052
    Cocarcinogenic effects of intrahepatic bile acid accumulation in cholangiocarcinoma development. Lozano Elisa,Sanchez-Vicente Laura,Monte Maria J,Herraez Elisa,Briz Oscar,Banales Jesus M,Marin Jose J G,Macias Rocio I R Molecular cancer research : MCR UNLABELLED:Bile acid accumulation in liver with cholangiolar neoplastic lesions may occur before cholestasis is clinically detected. Whether this favors intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma development has been investigated in this study. The E. coli RecA gene promoter was cloned upstream from Luc2 to detect in vitro direct genotoxic ability by activation of SOS genes. This assay demonstrated that bile acids were not able to induce DNA damage. The genotoxic effect of the DNA-damaging agent cisplatin was neither enhanced nor hindered by the hepatotoxic and hepatoprotective glycochenodeoxycholic and glycoursodeoxycholic acids, respectively. In contrast, thioacetamide metabolites, but not thioacetamide itself, induced DNA damage. Thus, thioacetamide was used to induce liver cancer in rats, which resulted in visible tumors after 30 weeks. The effect of bile acid accumulation on initial carcinogenesis phase (8 weeks) was investigated in bile duct ligated (BDL) animals. Serum bile acid measurement and determination of liver-specific healthy and tumor markers revealed that early thioacetamide treatment induced hypercholanemia together with upregulation of the tumor marker Neu in bile ducts, which were enhanced by BDL. Bile acid accumulation was associated with increased expression of interleukin (IL)-6 and downregulation of farnesoid X receptor (FXR). Bile duct proliferation and apoptosis activation, with inverse pattern (BDL > thioacetamide + BDL >> thioacetamide vs. thioacetamide > thioacetamide + BDL > BDL), were observed. In conclusion, intrahepatic accumulation of bile acids does not induce carcinogenesis directly but facilitates a cocarcinogenic effect due to stimulation of bile duct proliferation, enhanced inflammation, and reduction in FXR-dependent chemoprotection. IMPLICATIONS:This study reveals that bile acids foster cocarcinogenic events that impact cholangiocarcinoma. 10.1158/1541-7786.MCR-13-0503
    FXR agonists enhance the sensitivity of biliary tract cancer cells to cisplatin via SHP dependent inhibition of Bcl-xL expression. Wang Wei,Zhan Ming,Li Qi,Chen Wei,Chu Huiling,Huang Qihong,Hou Zhaoyuan,Man Mohan,Wang Jian Oncotarget Chemoresistance is common in patients with biliary tract cancer (BTC) including gallbladder cancer (GBC) and cholangiocarcinoma (CC). Therefore, it is necessary to identify effective chemotherapeutic agents for BTC. In the present study, we for the first time tested the effect of farnesoid X receptor (FXR) agonists GW4064 and CDCA (chenodeoxycholic acid) in combination with cisplatin (CDDP) on increasing the chemosensitivity in BTC. Our results show that co-treatment of CDDP with FXR agonists remarkably enhance chemosensitivity of BTC cells. Mechanistically, we found that activation of FXR induced expression of small heterodimer partner (SHP), which in turn inhibited signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) phosphorylation and resulted in down-regulation of Bcl-xL expression in BTC cells, leading to increased susceptibility to CDDP. Moreover, the experiments on tumor-bearing mice showed that GW4064/CDDP co-treatment inhibited the tumor growth in vivo by up-regulating SHP expression and down-regulating STAT3 phosphorylation. These results suggest CDDP in combination with FXR agonists could be a potential new therapeutic strategy for BTC. 10.18632/oncotarget.8964
    beta-Klotho and FGF-15/19 inhibit the apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter in enterocytes and cholangiocytes. Sinha Jyoti,Chen Frank,Miloh Tamir,Burns Robert C,Yu Zhisheng,Shneider Benjamin L American journal of physiology. Gastrointestinal and liver physiology beta-Klotho, a newly described membrane protein, regulates bile acid synthesis. Fibroblast growth factor-15 (FGF-15) and FGF receptor-4 (FGFR4) knockout mice share a similar phenotype with beta-Klotho-deficient mice. FGF-15 secretion by the intestine regulates hepatic bile acid biosynthesis. The effects of beta-Klotho and FGF-15 on the ileal apical sodium bile transporter (ASBT) are unknown. beta-Klotho siRNA treatment of the mouse colon cancer cell line, CT-26, and the human intrahepatic biliary epithelial cells (HIBEC) resulted in upregulation of endogenous ASBT expression that was associated with reduced expression of the farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and the short heterodimer partner (SHP). Silencing beta-Klotho activated the ASBT promoter in CT-26, Mz-ChA-1 (human cholangiocarcinoma), and HIBEC cells. Site-directed mutagenesis of liver receptor homolog-1 (mouse) or retinoic acid receptor/retinoid X receptor (RAR/RXR) (human) cis-elements attenuated the basal activity of the ASBT promoter and abrogated its response to beta-Klotho silencing. siSHP, siFXR, or dominant-negative FXR treatment also eliminated the beta-Klotho response. FGF-15 secretion into cell culture media by CT-26 cells was diminished after siFGF-15 or sibeta-Klotho treatment and enhanced by chenodeoxycholic acid. Exogenous FGF-19 repressed ASBT protein expression in mouse ileum, gallbladder, and in HIBEC and repressed ASBT promoter activity in Caco-2, HIBEC, and Mz-ChA-1 cells. Promoter repression was dependent on the expression of FGFR4. These results indicate that both beta-Klotho and FGF-15/19 repress ASBT in enterocytes and cholangiocytes. These novel signaling pathways need to be considered in analyzing bile acid homeostasis. 10.1152/ajpgi.90343.2008
    Cholangiocarcinoma: novel therapeutic targets. Sato Keisaku,Glaser Shannon,Alvaro Domenico,Meng Fanyin,Francis Heather,Alpini Gianfranco Expert opinion on therapeutic targets : Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is a liver cancer derived from the biliary tree with a less than 30% five-year survival rate. Early diagnosis of CCA is challenging and treatment options are limited. Some CCA patients have genetic mutations and several therapeutic drugs or antibodies have been introduced to target abnormally expressed proteins. However, CCA is heterogeneous and patients often present with drug resistance which is attributed to multiple mutations or other factors. Novel approaches and methodologies for CCA treatments are in demand.: This review summarizes current approaches for CCA treatments leading to the development of novel therapeutic drugs or tools for human CCA patients. A literature search was conducted in PubMed utilizing the combination of the searched term 'cholangiocarcinoma' with other keywords such as 'miRNA', 'FGFR', 'immunotherapy' or 'microenvironment'. Papers published within 2015-2019 were obtained for reading.: Preclinical studies have demonstrated promising therapeutic approaches that target various cells or pathways. Recent studies have revealed that hepatic cells coordinate to promote CCA tumor progression in the tumor microenvironment, which may be a new therapeutic target. Although further studies are required, novel therapeutic tools such as extracellular vesicles could be utilized to manage CCA and its microenvironment. 10.1080/14728222.2020.1733528
    Gramicidin inhibits cholangiocarcinoma cell growth by suppressing EGR4. Gong Xiaoli,Zou Liming,Wang Miaomiao,Zhang Yingheng,Peng Shuxian,Zhong Mingtian,Zhou Jiankui,Li Xun,Ma Xiaodong Artificial cells, nanomedicine, and biotechnology Gramicidin is a well-known antibiotic and recently was reported to induced tumour cell death, however, little is understood about the molecular mechanism of gramicidin as a therapeutic agent for solid tumours. Here, we investigated the role of gramicidin in cholangiocarcinoma cells. We found that gramicidin A inhibits cholangiocarcinoma cell growth and induced the necrotic cell death. We used next generation sequencing to analyse gene expression profiles of cholangiocarcinoma cells treated with gramicidin. We identified 265 differentially expressed genes in cholangiocarcinoma cells between PBS treatment and gramicidin treatment. EGR4 was confirmed to be a target of gramicidin-induced cell growth inhibition. Furthermore, we demonstrated that downregulation of EGR4 in cholangiocarcinoma cells leads to restraining tumour cell growth. Of note, EGR4 was expressed at highest levels in cholangiocarcinoma tissues among 17 types of human cancers, and EGR4 expression positively correlated with several growth factors associated with cholangiocarcinoma. Our findings ascertain that EGR4 is a potential target in cholangiocarcinoma and suppressing EGR4 by gramicidin establish an essential mechanism for bile duct carcinoma progression. 10.1080/21691401.2019.1699808
    Postprandial FGF19-induced phosphorylation by Src is critical for FXR function in bile acid homeostasis. Byun Sangwon,Kim Dong-Hyun,Ryerson Daniel,Kim Young-Chae,Sun Hao,Kong Bo,Yau Peter,Guo Grace,Xu H Eric,Kemper Byron,Kemper Jongsook Kim Nature communications Farnesoid-X-Receptor (FXR) plays a central role in maintaining bile acid (BA) homeostasis by transcriptional control of numerous enterohepatic genes, including intestinal FGF19, a hormone that strongly represses hepatic BA synthesis. How activation of the FGF19 receptor at the membrane is transmitted to the nucleus for transcriptional regulation of BA levels and whether FGF19 signaling posttranslationally modulates FXR function remain largely unknown. Here we show that FXR is phosphorylated at Y67 by non-receptor tyrosine kinase, Src, in response to postprandial FGF19, which is critical for its nuclear localization and transcriptional regulation of BA levels. Liver-specific expression of phospho-defective Y67F-FXR or Src downregulation in mice results in impaired homeostatic responses to acute BA feeding, and exacerbates cholestatic pathologies upon drug-induced hepatobiliary insults. Also, the hepatic FGF19-Src-FXR pathway is defective in primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) patients. This study identifies Src-mediated FXR phosphorylation as a potential therapeutic target and biomarker for BA-related enterohepatic diseases. 10.1038/s41467-018-04697-5
    deletion accelerates mutant /-driven cholangiocarcinoma. Nabeshima Tatsuhide,Hamada Shin,Taguchi Keiko,Tanaka Yu,Matsumoto Ryotaro,Yamamoto Masayuki,Masamune Atsushi American journal of physiology. Gastrointestinal and liver physiology The activation of the Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1)-NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) pathway contributes to cancer progression in addition to oxidative stress responses. Loss-of-function mutations were reported to activate Nrf2, leading to cancer progression. We examined the effects of deletion in a cholangiocarcinoma mouse model using a mutant / mouse. Introduction of the deletion into liver-specific mutant / expression resulted in the formation of invasive cholangiocarcinoma. Comprehensive analyses of the gene expression profiles identified broad upregulation of Nrf2-target genes such as and in the -deleted mutant / expressing livers, accompanied by upregulation of cholangiocyte-related genes. Among these genes, the transcriptional factor was highly expressed in the dysplastic bile duct. The Keap-Nrf2-Sox9 axis might serve as a novel therapeutic target for cholangiocarcinoma. The Keap1-Nrf2 system has a wide variety of effects in addition to the oxidative stress response in cancer cells. Addition of the liver-specific deletion to mice harboring mutant and accelerated cholangiocarcinoma formation, together with the hallmarks of Nrf2 activation. This process involved the expansion of Sox9-positive cells, indicating increased differentiation toward the cholangiocyte phenotype. 10.1152/ajpgi.00296.2019
    FXR Inhibits Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress-Induced NLRP3 Inflammasome in Hepatocytes and Ameliorates Liver Injury. Han Chang Yeob,Rho Hyun Soo,Kim Ayoung,Kim Tae Hyun,Jang Kiseok,Jun Dae Won,Kim Jong Won,Kim Bumseok,Kim Sang Geon Cell reports Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is associated with liver injury and fibrosis, and yet the hepatic factors that regulate ER stress-mediated inflammasome activation remain unknown. Here, we report that farnesoid X receptor (FXR) activation inhibits ER stress-induced NACHT, LRR, and PYD domains-containing protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome in hepatocytes. In patients with hepatitis B virus (HBV)-associated hepatic failure or non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, and in mice with liver injury, FXR levels in the liver inversely correlated with the extent of NLRP3 inflammasome activation. Fxr deficiency in mice augmented the ability of ER stress to induce NLRP3 and thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP), whereas FXR ligand activation prevented it, ameliorating liver injury. FXR attenuates CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein homologous protein (CHOP)-dependent NLRP3 overexpression by inhibiting ER stress-mediated protein kinase RNA-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK) activation. Our findings implicate miR-186 and its target, non-catalytic region of tyrosine kinase adaptor protein 1 (NCK1), in mediating the inhibition of ER stress by FXR. This study provides the insights on how FXR regulation of ER stress ameliorates hepatocyte death and liver injury and on the molecular basis of NLRP3 inflammasome activation. 10.1016/j.celrep.2018.07.068
    Mechanisms of MAFG Dysregulation in Cholestatic Liver Injury and Development of Liver Cancer. Liu Ting,Yang Heping,Fan Wei,Tu Jian,Li Tony W H,Wang Jiaohong,Shen Hong,Yang JinWon,Xiong Ting,Steggerda Justin,Liu Zhenqiu,Noureddin Mazen,Maldonado Stephanie S,Annamalai Alagappan,Seki Ekihiro,Mato José M,Lu Shelly C Gastroenterology BACKGROUND & AIMS:MAF bZIP transcription factor G (MAFG) is activated by the farnesoid X receptor to repress bile acid synthesis. However, expression of MAFG increases during cholestatic liver injury in mice and in cholangiocarcinomas. MAFG interacts directly with methionine adenosyltransferase α1 (MATα1) and other transcription factors at the E-box element to repress transcription. We studied mechanisms of MAFG up-regulation in cholestatic tissues and the pathways by which S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe) and ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) prevent the increase in MAFG expression. We also investigated whether obeticholic acid (OCA), an farnesoid X receptor agonist, affects MAFG expression and how it contributes to tumor growth in mice. METHODS:We obtained 7 human cholangiocarcinoma specimens and adjacent non-tumor tissues from patients that underwent surgical resection in California and 113 hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) specimens and adjacent non-tumor tissues from China, along with clinical data from patients. Tissues were analyzed by immunohistochemistry. MAT1A, MAT2A, c-MYC, and MAFG were overexpressed or knocked down with small interfering RNAs in MzChA-1, KMCH, Hep3B, and HepG2 cells; some cells were incubated with lithocholic acid (LCA, which causes the same changes in gene expression observed during chronic cholestatic liver injury in mice), SAMe, UDCA (100 μM), or farnesoid X receptor agonists. MAFG expression and promoter activity were measured using real-time polymerase chain reaction, immunoblot, and transient transfection. We performed electrophoretic mobility shift, and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays to study proteins that occupy promoter regions. We studied mice with bile-duct ligation, orthotopic cholangiocarcinomas, cholestasis-induced cholangiocarcinoma, diethylnitrosamine-induced liver tumors, and xenograft tumors. RESULTS:LCA activated expression of MAFG in HepG2 and MzChA-1 cells, which required the activator protein-1, nuclear factor-κB, and E-box sites in the MAFG promoter. LCA reduced expression of MAT1A but increased expression of MAT2A in cells. Overexpression of MAT2A increased activity of the MAFG promoter, whereas knockdown of MAT2A reduced it. MAT1A and MAT2A had opposite effects on the activator protein-1, nuclear factor-κB, and E-box-mediated promoter activity. Expression of MAFG and MAT2A increased, and expression of MAT1A decreased, in diethylnitrosamine-induced liver tumors in mice. SAMe and UDCA had shared and distinct mechanisms of preventing LCA-mediated increased expression of MAFG. OCA increased expression of MAFG, MAT2A, and c-MYC, but reduced expression of MAT1A. Incubation of human liver and biliary cancer cells lines with OCA promoted their proliferation; in nude mice given OCA, xenograft tumors were larger than in mice given vehicle. Levels of MAFG were increased in human HCC and cholangiocarcinoma tissues compared with non-tumor tissues. High levels of MAFG in HCC samples correlated with hepatitis B, vascular invasion, and shorter survival times of patients. CONCLUSIONS:Expression of MAFG increases in cells and tissues with cholestasis, as well as in human cholangiocarcinoma and HCC specimens; high expression levels correlate with tumor progression and reduced survival time. SAMe and UDCA reduce expression of MAFG in response to cholestasis, by shared and distinct mechanisms. OCA induces MAFG expression, cancer cell proliferation, and growth of xenograft tumors in mice. 10.1053/j.gastro.2018.04.032
    The FXR agonist obeticholic acid inhibits the cancerogenic potential of human cholangiocarcinoma. Di Matteo S,Nevi L,Costantini D,Overi D,Carpino G,Safarikia S,Giulitti F,Napoletano C,Manzi E,De Rose A M,Melandro F,Bragazzi M,Berloco P B,Giuliante F,Grazi G,Giorgi A,Cardinale V,Adorini L,Gaudio E,Alvaro D PloS one Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is an aggressive cancer with high resistance to chemotherapeutics. CCA is enriched in cancer stem cells, which correlate with aggressiveness and prognosis. FXR, a member of the metabolic nuclear receptor family, is markedly down-regulated in human CCA. Our aim was to evaluate, in primary cultures of human intrahepatic CCA (iCCA), the effects of the FXR agonist obeticholic acid (OCA), a semisynthetic bile acid derivative, on their cancerogenic potential. Primary human iCCA cell cultures were prepared from surgical specimens of mucinous or mixed iCCA subtypes. Increasing concentrations (0-2.5 μM) of OCA were added to culture media and, after 3-10 days, effects on proliferation (MTS assay, cell population doubling time), apoptosis (annexin V-FITC/propidium iodide), cell migration and invasion (wound healing response and Matrigel invasion assay), and cancerogenic potential (spheroid formation, clonogenic assay, colony formation capacity) were evaluated. Results: FXR gene expression was downregulated (RT-qPCR) in iCCA cells vs normal human biliary tree stem cells (p < 0.05) and in mucinous iCCA vs mixed iCCA cells (p < 0.05) but was upregulated by addition of OCA. OCA significantly (p < 0.05) inhibited proliferation of both mucinous and mixed iCCA cells, starting at a concentration as low as 0.05 μM. Also, CDCA (but not UDCA) inhibited cell proliferation, although to a much lower extent than OCA, consistent with its different affinity for FXR. OCA significantly induced apoptosis of both iCCA subtypes and decreased their in vitro cancerogenic potential, as evaluated by impairment of colony and spheroid formation capacity and delayed wound healing and Matrigel invasion. In general, these effects were more evident in mixed than mucinous iCCA cells. When tested together with Gemcitabine and Cisplatin, OCA potentiated the anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects of these chemotherapeutics, but mainly in mixed iCCA cells. OCA abolished the capacity of both mucinous and mixed iCCA cells to form colonies when administered together with Gemcitabine and Cisplatin. In subcutaneous xenografts of mixed iCCA cells, OCA alone or combined with Gemcitabine or Cisplatin markedly reduced the tumor size after 5 weeks of treatment by inducing necrosis of tumor mass and inhibiting cell proliferation. In conclusion, FXR is down-regulated in iCCA cells, and its activation by OCA results in anti-cancerogenic effects against mucinous and mixed iCCA cells, both in vitro and in vivo. The effects of OCA predominated in mixed iCCA cells, consistent with the lower aggressiveness and the higher FXR expression in this CCA subtype. These results, showing the FXR-mediated capacity of OCA to inhibit cholangiocarcinogenesis, represent the basis for testing OCA in clinical trials of CCA patients. 10.1371/journal.pone.0210077
    Impact of bile acids on the growth of human cholangiocarcinoma via FXR. Dai Jiaqi,Wang Hongxia,Shi Yihui,Dong Ying,Zhang Yinxin,Wang Jian Journal of hematology & oncology BACKGROUND:The objective of the study was to investigate the effect of different types of bile acids on proliferation of cholangiocarcinoma and the potential molecular mechanisms. METHODS:PCR assay and Western blot were performed to detect the expression of farnesoid × receptor (FXR) in mRNA and protein level. Immunohistochemical analysis was carried out to monitor the expression of FXR in cholangiocarcinoma tissues from 26 patients and 10 normal controls. The effects on in vivo tumor growth were also studied in nude mouse model. RESULTS:Free bile acids induced an increased expression of FXR; on the contrary, the conjugated bile acids decreased the expression of FXR. The FXR effect has been illustrated with the use of the FXR agonist GW4064 and the FXR antagonist GS. More specifically, when the use of free bile acids combined with FXR agonist GW4064, the tumor cell inhibitory effect was even more pronounced. But adding FXR antagonist GS into the treatment attenuated the tumor inhibitory effect caused by free bile acids. Combined treatment of GS and CDCA could reverse the regulating effect of CDCA on the expression of FXR. Administration of CDCA and GW 4064 resulted in a significant inhibition of tumor growth. The inhibitory effect in combination group (CDCA plus GW 4064) was even more pronounced. Again, the conjugated bile acid-GDCA promoted the growth of tumor. We also found that FXR agonist GW4064 effectively blocked the stimulatory effect of GDCA on tumor growth. And the characteristic and difference of FXR expressions were in agreement with previous experimental results in mouse cholangiocarcinoma tissues. There was also significant difference in FXR expression between normal and tumor tissues from patients with cholangiocarcinoma. CONCLUSIONS:The imbalance of ratio of free and conjugated bile acids may play an important role in tumorigenesis of cholangiocarcinoma. FXR, a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily, may mediate the effects induced by the bile acids. 10.1186/1756-8722-4-41
    Direct methylation of FXR by Set7/9, a lysine methyltransferase, regulates the expression of FXR target genes. Balasubramaniyan Natarajan,Ananthanarayanan Meena,Suchy Frederick J American journal of physiology. Gastrointestinal and liver physiology The farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is a ligand (bile acid)-dependent nuclear receptor that regulates target genes involved in every aspect of bile acid homeostasis. Upon binding of ligand, FXR recruits an array of coactivators and associated proteins, some of which have intrinsic enzymatic activity that modify histones or even components of the transcriptional complex. In this study, we show chromatin occupancy by the Set7/9 methyltransferase at the FXR response element (FXRE) and direct methylation of FXR in vivo and in vitro at lysine 206. siRNA depletion of Set7/9 in the Huh-7 liver cell line decreased endogenous mRNAs of the FXR target genes, the short heterodimer partner (SHP) and bile salt export pump (BSEP). Mutation of the methylation site at K206 of FXR to an arginine prevented methylation by Set7/9. A pan-methyllysine antibody recognized the wild-type FXR but not the K206R mutant form. An electromobility shift assay showed that methylation by Set7/9 enhanced binding of FXR/retinoic X receptor-α to the FXRE. Interaction between hinge domain of FXR (containing K206) and Set7/9 was confirmed by coimmunoprecipitation, GST pull down, and mammalian two-hybrid experiments. Set7/9 overexpression in Huh-7 cells significantly enhanced transactivation of the SHP and BSEP promoters in a ligand-dependent fashion by wild-type FXR but not the K206R mutant FXR. A Set7/9 mutant deficient in methyltransferase activity was also not effective in increasing transactivation of the BSEP promoter. These studies demonstrate that posttranslational methylation of FXR by Set7/9 contributes to the transcriptional activation of FXR-target genes. 10.1152/ajpgi.00441.2011
    Nuclear receptor FXR, bile acids and liver damage: Introducing the progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis with FXR mutations. Cariello Marica,Piccinin Elena,Garcia-Irigoyen Oihane,Sabbà Carlo,Moschetta Antonio Biochimica et biophysica acta. Molecular basis of disease The nuclear receptor farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is the master regulator of bile acids (BAs) homeostasis since it transcriptionally drives modulation of BA synthesis, influx, efflux, and detoxification along the enterohepatic axis. Due to its crucial role, FXR alterations are involved in the progression of a plethora of BAs associated inflammatory disorders in the liver and in the gut. The involvement of the FXR pathway in cholestasis development and management has been elucidated so far with a direct role of FXR activating therapy in this condition. However, the recent identification of a new type of genetic progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis (PFIC) linked to FXR mutations has strengthen also the bona fide beneficial effects of target therapies that by-pass FXR activation, directly promoting the action of its target, namely the enterokine FGF19, in the repression of hepatic BAs synthesis with reduction of total BA levels in the liver and serum, accomplishing one of the major goals in cholestasis. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Cholangiocytes in Health and Diseaseedited by Jesus Banales, Marco Marzioni and Peter Jansen. 10.1016/j.bbadis.2017.09.019
    SUMOylation of the farnesoid X receptor (FXR) regulates the expression of FXR target genes. Balasubramaniyan Natarajan,Luo Yuhuan,Sun An-Qiang,Suchy Frederick J The Journal of biological chemistry BACKGROUND:Small ubiquitin-like modifiers (SUMO) are covalently conjugated to other proteins including nuclear receptors leading to modification of various cellular processes. RESULTS:Ligand-dependent SUMOylation of farnesoid X receptor (FXR) negatively regulates the expression of its target genes. CONCLUSION:SUMO modification attenuates the capacity of FXR to function as a transcriptional activator. SIGNIFICANCE:Defining post-translation modification of FXR bySUMOis important to understanding how this nuclear receptor functions in health and disease. The farnesoid X receptor (FXR) belongs to a family of ligand-activated transcription factors that regulate many aspects of metabolism including bile acid homeostasis. Here we show that FXR is covalently modified by the small ubiquitin-like modifier (Sumo1), an important regulator of cell signaling and transcription. Well conserved consensus sites at lysine 122 and 275 in the AF-1 and ligand binding domains, respectively, of FXR were subject to SUMOylation in vitro and in vivo. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) analysis showed that Sumo1 was recruited to the bile salt export pump (BSEP), the small heterodimer partner (SHP), and the OSTα-OSTβ organic solute transporter loci in a ligand-dependent fashion. Sequential chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP-ReChIP) verified the concurrent binding of FXR and Sumo1 to the BSEP and SHP promoters. Overexpression of Sumo1 markedly decreased binding and/or recruitment of FXR to the BSEP and SHP promoters on ChIP-ReChIP. SUMOylation did not have an apparent effect on nuclear localization of FXR. Expression of Sumo1 markedly inhibited the ligand-dependent, transactivation of BSEP and SHP promoters by FXR/retinoid X receptor α (RXRα) in HepG2 cells. In contrast, mutations that abolished SUMOylation of FXR or siRNA knockdown of Sumo1 expression augmented the transactivation of BSEP and SHP promoters by FXR. Pathways for SUMOylation were significantly altered during obstructive cholestasis with differential Sumo1 recruitment to the promoters of FXR target genes. In conclusion, FXR is subject to SUMOylation that regulates its capacity to transactivate its target genes in normal liver and during obstructive cholestasis. 10.1074/jbc.M112.443937
    Hepatocarcinogenesis in FXR-/- mice mimics human HCC progression that operates through HNF1α regulation of FXR expression. Liu Nian,Meng Zhipeng,Lou Guiyu,Zhou Weiping,Wang Xiaoqiong,Zhang Yunfeng,Zhang Lisheng,Liu Xiyong,Yen Yun,Lai Lily,Forman Barry M,Xu Zhonggao,Xu Rongzhen,Huang Wendong Molecular endocrinology (Baltimore, Md.) Farnesoid X receptor (FXR) (nuclear receptor subfamily 1, group H, member 4) is a member of nuclear hormone receptor superfamily, which plays essential roles in metabolism of bile acids, lipid, and glucose. We previously showed spontaneously hepatocarcinogenesis in aged FXR(-/-) mice, but its relevance to human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is unclear. Here, we report a systematical analysis of hepatocarcinogenesis in FXR(-/-) mice and FXR expression in human liver cancer. In this study, liver tissues obtained from FXR(-/-) and wild-type mice at different ages were compared by microarray gene profiling, histological staining, chemical analysis, and quantitative real-time PCR. Primary hepatic stellate cells and primary hepatocytes isolated from FXR(-/-) and wild-type mice were also analyzed and compared. The results showed that the altered genes in FXR(-/-) livers were mainly related to metabolism, inflammation, and fibrosis, which suggest that hepatocarcinogenesis in FXR(-/-) mice recapitulated the progression of human liver cancer. Indeed, FXR expression in human HCC was down-regulated compared with normal liver tissues. Furthermore, the proinflammatory cytokines, which were up-regulated in human HCC microenvironment, decreased FXR expression by inhibiting the transactivity of hepatic nuclear factor 1α on FXR gene promoter. Our study thereby demonstrates that the down-regulation of FXR has an important role in human hepatocarcinogenesis and FXR(-/-) mice provide a unique animal model for HCC study. 10.1210/me.2011-1383
    FXR controls CHOP expression in steatohepatitis. Fuchs Claudia D,Claudel Thierry,Scharnagl Hubert,Stojakovic Tatjana,Trauner Michael FEBS letters The farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) have critical functions in hepatic lipid metabolism. Here, we aimed to explore a potential relationship between FXR and CHOP. We fed wild-type (WT) and FXR KO mice a MCD diet (model of steatohepatitis) and found that Chop mRNA expression is upregulated in WT but not FXR KO mice. The absence of FXR aggravates hepatic inflammation after MCD feeding. In HepG2 cells, we found that Chop expression is regulated in a FXR/Retinoid X receptor (RXR)-dependent manner. We identified a FXR/RXR-binding site in the human CHOP promoter, demonstrating a highly conserved regulatory pathway. Our study shows that FXR/RXR regulates Chop expression in a mouse model of steatohepatitis, providing novel insights into pathogenesis of this disorder. 10.1002/1873-3468.12845
    Targeting FXR in Cholestasis. Keitel Verena,Dröge Carola,Häussinger Dieter Handbook of experimental pharmacology The farnesoid X receptor (FXR, NR1H4) is a bile acid (BA)-activated transcription factor, which is essential for BA homeostasis. FXR and its hepatic and intestinal target genes, small heterodimer partner (SHP, NR0B2) and fibroblast growth factor 15/19 (Fgf15 in mice, FGF19 in humans), transcriptionally regulate BA synthesis, detoxification, secretion, and absorption in the enterohepatic circulation. Furthermore, FXR modulates a large variety of physiological processes, such as lipid and glucose homeostasis as well as the inflammatory response. Targeted deletion of FXR renders mice highly susceptible to cholic acid feeding resulting in cholestatic liver injury, weight loss, and increased mortality. Combined deletion of FXR and SHP spontaneously triggers early-onset intrahepatic cholestasis in mice resembling human progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis (PFIC). Reduced expression levels and activity of FXR have been reported in human cholestatic conditions, such as PFIC type 1 and intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy. Recently, two pairs of siblings with homozygous FXR truncation or deletion variants were identified. All four children suffered from severe, early-onset PFIC and liver failure leading to death or need for liver transplantation before the age of 2. These findings underscore the central role of FXR as regulator of systemic and hepatic BA levels. Therefore, targeting FXR has been exploited in different animal models of both intrahepatic and obstructive cholestasis, and the first FXR agonist obeticholic acid (OCA) has been approved for the treatment of primary biliary cholangitis (PBC). Further FXR agonists as well as a FGF19 analogue are currently tested in clinical trials for different cholestatic liver diseases. This chapter will summarize the current knowledge on the role of FXR in cholestasis both in rodent models and in human diseases. 10.1007/164_2019_231
    FXR and liver carcinogenesis. Huang Xiong-fei,Zhao Wei-yu,Huang Wen-dong Acta pharmacologica Sinica Farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is a member of the nuclear receptor family and a ligand-modulated transcription factor. In the liver, FXR has been considered a multi-functional cell protector and a tumor suppressor. FXR can suppress liver carcinogenesis via different mechanisms: 1) FXR maintains the normal liver metabolism of bile acids, glucose and lipids; 2) FXR promotes liver regeneration and repair after injury; 3) FXR protects liver cells from death and enhances cell survival; 4) FXR suppresses hepatic inflammation, thereby preventing inflammatory damage; and 5) FXR can directly increase the expression of some tumor-suppressor genes and repress the transcription of several oncogenes. However, inflammation and epigenetic silencing are known to decrease FXR expression during tumorigenesis. The reactivation of FXR function in the liver may be a potential therapeutic approach for patients with liver cancer. 10.1038/aps.2014.117
    Differential effects of FXR or TGR5 activation in cholangiocarcinoma progression. Erice O,Labiano I,Arbelaiz A,Santos-Laso A,Munoz-Garrido P,Jimenez-Agüero R,Olaizola P,Caro-Maldonado A,Martín-Martín N,Carracedo A,Lozano E,Marin J J,O'Rourke C J,Andersen J B,Llop J,Gómez-Vallejo V,Padro D,Martin A,Marzioni M,Adorini L,Trauner M,Bujanda L,Perugorria M J,Banales J M Biochimica et biophysica acta. Molecular basis of disease BACKGROUND AND AIMS:Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is an aggressive tumor type affecting cholangiocytes. CCAs frequently arise under certain cholestatic liver conditions. Intrahepatic accumulation of bile acids may facilitate cocarcinogenic effects by triggering an inflammatory response and cholangiocyte proliferation. Here, the role of bile acid receptors FXR and TGR5 in CCA progression was evaluated. METHODS:FXR and TGR5 expression was determined in human CCA tissues and cell lines. An orthotopic model of CCA was established in immunodeficient mice and tumor volume was monitored by magnetic resonance imaging under chronic administration of the specific FXR or TGR5 agonists, obeticholic acid (OCA) or INT-777 (0,03% in chow; Intercept Pharmaceuticals), respectively. Functional effects of FXR or TGR5 activation were evaluated on CCA cells in vitro. RESULTS:FXR was downregulated whereas TGR5 was upregulated in human CCA tissues compared to surrounding normal liver tissue. FXR expression correlated with tumor differentiation and TGR5 correlated with perineural invasion. TGR5 expression was higher in perihilar than in intrahepatic CCAs. In vitro, FXR was downregulated and TGR5 was upregulated in human CCA cells compared to normal human cholangiocytes. OCA halted CCA growth in vivo, whereas INT-777 showed no effect. In vitro, OCA inhibited CCA cell proliferation and migration which was associated with decreased mitochondrial energy metabolism. INT-777, by contrast, stimulated CCA cell proliferation and migration, linked to increased mitochondrial energy metabolism. CONCLUSION:Activation of FXR inhibits, whereas TGR5 activation may promote, CCA progression by regulating proliferation, migration and mitochondrial energy metabolism. Modulation of FXR or TGR5 activities may represent potential therapeutic strategies for CCA. 10.1016/j.bbadis.2017.08.016
    FXR Acts as a Metastasis Suppressor in Intrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma by Inhibiting IL-6-Induced Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition. Lv Bei,Ma Lijie,Tang Wenqing,Huang Peixin,Yang Biwei,Wang Lingxiao,Chen She,Gao Qiang,Zhang Si,Xia Jinglin Cellular physiology and biochemistry : international journal of experimental cellular physiology, biochemistry, and pharmacology BACKGROUND/AIMS:Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) is a complicated condition, with difficult diagnosis and poor prognosis. The expression and clinical significance of the farnesoid X receptor (FXR), an endogenous receptor of bile acids, in ICC is not well understood. METHODS:Western blotting and immunochemical analyses were used to determine the levels of FXR in 4 cholangiocarcinoma cell lines, a human intrahepatic biliary epithelial cell line (HIBEpic) and 322 ICC specimens, respectively, while quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction was used to detect the mRNA levels of FXR in cholangiocarcinoma cell lines. We evaluated the prognostic value of FXR expression and its association with clinical parameters. We determined the biological significance of FXR in ICC cell lines by agonist-mediated activation and lentivirus-mediated silence. IL-6 expression was tested by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and flow cytometry. In vitro, cell proliferation was examined by Cell Counting Kit-8, migration and invasion were examined by wound healing and transwell assays; in vivo, tumor migration and invasion were explored in NOD-SCID mice. RESULTS:FXR was downregulated in ICC cell lines and clinical ICC specimens. Loss of FXR was markedly correlated with aggressive tumor phenotypes and poor prognosis in patients with ICC. Moreover, FXR expression also had significant prognostic value in carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9) negative patients. The expression of FXR was negatively correlated with IL-6 levels in clinical ICC tissues. FXR inhibited the proliferation, migration, invasion and epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) of ICC cells via suppression of IL-6 in vitro. Obeticholic acid, an agonist of FXR, inhibited IL-6 production, tumor growth and lung metastasis of ICC in vivo. CONCLUSIONS:FXR could be a promising ICC prognostic biomarker, especially in CA19-9 negative patients with ICC. FXR inhibits the tumor growth and metastasis of ICC via IL-6 suppression. 10.1159/000491715
    A nontumorigenic variant of FGF19 treats cholestatic liver diseases. Luo Jian,Ko Brian,Elliott Michael,Zhou Mei,Lindhout Darrin A,Phung Van,To Carmen,Learned R Marc,Tian Hui,DePaoli Alex M,Ling Lei Science translational medicine Hepatic accumulation of bile acids is central to the pathogenesis of cholestatic liver diseases. Endocrine hormone fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF19) may reduce hepatic bile acid levels through modulation of bile acid synthesis and prevent subsequent liver damage. However, FGF19 has also been implicated in hepatocellular carcinogenesis, and consequently, the potential risk from prolonged exposure to supraphysiological levels of the hormone represents a major hurdle for developing an FGF19-based therapy. We describe a nontumorigenic FGF19 variant, M70, which regulates bile acid metabolism and, through inhibition of bile acid synthesis and reduction of excess hepatic bile acid accumulation, protects mice from liver injury induced by either extrahepatic or intrahepatic cholestasis. Administration of M70 in healthy human volunteers potently reduces serum levels of 7α-hydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one, a surrogate marker for the hepatic activity of cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase (CYP7A1), the enzyme responsible for catalyzing the first and rate-limiting step in the classical bile acid synthetic pathway. This study provides direct evidence for the regulation of bile acid metabolism by FGF19 pathway in humans. On the basis of these results, the development of nontumorigenic FGF19 variants capable of modulating CYP7A1 expression represents an effective approach for the prevention and treatment of cholestatic liver diseases as well as potentially for other disorders associated with bile acid dysregulation. 10.1126/scitranslmed.3009098
    Mouse species-specific control of hepatocarcinogenesis and metabolism by FGF19/FGF15. Zhou Mei,Luo Jian,Chen Michael,Yang Hong,Learned R Marc,DePaoli Alex M,Tian Hui,Ling Lei Journal of hepatology BACKGROUND & AIMS:Bile acid nuclear receptor farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is a key molecular mediator of many metabolic processes, including the regulation of bile acid, lipid and glucose homeostasis. A significant component of FXR-mediated events essential to its biological activity is attributed to induction of the enteric endocrine hormone fibroblast growth factor (FGF)19 or its rodent ortholog, FGF15. In this report, we compared the properties of human FGF19 and murine FGF15 in the regulation of hepatocarcinogenesis and metabolism in various mouse models of disease. METHODS:Tumorigenicity was assessed in three mouse models (db/db, diet-induced obese, and multi-drug resistance 2 [Mdr2]-deficient) following continuous exposure to FGF19 or FGF15 via adeno-associated viral-mediated gene delivery. Glucose, hemoglobin A1c and β-cell mass were characterized in db/db mice. Oxygen consumption, energy expenditure, and body composition were evaluated in diet-induced obese mice. Serum levels of alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase, and aspartate aminotransferase were assessed in Mdr2-deficient mice. Expression profiles of genes encoding key proteins involved in bile acid synthesis and hepatocarcinogenesis were also determined. RESULTS:Both FGF15 and FGF19 hormones repressed bile acid synthesis (p<0.001 for both). However, murine FGF15 lacked the protective effects characteristic of human FGF19 in db/db mice with overt diabetes, such as weight-independent HbA1c-lowering and β-cell-protection. Unlike FGF19, FGF15 did not induce hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC) in three mouse models of metabolic diseases (db/db, diet-induced obese, and multi-drug resistance 2 [Mdr2]-deficient mice), even at supra-pharmacological exposure levels. CONCLUSIONS:Fundamental species-associated differences between FGF19 and FGF15 may restrict the relevance of mouse models for the study of the FXR/FGF19 pathway, and underscore the importance of clinical assessment of this pathway, with respect to both safety and efficacy in humans. LAY SUMMARY:Activation of the nuclear receptor, FXR, leads to the production of a hormone called fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF19) and subsequently regulation of multiple metabolic processes. Synthetic activators of FXR have been recently approved or are currently in clinical development for treatment of chronic liver diseases, including primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). The safety of these activators was partly assessed in mice exposed for prolonged periods of time. However, the results of this study show that mouse FGF15 and human FGF19 exhibit fundamentally different biological activities in mice. This could raise the concern of relying on rodent models for safety assessment of FXR activators. The potential risk of HCC development in patients treated with FXR agonists may need to be monitored. 10.1016/j.jhep.2017.01.027
    Bile salt export pump is dysregulated with altered farnesoid X receptor isoform expression in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. Chen Yuan,Song Xiulong,Valanejad Leila,Vasilenko Alexander,More Vijay,Qiu Xi,Chen Weikang,Lai Yurong,Slitt Angela,Stoner Matthew,Yan Bingfang,Deng Ruitang Hepatology (Baltimore, Md.) UNLABELLED:As a canalicular bile acid effluxer, the bile salt export pump (BSEP) plays a vital role in maintaining bile acid homeostasis. BSEP deficiency leads to severe cholestasis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in young children. Regardless of the etiology, chronic inflammation is the common pathological process for HCC development. Clinical studies have shown that bile acid homeostasis is disrupted in HCC patients with elevated serum bile acid level as a proposed marker for HCC. However, the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. In this study, we found that BSEP expression was severely diminished in HCC tissues and markedly reduced in adjacent nontumor tissues. In contrast to mice, human BSEP was regulated by farnesoid X receptor (FXR) in an isoform-dependent manner. FXR-α2 exhibited a much more potent activity than FXR-α1 in transactivating human BSEP in vitro and in vivo. The decreased BSEP expression in HCC was associated with altered relative expression of FXR-α1 and FXR-α2. FXR-α1/FXR-α2 ratios were significantly increased, with undetectable FXR-α2 expression in one third of the HCC tumor samples. A similar correlation between BSEP and FXR isoform expression was confirmed in hepatoma Huh7 and HepG2 cells. Further studies showed that intrahepatic proinflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), were significantly elevated in HCC tissues. Treatment of Huh7 cells with IL-6 and TNF-α resulted in a marked increase in FXR-α1/FXR-α2 ratio, concurrent with a significant decrease in BSEP expression. CONCLUSION:BSEP expression is severely diminished in HCC patients associated with alteration of FXR isoform expression induced by inflammation. Restoration of BSEP expression through suppressing inflammation in the liver may reestablish bile acid homeostasis. 10.1002/hep.26187
    Alterations of the bile microbiome in primary sclerosing cholangitis. Liwinski Timur,Zenouzi Roman,John Clara,Ehlken Hanno,Rühlemann Malte C,Bang Corinna,Groth Stefan,Lieb Wolfgang,Kantowski Marcus,Andersen Nils,Schachschal Guido,Karlsen Tom H,Hov Johannes R,Rösch Thomas,Lohse Ansgar W,Heeren Joerg,Franke Andre,Schramm Christoph Gut BACKGROUND:Patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) display an altered colonic microbiome compared with healthy controls. However, little is known on the bile duct microbiome and its interplay with bile acid metabolism in PSC. METHODS:Patients with PSC (n=43) and controls without sclerosing cholangitis (n=22) requiring endoscopic retrograde cholangiography were included prospectively. Leading indications in controls were sporadic choledocholithiasis and papillary adenoma. A total of 260 biospecimens were collected from the oral cavity, duodenal fluid and mucosa and ductal bile. Microbiomes of the upper alimentary tract and ductal bile were profiled by sequencing the 16S-rRNA-encoding gene (V1-V2). Bile fluid bile acid composition was measured by high-performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry and validated in an external cohort (n=20). RESULTS:The bile fluid harboured a diverse microbiome that was distinct from the oral cavity, the duodenal fluid and duodenal mucosa communities. The upper alimentary tract microbiome differed between PSC patients and controls. However, the strongest differences between PSC patients and controls were observed in the ductal bile fluid, including reduced biodiversity (Shannon entropy, p=0.0127) and increase of pathogen (FDR=4.18×10) in PSC. abundance in ductal bile was strongly correlated with concentration of the noxious secondary bile acid taurolithocholic acid (r=0.60, p=0.0021). CONCLUSION:PSC is characterised by an altered microbiome of the upper alimentary tract and bile ducts. Biliary dysbiosis is linked with increased concentrations of the proinflammatory and potentially cancerogenic agent taurolithocholic acid. 10.1136/gutjnl-2019-318416
    Conjugated bile acids promote cholangiocarcinoma cell invasive growth through activation of sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor 2. Liu Runping,Zhao Renping,Zhou Xiqiao,Liang Xiuyin,Campbell Deanna J W,Zhang Xiaoxuan,Zhang Luyong,Shi Ruihua,Wang Guangji,Pandak William M,Sirica Alphonse E,Hylemon Phillip B,Zhou Huiping Hepatology (Baltimore, Md.) UNLABELLED:Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is an often fatal primary malignancy of the intra- and extrahepatic biliary tract that is commonly associated with chronic cholestasis and significantly elevated levels of primary and conjugated bile acids (CBAs), which are correlated with bile duct obstruction (BDO). BDO has also recently been shown to promote CCA progression. However, whereas there is increasing evidence linking chronic cholestasis and abnormal bile acid profiles to CCA development and progression, the specific mechanisms by which bile acids may be acting to promote cholangiocarcinogenesis and invasive biliary tumor growth have not been fully established. Recent studies have shown that CBAs, but not free bile acids, stimulate CCA cell growth, and that an imbalance in the ratio of free to CBAs may play an important role in the tumorigenesis of CCA. Also, CBAs are able to activate extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2- and phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase/protein kinase B (AKT)-signaling pathways through sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor 2 (S1PR2) in rodent hepatocytes. In the current study, we demonstrate S1PR2 to be highly expressed in rat and human CCA cells, as well as in human CCA tissues. We further show that CBAs activate the ERK1/2- and AKT-signaling pathways and significantly stimulate CCA cell growth and invasion in vitro. Taurocholate (TCA)-mediated CCA cell proliferation, migration, and invasion were significantly inhibited by JTE-013, a chemical antagonist of S1PR2, or by lentiviral short hairpin RNA silencing of S1PR2. In a novel organotypic rat CCA coculture model, TCA was further found to significantly increase the growth of CCA cell spheroidal/"duct-like" structures, which was blocked by treatment with JTE-013. CONCLUSION:Our collective data support the hypothesis that CBAs promote CCA cell-invasive growth through S1PR2. 10.1002/hep.27085
    Liver Cancer Checks in When Bile Acid Clocks Out. Fu Ting,Zhao Xuan,Evans Ronald M Cancer cell In this issue of Cancer Cell, Kettner et al. identify the disruption of normal circadian rhythmicity as an independent risk factor for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in experimental animals and reveal opposing roles for the nuclear receptors FXR and CAR in disease progression from non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) to HCC. 10.1016/j.ccell.2016.11.012
    SIRT1 controls liver regeneration by regulating bile acid metabolism through farnesoid X receptor and mammalian target of rapamycin signaling. García-Rodríguez Juan L,Barbier-Torres Lucía,Fernández-Álvarez Sara,Gutiérrez-de Juan Virginia,Monte María J,Halilbasic Emina,Herranz Daniel,Álvarez Luis,Aspichueta Patricia,Marín Jose J G,Trauner Michael,Mato Jose M,Serrano Manuel,Beraza Naiara,Martínez-Chantar María Luz Hepatology (Baltimore, Md.) UNLABELLED:Sirtuin1 (SIRT1) regulates central metabolic functions such as lipogenesis, protein synthesis, gluconeogenesis, and bile acid (BA) homeostasis through deacetylation. Here we describe that SIRT1 tightly controls the regenerative response of the liver. We performed partial hepatectomy (PH) to transgenic mice that overexpress SIRT1 (SIRT). SIRT mice showed increased mortality, impaired hepatocyte proliferation, BA accumulation, and profuse liver injury after surgery. The damaging phenotype in SIRT mice correlated with impaired farnesoid X receptor (FXR) activity due to persistent deacetylation and lower protein expression that led to decreased FXR-target gene expression; small heterodimer partner (SHP), bile salt export pump (BSEP), and increased Cyp7A1. Next, we show that 24-norUrsodeoxycholic acid (NorUDCA) attenuates SIRT protein expression, increases the acetylation of FXR and neighboring histones, restores trimethylation of H3K4 and H3K9, and increases miR34a expression, thus reestablishing BA homeostasis. Consequently, NorUDCA restored liver regeneration in SIRT mice, which showed increased survival and hepatocyte proliferation. Furthermore, a leucine-enriched diet restored mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) activation, acetylation of FXR and histones, leading to an overall lower BA production through SHP-inhibition of Cyp7A1 and higher transport (BSEP) and detoxification (Sult2a1) leading to an improved liver regeneration. Finally, we found that human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) samples have increased presence of SIRT1, which correlated with the absence of FXR, suggesting its oncogenic potential. CONCLUSION:We define SIRT1 as a key regulator of the regenerative response in the liver through posttranscriptional modifications that regulate the activity of FXR, histones, and mTOR. Moreover, our data suggest that SIRT1 contributes to liver tumorigenesis through dysregulation of BA homeostasis by persistent FXR deacetylation. 10.1002/hep.26971
    A biliary HCO3- umbrella constitutes a protective mechanism against bile acid-induced injury in human cholangiocytes. Hohenester Simon,Wenniger Lucas Maillette de Buy,Paulusma Coen C,van Vliet Sandra J,Jefferson Douglas M,Elferink Ronald P Oude,Beuers Ulrich Hepatology (Baltimore, Md.) UNLABELLED:Human cholangiocytes are continuously exposed to millimolar levels of hydrophobic bile salt monomers. We recently hypothesized that an apical biliary HCO3- umbrella might prevent the protonation of biliary glycine-conjugated bile salts and uncontrolled cell entry of the corresponding bile acids, and that defects in this biliary HCO3- umbrella might predispose to chronic cholangiopathies. Here, we tested in vitro whether human cholangiocyte integrity in the presence of millimolar bile salt monomers is dependent on (1) pH, (2) adequate expression of the key HCO3- exporter, anion exchanger 2 (AE2), and (3) an intact cholangiocyte glycocalyx. To address these questions, human immortalized cholangiocytes and cholangiocarcinoma cells were exposed to chenodeoxycholate and its glycine/taurine conjugates at different pH levels. Bile acid uptake was determined radiochemically. Cell viability and apoptosis were measured enzymatically. AE2 was knocked down by lentiviral short hairpin RNA. A cholangiocyte glycocalyx was identified by electron microscopy, was enzymatically desialylated, and sialylation was quantified by flow cytometry. We found that bile acid uptake and toxicity in human immortalized cholangiocytes and cholangiocarcinoma cell lines in vitro were pH and AE2 dependent, with the highest rates at low pH and when AE2 expression was defective. An apical glycocalyx was identified on cholangiocytes in vitro by electron microscopic techniques. Desialylation of this protective layer increased cholangiocellular vulnerability in a pH-dependent manner. CONCLUSION:A biliary HCO3- umbrella protects human cholangiocytes against damage by bile acid monomers. An intact glycocalyx and adequate AE2 expression are crucial in this process. Defects of the biliary HCO3- umbrella may lead to the development of chronic cholangiopathies. 10.1002/hep.24691
    MAFG is a transcriptional repressor of bile acid synthesis and metabolism. de Aguiar Vallim Thomas Q,Tarling Elizabeth J,Ahn Hannah,Hagey Lee R,Romanoski Casey E,Lee Richard G,Graham Mark J,Motohashi Hozumi,Yamamoto Masayuki,Edwards Peter A Cell metabolism Specific bile acids are potent signaling molecules that modulate metabolic pathways affecting lipid, glucose and bile acid homeostasis, and the microbiota. Bile acids are synthesized from cholesterol in the liver, and the key enzymes involved in bile acid synthesis (Cyp7a1, Cyp8b1) are regulated transcriptionally by the nuclear receptor FXR. We have identified an FXR-regulated pathway upstream of a transcriptional repressor that controls multiple bile acid metabolism genes. We identify MafG as an FXR target gene and show that hepatic MAFG overexpression represses genes of the bile acid synthetic pathway and modifies the biliary bile acid composition. In contrast, loss-of-function studies using MafG(+/-) mice causes de-repression of the same genes with concordant changes in biliary bile acid levels. Finally, we identify functional MafG response elements in bile acid metabolism genes using ChIP-seq analysis. Our studies identify a molecular mechanism for the complex feedback regulation of bile acid synthesis controlled by FXR. 10.1016/j.cmet.2015.01.007